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  • Isaac Newton: Development of the Calculus and a Recalculation of

    Isaac Newton:Development of the Calculus and

    a Recalculation of

    Waseda University, SILS,History of Mathematics

  • Isaac Newton: Development of the Calculus and a Recalculation of

    Outline

    IntroductionEarly modern BritainNewtons life and work

    Newtons mathematical development

    A new method for calculating the value of

  • Isaac Newton: Development of the Calculus and a Recalculation of

    Introduction

    Early modern Britain

    The early modern period in Britain

    I The early modern period in Britain saw the countys role inthe world vastly expanded through exploration, navelpower and colonialism.

    I There were a number of revolutions, which expanded theaccess to power of the upper classes and middle-classes.

    I There was a rise in the standard of living, access toeducation, and social role of the middle and lower classes.

    I During this period, England became one of the centers ofscientific activity. A number of institutions were foundedto promote scientific activities.

  • Isaac Newton: Development of the Calculus and a Recalculation of

    Introduction

    Early modern Britain

    The intellectual context of Newtons work

    I During Newtons lifetime, England was an importantcenter of the scientific revolution that was taking place allacross Europe.

    I The most recent ideas were the mechanical and theexperimental philosophies and the most recent mathematicswere the analytical geometry of Descartes and Fermat, andthe techniques of measuring areas and finding tangentsbeing developed by the colleagues of Mersenne.

    I But Newton was not able to study any of this at university.I Because the universities of the time did not serve the needs

    of people who were interested in the sciences, a number ofnew institutions were created: The Royal Society ofLondon, The Royal Observatory, etc.

  • Isaac Newton: Development of the Calculus and a Recalculation of

    Introduction

    Newtons life and work

    Isaac Newton (16431727)

    I Abandoned by his widowedmother.

    I Alone his whole life; no family,few close friends. Deeplyobsessive personality.

    I 1664-1666: Anni mirabiles.I Nervous breakdown = Began

    a public life. Director of the Mint.President of the Royal Society.

    I Made a peer of the realm. Buriedin state at Westminister Abbey.

  • Isaac Newton: Development of the Calculus and a Recalculation of

    Introduction

    Newtons life and work

    Newtons work

    I Around 1665, he developed the calculus (alsoindependently developed by G.W. Leibniz) and did muchoriginal work in mathematics. Wrote many papers, themajority unpublished.

    I Worked continuously on alchemy and theology. Manyvolumes of notes, never published. (The majority ofNewtons writings are of these kinds.)

    I He founded a new form of mathematical dynamics.Published in the Principia mathematica (1686).

    I He developed a new science of optics based on therefractive properties of light, which was published early insome papers in the Transactions of the Royal Society, andlater in Optics (1704).

  • Isaac Newton: Development of the Calculus and a Recalculation of

    Introduction

    Newtons life and work

    The evidence for studying Newtons work

    I Newton meticulously kept everything he wrote, so that wenow have hundreds of boxes of his notes and autographmanuscripts in a number of different libraries. The vastmajority of what Newton wrote has never been published.

    I On his death he left his papers to Trinity College,Cambridge, but they were claimed by one of his debtorsand went into private hands.

    I For a number of reasons, the various papers (scientific,mathematical, theological, alchemical) were separated intodifferent collections.

    I Most of the scientific and mathematical texts were given toCambridge in 1872. The extent of Newtons interest inastrology and theology only became clear to scholars in thesecond half 20th century.

  • Isaac Newton: Development of the Calculus and a Recalculation of

    Newtons mathematical development

    Learning mathematics

    I When Newton was an undergraduate at Cambridge, IsaacBarrow (16301677) was Lucasian Professor ofMathematics.

    I Although Barrow discovered a geometric version of thefundamental theorem of calculus, it is likely that hisuniversity lessons focused only on Greek mathematics andthat Newton did not attend them.

    I Newton learned mathematics by borrowing the books ofDescartes and others from the library and reading them onhis own. We still posses many of the notebooks he keptduring this process.

    I He says that Descartes Geometry was so difficult it tookhim many tries to get through it. (His notes give evidenceof his various attempts.)

  • Isaac Newton: Development of the Calculus and a Recalculation of

    Newtons mathematical development

    Developing the calculus

    I When he was an undergradate, during the plague years,he developed a general, symbolic treatment of thedifferential and integral calculus, known as fluxions.

