Index []Beer foam carbonation, 314 fatty acids, 71 hops, 46 proteolytic enzymes, 264 total soluble...

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Index Symbols α-amylase, 155 ß-amlyase, 155 ß-glucan, 155 Numbers 2,3-Pentanedione, 68, 240 A Aeration, 227 Aerobic wastewater treatment, 353 Acetaldehydes, 68 Acetic acid bacteria, 337 Acetobacter spp., 337 Acid-based detergents, 123 Acid-based sanitizers, 131 Acid malt, 158 Acid rest, 153 Acidification of mash, 158 Acidification of water boiling, 100 calcium hydroxide, 101 carbon dioxide, 101 food grade acids, 101 Acrospire, 24 Activated sludge process, 353 Adjunct cooker, 171 Adjuncts classification of adjuncts flakes, 112 grits, 112 flours, 111 refined starches, 112 torrified cereals, 112 gelatinization temperatures, 111 employment in brewing cooker mash adjuncts, 110 kettle adjuncts, 111 mash tun adjuncts, 111 types of cereal adjuncts barley, 114 corn, 113 oats, 116 rice, 114 wheat, 115 sugars, 116 syrups, 117 Adolf Coors Company, 6 Aeration of wort, 227 measuring oxygen levels, 230 methods of oxygenation, 229 oxygen requirements, 228 point of injection, 228 Aerobic wastewater treatment, 353 activated sludge process, 353 advantages and disadvantages, 356 attached growth process, 354 lagoons, 355 sludge treatment and disposal, 356 Agar slants, 75

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Transcript of Index []Beer foam carbonation, 314 fatty acids, 71 hops, 46 proteolytic enzymes, 264 total soluble...

  • Index

    Symbolsα-amylase, 155ß-amlyase, 155ß-glucan, 155

    Numbers2,3-Pentanedione, 68, 240

    AAeration, 227Aerobic wastewater treatment, 353Acetaldehydes, 68 Acetic acid bacteria, 337Acetobacter spp., 337Acid-based detergents, 123Acid-based sanitizers, 131Acid malt, 158Acid rest, 153Acidification of mash, 158 Acidification of water

    boiling, 100calcium hydroxide, 101carbon dioxide, 101food grade acids, 101

    Acrospire, 24Activated sludge process, 353Adjunct cooker, 171Adjuncts

    classification of adjuncts

    flakes, 112grits, 112flours, 111refined starches, 112torrified cereals, 112

    gelatinization temperatures, 111employment in brewing

    cooker mash adjuncts, 110 kettle adjuncts, 111mash tun adjuncts, 111

    types of cereal adjunctsbarley, 114corn, 113oats, 116rice, 114wheat, 115

    sugars, 116syrups, 117

    Adolf Coors Company, 6 Aeration of wort, 227

    measuring oxygen levels, 230methods of oxygenation, 229oxygen requirements, 228point of injection, 228

    Aerobic wastewater treatment, 353activated sludge process, 353advantages and disadvantages, 356 attached growth process, 354lagoons, 355sludge treatment and disposal, 356

    Agar slants, 75

  • 466 The Brewer’s Handbook

    Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB), 411

    Alcohol Beverage Control Boards, 416Aldehydes, 198, 212, 227Alexis barley variety, 22Alkaline-based detergents, 122 Alkaline-based disinfectants, 128Alkalinity in water, 95Alpha acids, 41Alpha-amylase, 155Altbier (German), 388 Aluminum

    cleaning and sanitation, 139Amber ale (American), 362Amber malt, 35American Society of Brewing Chemists,

    (ASBC), 149 Amino acids

    malting, 23mashing 154yeast byproducts, 71yeast nutritional requirements, 65

    Anheuser-Busch, Inc., 5Anaerobic wastewater treatment, 356

    advantages and disadvantages, 358fluidized bed reactor, 357 upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, 357

