Industrial Automation 01 Basic

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1

1.1 . , . . . , , . : . . : Tesla, Weber, Oertsted, Ampere, Faraday, Lenz, Laplace, Hopkinson. , . 1.2 , . , . . , . , . , .

. 1

S

N

. 1.1

, , . Weiss . Weiss , . Weiss , . , . . . 1.1 . . . , , . , , (). , . , . 1.1, . . 1.2 . . , . . . 1.2 , . i

. 1.2 12

. 1

S i

N

. 1.3

, , . 1.3. , . , . , . . , . 1.3 , i. , (. 1.4). , . Ampere , Hl = Ni

(1.1)

. (1.1) H , . . (. 1.4), . (1.1),

H=

Ni l

(1.2)

. (1.2) (magnetomotive force, MMF). () [t]. . 13

. 1

, . At/m. o i . (flux density) B. B = H (1.3)

. (1.3), (permeability) . . ,

o = 4 107 Vs/Atm

(1.4)

, r = r o (1.5)

Tesla [T]. . (1.3)(1.4) , 1T=1 Vs m2 (1.6)

1m2. S, , = B i dSS

(1.7)

i u

l

N S

l

. 1.4 14

. 1

S , . (1.7) = BS (1.8)

. (1.8) . 1.4. , i . 1.4, S l,

=

NiS l

(1.9)

weber [Wb] voltsecond [Vs]. 1.4 . 1.4, i, . , . . (1.9), = Ni (l / S ) (1.10)

. (1.10) (reluctance) Rm. , Rm = = Ni M = Rm Rm (1.12) l S (1.11)

, At/Vs = t/s = At/Wb. . (1.12) , . 1.4 , . o . 1.5, u, i R. Ohm i= u R (1.13)

15

. 1

i

i=

u R + _

=

M Rm

+ _

u

R

Rm

()

()

. 1.5 (). . 1.4 ()

. 1.5 . 1.4. , Rm. , . , . (1.12) Ohm . . , (permeance), . 1.5 : , . . . . r 2000 6000. , , . , , r. . 1.4 , . , . ( rair 1 ). , , . (leakage flux) l . . . , . 1.4 . , = i, . 1.6. . 1.6 (magnetization curve) .16

. 1

[Vs]

[T]

- 0 M [At] [At/m]

. 1.6

, . , . . . . . . , . . , . . (1.2) , . . (1.8), . , . 1.6 , B = f(H). , . (1.3) B H . , . 1.6 . . , , . 1.6 . 1.4 , (. 1.7). ab, . , bc, . BC, ab. bc , . c, , C. . C (residual flux). . 23% . , , .

17

. 1

i

0 a

b

c

d

e

f

g

b

t

() ()

B

D C G F

()

E

(). 1.7 . 1.4 (). ()

, , , . D d, (coercive) . , , . . ef . F , g. b , . , CDEFGB. Weiss, . Weiss , . . Weiss , , (). , Weiss . , , . 18

. 1

. , , . , ( ). , , . , . . , , . (. 1.7), . (iron, core losses). 1.7 Faraday1 1831. . , Faraday, , , d (1.14) e = N dt . (1.14), () . , . (1.14) e= d dt (1.15)

, (linkage flux).

= N , = jj =1 N

(1.16)

(1.17)

j . . (1.14), (1.15) Lenz. Lenz, , . . . 1.8, .19

. 1

1 i1 u1 N1

2 i2 e2 N2 R

. 1.8 , Faraday Lenz Michael Faraday Newington Surrey 22 1791. . 14 . , , . Humphry Davy, Davy . , 1 1813 Royal Institution in London, Davy. Faraday . 1823 . 1825 , (benzene), . , Faraday . Faraday Davy, 1807, , . 1820 Hans Christian Oersted Andre Marie Ampere . , Faraday , . , 1831 , Faraday. Faraday , Royal Society 24 1831 12 1832. Faraday Hippolyte Pixii 1832 . , Faraday . Faraday , . , Faraday , . James Clerk Maxwell Faraday , . 1865 Maxwell . Faraday , 1834 . , 1845 (Faraday effect). Faraday , Experimental Researches in Electricity (1839, 1844, 1855). 1855, 1861. 1865 Royal Institution. Faraday Hampton Court 25 1867. 1101

. 1

1 i1 1 . 1 2, e2. , R, i2 . i2 2 , 1 , . . 1.8 , , . . , , (eddy current). , . . , (laminations) , . , . , (. 1.9).

e = ( v B) l

(1.18)

, v , l . v B . v B . ( . 1.10 , ). 1.8 LAPLACE i , F, Laplace (. 1.10).

v

e +l

S B

_

. 1.9 111

. 1

i (v)

i B F l

B

F (+e) () (). 1.10 Laplace (). ()

Laplace l, i B, F = i (l B ) (1.19)

Laplace . , , (. 1.10). Laplace F = ilB sin

(1.20)

. Laplace , = 90. , Laplace , = 0.

112