    I Although he was doing mathematical work that he knewwas more advanced than anything currently available, hesaw no reason to publish it.

    I The example of his calculation of the value of is takenfrom this early period, although published much later.

  • Isaac Newton: Development of the Calculus and a Recalculation of

    Newtons mathematical development

    Reading the classics and writing Principia

    I When he was working as the Lucasian Professor ofMathematics, following Barrow, as he became moreinterested in alchemy and theology, he also began to readclassical Greek mathematics: Euclid, Archimedes andApollonius.

    I Somehow, he became convinced that this ancientgeometrical approach was more appropriate for describingthe physical world.

    I When he composed the Principia, it was in the classicalstyle, with almost no indication of the more symbolicapproach that had lead him to his new ideas. (He alsoincluded a short section showing that some of theproblems that Descartes was most proud of solving couldalso be solved using ancient methods: the locus problems.)

  • Isaac Newton: Development of the Calculus and a Recalculation of

    Newtons mathematical development

    A page from Newtons copy of the Elements, Book X

  • Isaac Newton: Development of the Calculus and a Recalculation of

    Newtons mathematical development

    Newtons Principia, 1687, 1713, 1726

  • Isaac Newton: Development of the Calculus and a Recalculation of

    Newtons mathematical development

    Newtons Principia, Prop. 1

    I He used the ideas oflimits developed inthe calculus todevelop a geometry offorces.

    I Principia, Prop. 1shows that a bodywhich iscontinuously actedupon toward a centerof force will move ina closed curve.

  • Isaac Newton: Development of the Calculus and a Recalculation of

    A new method for calculating the value of

    Calculating , overview of the problem

    I (1) We use Descartes techniques of analytical geometry toexpress the equation of a circle.

    I We use Newtons general binomial theorem to developthis as an infinite series. [1st preliminary.]

    I We use Newtons new ideas of the calculus to calculate thevalue of the area of part of the circle to the level of precisionthat we desire. [2nd preliminary.]

    I (2) We use basic geometry to find the value of the samearea in terms of .

    I (3) Then we can set up an equation involving that we canuse to produce a numeric value.

  • Isaac Newton: Development of the Calculus and a Recalculation of

    A new method for calculating the value of

    The general binomial theorem, 1st preliminary, 1

    Newton expressed the general binomial theorem as

    (P + PQ)m/n = Pm/n +mn

    AQ +m n

    2nBQ +

    m 2n3n

    CQ + ...

    which can be rewritten as

    (1+ x)m/n = 1+mn

    x+(mn )(

    mn 1)2

    x2 +(mn )(

    mn 1)(

    mn 2)

    3 2x3 + ...

    For example,

    (1x)1/2 = 1+12(x)+

    (12)(12 1)2

    (x2)+(12)(

    12 1)(

    12 2)

    6(x3)+...

  • Isaac Newton: Development of the Calculus and a Recalculation of

    A new method for calculating the value of

    The general binomial theorem, 1st preliminary, 2

    That is,

    (1 x)1/2 = 1 12

    x 18

    x2 116

    x3 5128

    x4 7256

    x5 ...

    We can also use this theorem to get accurate calculations ofroots. For example,

    3. Since, 3 = 4(3/4) = 4(1 1/4),

    3 = 2(1 1/4)1/2, which, using the binomial theorem, wewrite as

    3 = 2(1 1

    2(14) 1

    8(14)2 1

    16(14)3 5

    128(14)4 7

    256(14)5 ...)

    that is, 3 1.73206...

  • Isaac Newton: Development of the Calculus and a Recalculation of

    A new method for calculating the value of

    Basic rules of integral calculus, 2nd preliminary

    I Rule 1: If a curve is given by y = axm/n then the area up tox is given by Area(y)= anm+n x

    (m+n)/n.

    I For example, if y = x1/2, then Area(y)= 23 x3/2, or if

    y = 12 x3/2, then Area(y)= 12(

    25 x

    5/2).I Rule 2: If a curve is a polynomial sum of terms of the form

    axm/n, then the area under the curve is made up of the sumof the individual terms.

    I For example, if y = x2 + x3/2, then Area(y)= 13 x3 + 25 x

    5/2,etc.

  • Isaac Newton: Development of the Calculus and a Recalculation of

    A new method for calculating the value of

    Equation of the circle

    Descartes had shown that a circle has an equation of the form(x a)2 + (y b)2 r2 = 0, where a and b are the x and ycoordinates of