    Anionic acids, 131Aroma hops, 43 ATP bioluminescence method, 342Attached Growth (Biofilm) Process, 354Augers, 144Auxiliary finings, 262


    acetic acid, 337 Acetobacter spp., 337 Gluconobacter spp., 338

    Enterobacteriaceae, 339Obesumbacterium proteus, 339

    Gram-negative, 337Gram-positive, 334Lactobacillus spp., 334

    L. brevis, 336L. delbrueckii, 336L. pastorianus, 336

    Pectinatus spp., 338Pediococcus spp., 336

    P. damnosus, 337Zymomonas spp., 338

    Z. anaerobia, 338Z. mobilis, 338

    Barley adjuncts, 114Barley malts

    barley typesidentification, 23six-row barley, 21two-row barley, 22

    base maltsmild ale malt, 32pale ale malt, 32Pilsner malt, 31Munich malt, 33Vienna malt, 32

    malt analysisalpha-amylase (DU), 29beta-glucan, 30coarse-grind extract, 27cold-water extract, 28color, 26diastatic power, 28dimethyl sulfide, 30fine grind-coarse grind difference, 27fine-grind extract, 27free amino nitrogen, 29friability, 30hot-water extract, 28mealiness, 30moisture content, 26sieving tests, 30total protein, 29total soluble protein, 29viscosity, 31

    malt constituents, 25malt extracts, 37malting

    germination, 23kilning, 24steeping, 23

    malt modification, 24other malted grains

    rye malt, 37 wheat malt, 36

  • 467 Index

    specialty malts caramel (crystal) malts, 34dry-roasted malts, 35light-colored malts, 33unmalted barley, 36

    Barley steeping, 23Barley wine (British), 376 Base malts, 31Beer carbonation, 295Beer clarification, 260Beer filtration, 275Beer foam

    carbonation, 314fatty acids, 71hops, 46proteolytic enzymes, 264total soluble nitrogen, 29

    Beer industryadvertising, 15beer sales, 7beer segments, 12classification of brewers, 4demographics, 18distribution, 15history, 1industry concentration, 2off- on-premise sales, 8per capita consumption, 11top beer brands, 8

    Beer stabilization, 263Beer styles, 361

    American, 362Belgium, 368British, 376Czech Republic, 386French, 387German, 388Irish, 401Scottish, 402

    Beerstoneremoving, 127

    Belgian beer styles, 368Bentonite, 266Berliner Weisse (German), 398 Beta acids, 42Beta-amylase, 155Beta-glucans

    cold break, 222

    malt analysis, 30malt constituents, 25mashing 156unmalted barley, 36viscosity, 31

    Bière de garde (French), 387 Biofiltration towers, 355Biological acidification of mash, 158Biscuit malt, 35Bitter beer (British), 376 Bittering hops, 43Bitterness units, 54Black barley, 36Black beer, 396Black malt, 35Blood alcohol content, 11Bock beer (German), 389 BOD, 346Boiling systems, 206Boiling the wort, 195Bottle-conditioned beers, 259Bottling

    bottle feedingbulk-pack, 306pre-pack, 305

    bottle fillingbottle drying, 315counter-pressure, 312crowning, 314evacuation, 312filler bowl operations, 308filling valve technology, 311post filler operations, 313 post rinse, 314types of bottling machines, 309

    bottle labeling, 316types of labelers,

    bottle rinsing, 307 cleaning treatment, 307 types of bottle rinsers, 307

    case packing, 318case sealing, 319types of case packers, 318warehousing, 319

    sterilization of beerflash pasteurization, 304filtration, 304

    tunnel pasteurization, 315

  • 468 The Brewer’s Handbook

    Bottom-fermenting yeastlager yeast, 61open square fermenters, 248

    Brettanomyces spp., 341Brewer’s window, 156 Brewhouse yield, 37Brewing industry, 1Brewing water ions, 96Brewpubs, 6Bright beer tanks, 268

    temperature control, 269 coolants, 269cooling jackets, 270

    vessel size, 269British beer styles, 376Brown ale (British), 378 Brown malt, 35Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms

    and Explosives (ATF), 411Burton-on-Trent waters, 94

    CCalandria, 207 Calcium in water, 96Calcium chloride

    wort boiling, 205Calcium hydroxide treatment of water,

    101Calcium sulfate

    acidification of mash, 158kettle additives, 205reduction in wort pH, 199water treatment, 102

    Calculationsassessing the wort, 191brewhouse yield, 37hop additions, 216raw material requirements, 174strike temperature, 176wort fermentability, 250

    California Common (American), 366 Candida spp., 341 Candi sugar, 117Candle filter, 279Caramel malts, 34Caramelization

    specialty malts, 33

    wort boiling, 196, 197Carbohydrates

    yeast nutritional requirements, 64Carbon dioxide

    in water treatment, 101levels in beer, 296volume table, 429

    Carbon filtration of water, 103Carbonate in water, 98Carbonation

    levels in beer, 296mechanical

    in-line, 298in-tank, 299

    methods bottle conditioning, 297 kraeusening, 297mechanical, 298secondary fermentation, 297

    principles, 295safety procedures, 301

    Carlsberg flask, 78Cartridge membrane filters, 286

    advantages and disadvantages, 288filtration mechanisms, 286operation, 287sterile filtration, 288

    Cask-conditioned beers, 258Centrifugation

    clarification, 260cold break separation, 227 hot break separation, 212

    Cereal cooker, 171Chelating agents, 125Chillproofing agents, 264

    bentonite, 266hydrolysable tannins, 265polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, 267proteolytic enzymes, 264silica gels, 265tannic acid, 264

    Chlorides in water, 98Chlorine

    acid-based sanitizers, 128treatment of brewing water, 105

    Chlorine dioxidebrewery sanitation, 129water treatment, 105

  • 469 Index

    yeast washing, 84Chocolate malt, 35Clarification

    centrifugation, 262fining agents

    isinglass, 260Clean-in-place systems (CIP), 133

    recovery-type, 137single-use, 136

    Cleaning detergentsacid-based, 123

    nitric acid, 124phosphoric acid, 124

    additives, 125chelating agents, 125emulsifiers, 126surfactants, 125

    alkaline-based, 122sodium hydroxide, 122 sodium hydroxide/hypochlorite solutions, 123

    Closed-keg systems, 321Coarse-grind extract, 27COD, 346COLAs Online System, 414Cold break

    formation of, 222factors affecting quantity of, 223

    removal of cold break, 225centrifugation, 227DE filtration, 226 flotation, 226starter tank, 225whirlpool, 227

    Cold glue labeler, 316Cold-water extract, 28Colloidal hazes, 263Colloidal stabilization

    conditioning, 263filtration, 282

    Complex phosphates, 127Conditioning, 255

    clarification, 260maturation, 255stabilization, 263tanks, 268

    Conditioning tanks, 268temperature control, 270

    collants, 270cooling jackets, 270

    vessel size, 269Container deposit laws, 418Control states, 416Coolship, 211Copper

    cleaning and sanitation, 139Copper finings, 203Copper in water, 99Corn adjuncts, 113Corrosion resistance, 137Craft brewing

    brewing equipment, 173Crystal malts, 34Cylindroconical fermenters, 244

    coolants, 246cooling jackets, 247foam production, 246 temperature control, 246yeast strains, 245

    Czech Republic beer styles, 386

    DDarauflassen, 237Dark lager (American), 363Dechlorination in water treatment

    carbon filtration, 103heating the water, 103potassium metabisulfite, 104

    Decoction mashing, 164single-step mash, 168three-step mash, 165two-step mash, 168

    Degree of attenuationlager yeast, 62yeast strain selection, 72, 73

    Deep-bed filtration, 289Degeneration of yeast, 74Demographics of U.S. beer market, 18Depth filtration, 275Detergents, 121

    acid-based, 123nitric, 124phosphoric, 124

    additives chelating agents, 125

  • 470 The Brewer’s Handbook

    emulsifiers, 126surfactants, 125

    alkaline-based, 122sodium hydroxide, 122 sodium hydroxide/hypochlorite solutions, 123

    Dextrin malt, 33Dextrose

    bottle-conditioned beers, 259sugars, 117 syrups, 116

    Diacetylfermentation, 240yeast byproducts, 68

    Diacetyl rest, 240Diastatic power

    base malts, 32malt analysis, 28mash tun adjuncts, 111two-row barley, 22

    Diatomaceous earthbeer filtration, 280 safety and disposal, 280solid waste, 348

    Diet/light (American), 364Dimethyl sulfide, 69Dissolved air flotation (DAF), 351Domestic specialties, 14Dopplebock (American), 390 Dortmunder Export (German), 392 Dosing, 236Double-mash infusion system, 168Double-pass filtration, 276Dry hopping, 57Dry milling, 144Dry-roasted malts, 35Dry stout (Irish), 402Dunkler bock (German), 390 Dunkles Weizen (German), 398

    EEDTA, 125Eisbock (German), 391Emulsifiers

    complex phosphates, 127orthophosphates, 126

    Enterobacteriaceae, 339

    Enzymesactivity during mashing

    alpha-amylase, 155beta-amylase, 155beta-glucanases, 156peptidase, 154 proteinase, 154

    limit dextrinase, 155Esters, 67European Brewing Convention, 149Evaporation rate

    kettle designs, 206kettle times, 196wort boiling 198

    Excise taxes, 413Extract yield, 191

    FFaro, 372Fatty acids, 71Federal agencies

    BATF, 411 OSHA, 137TTB, 100, 411

    Federal Alcohol Administration (FAA) Act, 2

    Fermentationale fermentations

    modern, 240starter tanks, 239 traditional, 239

    diacetyl rest, 240high-gravity fermentations, 242 lager fermentations, 236

    modern, 238starter tanks, 236topping up, 237traditional, 237

    systems ale dropping, 247ale top skimming, 247burton union, 249cylindroconical, 244 dual purpose vessel, 249 open squares, 249yorkshire squares, 248

    yeast collection, 242

  • 471 Index

    fermentation systems, 242 storage, 243

    Filter cakemash filters, 189types of powder filters, 277

    Filtrationcartridge membrane filters, 286

    advantages and disadvantages, 288 filtration mechanisms, 286operation, 287sterile filtration, 288

    colloidal stabilization, 282deep-bed filtration, 289depth filtration, 275powder filter aids, 280

    filtration process, 281 safety and disposal, 280types, 280

    powder filters, 276candle, 279leaf, 278plate and frame, 277

    sheet pad filters, 284 advantages and disadvantages, 286 filtration mechanisms, 285 operation, 285

    sterile filtration, 289surface filtration, 275

    Fine grind-coarse grind difference, 27Fine-grind extract, 27Fining agents, 260Finish hopping, 202Flanders brown ale (Belgium), 368 Flakes, 112Flash pasteurization

    bottling, 304kegging, 324

    Flocculationyeast strain selection, 72

    Flours, 111Flow equalization, 350Fluidized bed reactor, 357Foam

    fermentation, 246reduced by

    cold break, 224degeneration of yeast, 74fatty acids, 71

    hop stems, 46Food Chemicals Codex, 100Free amino nitrogen (FAN)

    malt analysis, 29yeast nutritional requirements, 65

    French beer styles, 387Friability, 30Fructose

    rate of yeast attenuation, 73yeast nutritional requirements, 64

    Fruit lambics (Belgium), 374 Fusarium, 22Fusel alcohols, 70

    GGalena barley variety, 42Gehaltemeter, 300Gelatinization, 155German beer styles, 388Germination, 23Geuze, 373Gluconobacter spp., 337Glucose

    bottle-conditioning, 297malt constituents, 25rate of attenuation, 73yeast nutritional requirements, 64

    Glycogenyeast life cycle, 63

    Glycol, 221, 247Government regulations

    federal regulations, 411brewery application approval, 412 excise tax collection, 413labeling and advertising approval, 413 homebrewing, 415

    local regulations, 418state regulations, 416

    alcohol beverage control boards, 416 container deposit laws, 418 licenses, 417 taxation, 418

    Grain silos, 143Gram-negative bacteria, 335, 337Gram-positive bacteria, 334, 335

  • 472 The Brewer’s Handbook

    Gravity sedimentation, 350Green beer

    conditioning, 255diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, 68

    Grist case, 148Grist profile, 149 Grit removal, 350Grits, 112Gueuze (Belgium), 373Gushing

    causes of,molds, 99nitrates, 342

    HHammer mills, 147Harrington barley variety, 22Heating jackets, 206Hefe weizen (German), 399 Heller bock (German), 391 Hemacytometer

    determining pitching rates, 235yeast viability, 85

    High gravity fermentations, 242Higher alcohols, 70Holding hopper, 170Homebrewing, 415Homebrew bitterness units (HBUs), 54Honey malt, 34Hop additions, 201Hop back, 210Hop bitter substances, 41Hop extracts, 49, 51Hop plugs, 46Hop separator (strainer), 210Hop varieties, 423Hopjack, 202Hops

    bitterness levelscontrolling acid levels, 55HBUs, 54IBUs, 54

    constituentsoils, 42resins, 41

    dry hopping, 57isomerization, 42

    productshop oils, 52isomerized, 50non-isomerized, 46

    stability, 53utilization, 55varieties

    aroma hops, 43bittering hops, 43cultivars, 44dual-purpose hops, 44growing regions, 44

    whole hops, 44Horizontal leaf pressure filter, 278Hot break, 199

    quality, 200quantity, 200

    Hot trub separation, 211brew kettle/whirlpool, 215 centrifuge, 212coolship, 211settling tanks, 212whirlpool, 213

    Hot-water extract, 28 Hot wort separation

    whole hops, 210hop back, 210hop separator (Strainer), 210

    hot trub separation, 211brew kettle/whirlpoolcentrifuge, 212coolship, 211settling tanks, 212whirlpool, 213

    Humulus lupulus, 43Hydrochlorous acid, 129Hydrogen peroxide, 131Hydrogen sulfide

    lager yeast, 62Pectinatus spp., 338vitamin deficiency, 66yeast byproducts, 69

    Hydrolysable tannins, 265

    IImperial stout (British), 384Imports, 7, 13

  • 473 Index

    In-line carbonation, 298In-tank carbonation, 299India pale ale

    American, 362British, 379

    Infusion mashing, 160International Bitterness Units (IBUs),

    54Iodophores, 132Irish ale, 401Irish beer styles, 401Irish moss, 203Iron in water, 99Isinglass, 260iso-alpha acids, 42 Isomerization, 42, 197Isomerized hop extracts, 51


    keg racking machines, 322in-line, 323rotary, 324

    keg stylesclosed-keg systems, 321open-keg systems, 321

    sterilization of beer, 324 kegging operations

    cold storage, 330external washing, 325 inspection, 325internal cleaning, 326keg depalletizing, 325keg filling, 328volumetric/fill by weight, 330

    Kettle designsdirect-fired, 206external heating jackets, 206 external wort boilers, 207internal heating systems, 206

    Kilning, 24Keiselguhr, 280Kolbach index, 29Kölschbier (German), 388 Kraeusening, 257Kriek, 377Kristall weizen (German), 399

    LLactobacillus amylolyticus, 158Lactobacillus delbrueckii, 158Lactobacillus spp., 334Lagering, 256Lagoons, 355Lambic (Belgian), 372 Laminar flow hood, 79Late kettle hopping,Lauter tun, 183Lautering

    collection of first wort, 187establishing grain filter bed, 186 grains-out, 189 mash rest and underletting, 186 mash transfer, 184recirculation of wort, 186sparging and second wort collection,

    187 Leaf filters, 278License states, 416Light beer, 13Light-colored malts, 33Limit dextrinase

    malt germination, 23starch degradation, 155

    Lipidsmalt constituents, 26sparging, 183

    Liquefaction, 156Lyophilization, 76

    MMagnesium in water, 97Magnesium sulfate in water treatment,

    102Maibock, 391Maillard reaction

    kilning, 24wort boiling, 196

    Malt conditioning, 148Malt extracts, 37Malt liquor

    beer segments, 12 Malt milling

    dry milling, 145

  • 474 The Brewer’s Handbook

    hammer mills, 147roller mills, 145sampling, 148

    handling and storage, 143malt conditioning, 147 safety, 150sieve analysis, 149

    mashing systems, 149 wet milling, 148

    Malt storage, 143Malting, 22Malto-dextrin, 117Maltose

    diastatic power, 28malt constituents, 25influence of mash thickness, 159rate of attenuation, 73starch degradation, 155yeast nutritional requirements, 64

    Maltose/dextrin ratio, 156Maltotriose

    malt constituents, 25mashing temperature, 157influence of mash thickness, 159mutation of yeast, 73rate of attenuation, 73starch degradation, 155yeast nutritional requirements, 64

    Manganese in water, 99Märzen (German), 393 Mash filters, 189Mash kettle, 171Mash mixer, 171Mash tun

    mashing, 171wort separation, 181

    Mashingacidification, 153equipment

    adjunct cooker, 171craft brew systems, 173holding hopper, 170mash kettle, 171mash mixer, 171mash tun, 172premasher, 170underback, 173

    factors affecting

    malt modification, 158 mash thickness, 159mash water, 159pH, 158temperature, 157time, 157

    protein degradation, 154starch degradation, 154

    alpha-amylase, 155beta-amylase, 155beta-glucans, 156stages in starch breakdown, 155

    systems, 159decoction, 164double-mash infusion, 168 infusion, 160temperature-controlled, 163

    Mash-in, 161Material corrosion resistance

    aluminum, 139copper, 139stainless steel

    chemical agents, 138passivation, 138

    Material safety data sheets, 137Maturation

    cold storage, 259secondary fermentation, 255

    Mealiness, 29Methylene blue staining, 85 Meura 2001 mash filter, 190Microbiological testing, 342Microbreweries, 6Mild ale (British), 380 Mild ale malt, 32Miller Brewing Co., 5Mineral salt adjustment of water, 102 Minerals in water, 96Molds, 342Molson Coors Brewing Co., 6Monopoly states, 416Multi-roll mills, 145Munich dark (German), 393 Munich helles (German), 394 Munich malt, 33Mutation of yeast, 73Myrcene, 43

  • 475 Index

    NNational brewers, 4National Pollution Discharge

    Elimination System, 348Nitrates in water, 99Nitric acid

    acid-based detergents, 124Nitrites in water, 99Nitrogen

    yeast byproducts, 71yeast nutritional requirements, 65

    Noble hops, 44

    OOatmeal stout (British), 385 Oats

    as in adjuncts, 116 Obesumbacterium proteus, 339Oktoberfestbier (German), 393 Old ale (British), 380 Open states, 416Open-keg systems, 321Optic barley variety,Organic acids, 71Orthophosphates, 126Oxygen requirements for yeast, 227Ozone treatment of water, 106

    PPad filters, 284Pale ale

    American, 363Belgium, 368British, 381

    Pale ale malt, 32Palletizing, 318Papain, 264Passivation, 138Pasteurization

    flash, 304tunnel, 315

    Pasteurization unit, 304, 315 Pectinatus spp., 338Pediococcus spp., 336Peptidase, 154

    Peracetic acid, 131Per-capita beer consumption, 11 Perlite, 280Permanent hardness, 96Peroxyacetic acid, 131pH

    beer quality, 258mash, 158water, 94

    pH reduction of water, 100Phosphate in water, 98Phosphoric acid

    as in acid-based detergents, 124Phytase

    malt constituents, 26mashing (acidification), 153

    Pichia spp., 341Pilsner

    Czech Republic, 386German, 395

    Pilsner malt, 31Pitching yeast

    determination of, 235centrifugation, 235electron cell counting, 235 hemacytometer, 235in-line biomass sensors, 236weight-based, 235

    dosing, 236microbiological contamination, 236 rates, 23 strain, 233viability, 234

    Plate and frame filter, 277Plate heat exchangers, 221Polycar AT, 283Polyphenols

    cold break, 222malt constituents, 26stabilization, 263wort boiling

    color development, 196oxidation, 197

    Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP)conditioning, 267filtration, 283

    Porter (British), 382 Potassium in water, 98

  • 476 The Brewer’s Handbook

    Powder filters, 276candle, 279leaf, 278plate and frame, 277

    Powder filter aidsdiatomaceous earth, 280filtration process, 281 perlite, 280safety and disposal, 280

    Premasher, 170Premium beer (American), 365 Pressure-sensitive labeler, 316 Prohibition, 2Propagation of yeast

    laboratory phase, 77plant phase, 78

    Propagation plants, 80Protein rest, 154 Proteinase, 154 Proteins

    cold break formation, 223hot break formation, 199malt constituents, 26malt modification, 24mashing − protein degradation, 154conditioning − stabilization, 263wort boiling − protein precipitation,

    196 Proteolytic enzymes, 264Pub breweries, 6

    QQuaternary ammonium, 130

    RRauchbier (German), 396 Raw material requirements, 174Red ales

    Belgium, 369Irish, 401

    Regional breweries, 6Reinheitsgebot

    adjunct use, 110conditioning, 266mashing, 158

    Refined starches, 112Regional brewers, 6Residual alkalinity, 95Resins, Retailers, 17Rice, 114

    as in adjuncts, 114Roasted barley, 36Robust barley variety, 21Roller mills, 145Rotary labeler, 316 Rotating biological contactor process,

    355Rye malt, 37

    SS/T ratio, 6 S-methyl methionine

    malt germination, 24wort boiling, 198

    Saccharification, 156Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 61Saccharomyces pastorianus, 61Saccharomyces uvarum, 61Saison (Belgium), 369 Sanitizing agents

    acid-based, 131anionic acids, 131 hydrogen peroxide, 131 iodophores, 132peroxyacetic acid, 131

    alkaline-based, 128 chlorine, 128quaternary ammonium, 130

    Sankey keg, 322Schwarzbier (German), 396 Scottish ale, 402Scottish beer styles, 402Screen analysis, 149Screening, 350Secondary fermentation

    bottle-conditioned, 259cask-conditioned, 257 kraeusening, 257lagering, 256

    Settling tanks, 212Sheet (pad) filters, 284

  • 477 Index

    advantages and disadvantages, 286filtration mechanisms, 285operation, 285

    Sieving tests, 149Silica gels

    beer filtration, 283conditioning, 265

    Silos, 143Single-pass filtration, 276Single-step decoction system, 168Six-roll mills, 145Six-row barley, 21Sludge treatment and removal, 356Smoked beer, 396Sodium hydroxide

    as in alkaline-based detergents, 122Sodium hypochlorite, 129Sodium in water, 97Solid waste disposal, 347Solid wastes

    diatomaceous earth slurry, 348 packaging materials, 348spent grains, 347spent yeast, 348 trub, 347

    Sorghum, 111South African Breweries (SAB-Miller),

    5Sparging, 182, 187Specialty malts, 33Specialty craft brewers, 6Spent grains, 347Spent yeast, 347Spray balls

    dynamic, 135static, 135

    Stabilization of green beer, 263brewhouse procedures, 268chillproofing agents, 263

    Stabilized hop pellets, 49Stainless steel

    cleaning and sanitation, 137Standard beer (American), 365Stander barley variety, 21Starch

    action of alpha-amylase on, 155 action of beta-amylase on, 155action of limit dextrinase on, 155

    barley malt, 25gelatinization, 155

    Starch degradation, 154Starter tanks, 225Steam

    malt conditioning, 147sanitizing agents, 128wort boiling

    methods of heating, 209systems, 206, 208

    Steeping, 23Sterile filtration

    bottling, 303filtration, 288, 289kegging, 304

    Strainmaster, 190Strike temperature, 157, 162, 176Strong golden ale (Belgium), 370 Stouts

    American, 366British, 384Irish, 402

    Subculturing of yeast, 75Sucrose

    cask-conditioned beers, 258influence of mash thickness, 159rate of attenuation, 73sucrose-based sugars, 117sucrose-based syrups, 116yeast nutritional requirements, 54

    Sugarscaramel, 117dextrose, 117invert, 117malto-dextrin, 117sucrose, 117

    Sulfates in water, 98Sulfur volatiles, 69Surface filtration, 275Surfactants, 125SVK keg, 322Sweet stout (British), 385 Syrups, 116

    TTannic acid

    conditioning, 264

  • 478 The Brewer’s Handbook

    wort boiling, 205Taxes

    federal, 413local, 418state, 418state excise tax rates, 431

    Temperature-programmed mash, 163Temporary hardness, 96Three-step mash decoction, 165Three-tier system, 15Top-fermenting yeast

    ale yeast, 61traditional ale top-skimming systems,

    247Torrified cereals, 112Torulopsis spp., 341Total dissolved solids (TDS), 346Total protein, 29Total soluble nitrogen, 29Total suspended solids (TSS), 346Trappist ales (Belgium), 370Trickling filter process, 355Trisodium phosphate (TSP), 126Trub

    characteristics of brewery wastewater, 347

    formation of cold break, 222formation of hot break, 199removal of cold break, 224removal of hot break, 211

    TSP, 126TSS (total suspended solids), 346 Tunnel pasteurization, 315Two-roll mills, 145Two-row barley, 22 Two-stage cooling, 221Two-step mash decoction system, 167Type 45 hop pellets, 48Type 90 hop pellets, 48

    UUltraviolet radiation treatment of water,

    104 Underback, 173Underletting, 182, 186United States beer styles, 362Unmalted barley, 36, 115

    Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, 357U.S. beer industry (see beer industry)

    VVenturi tube

    methods of oxygenation, 229Vertical leaf pressure filter, 279 Vicinal diketones (VDKs)

    diacetyl rest, 240Lactobacillus spp., 335yeast byproducts, 68yeast lag phase, 63

    Vienna beer (German), 397 Vienna malt, 32Viscosity

    barley malts, 31Vitamins

    yeast nutritional requirements, 66Vorlauf, 186


    characteristics, 346quality, 346quantity, 346

    Wastewater treatment, 348biological treatment, 352

    aerobic, 353 anaerobic, 356

    chemical, 351flocculation, 352pH adjustment, 351

    physical, 349flow equalization, 350 gravity sedimentation, 350 grit removal, 350screening, 350

    Wateralkalinity, 95 evaluation, 93hardness, 95

    permanent, 96temporary, 96

    mineralscalcium, 96

  • 479 Index

    carbonate, 98 chloride, 98copper, 99 iron, 99 magnesium, 97 manganese, 99 minor ions, nitrate, 99nitrite, 99 phosphate, 98potassium, 98principal ions, sodium, 97sulfate, 98zinc, 99

    pH, 94residual alkalinity, 95treatment

    dechlorination, 103microbiological control, 104 mineral salt adjustment, 102reduction in alkalinity, 100 removal of particulate matter, 100

    Water demand for brewing, 93Weizenbock (German), 400 Wet milling, 148Wheat

    as in adjuncts, 115malt, 36

    Wheat beersAmerican, 367Belgium, 375German, 398

    Whirlpoolcold wort clarification, 227 hot wort clarification, 213

    White beer (Belgium), 375 Wholesalers, 16Wild yeast, 340

    Brettanomyces spp., 341 Candida spp., 341 Pichia spp., 341Saccharomyces spp., 340Torulopsis spp., 340

    Wort aeration, 227methods of oxygenation, 229 oxygen requirements, 228 point of injection, 228

    Wort assessment, 191Wort boiling

    biochemical changes, 195color development, 195concentration of wort, 198dissipation of volatiles, 198 enzyme inactivation, 195 isomerization, 197protein precipitation, 195reduction in wort pH, 199sterilization, 195

    formation of hot break, 199quality, 200quantity, 200

    kettle additivesacids, 205calcium chloride, 205calcium sulfate, 205 copper finings, 203 flavorings, 206 hops, 201syrups and sugars, 205

    kettle designs direct-fired, 206external heating jackets, 206 external wort boilers, 207internal heating systems, 206

    methods of heating, 208 Wort clarification (hot), 210

    hot trub separation, 211brew kettle/whirlpool, 215 centrifuge, 212coolship, 211settling tanks, 212 whirlpool, 213

    whole hop separation, 209hop back, 210hop separator, 210

    Wort cooling cooling systems, 221formation of cold break, 222microbiological stability, 223

    Wort fermentability, 250Wort lipids, 187Wort recovery, 215Wort separation equipment

    lauter tun, 183mash filter, 189

  • 480 The Brewer’s Handbook

    mash tun, 182strainmaster, 190


    ale, 61attenuation rate, 73byproducts

    acetaldehydes, 68diacetyl, 68dimethyl sulfide, 69esters, 67fatty acids, 71fusel alcohols, 70nitrogen compounds, 71organic acids, 71sulfur volatiles, 69

    culture contamination, 81culturing, 77degeneration, 74flocculation, 72lager, 62life cycle

    fermentation phase, 63growth phase, 63lag phase, 63sedimentation phase, 64

    mutation, 73nutritional requirments

    carbohydrates, 64minerals, 66nitrogen, 65vitamins, 66

    pure culture maintenance desiccation, 76freezing in liquid nitrogen, 77lyophilization, 76sub-culturing, 75

    propagation and scale-uplaboratory phase, 77plant phase, 78

    replacement, 86storage, 86strain selection, 71viability

    fermentation tests, 85selective staining, 84

    slide viability method, 85standard-slide culture method, 85

    washing acid wash, 82 acid wash with ammonium persulfate, 83 chlorine dioxide, 84 distilled or sterile water wash, 82

    Yeast collection, 242fermentation systems, 242

    cylindroconical fermenters, 243 traditional ale system, 242traditional lager system, 242

    storage, 243Yeast pitching

    dosing, 236methods for determining rates, 235

    centrifugation, 235electron cell counting, 235hemacytometer, 235in-line biomass sensorsweight-based, 235

    microbiological contamination, 236pitching rates, 233strain, 233viability, 234

    ZZahm meter, 300Zinc

    in water, 99yeast nutritional requirements, 66

    Zymomonas spp., 338