Human TNF-خ± Immunoassay CATALOG # DTA00C CATALOG # STA00C DESCRIPTION STORAGE OF OPENED/...

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  • Human TNF-α Immunoassay

    Quantikine® ELISA

    This package insert must be read in its entirety before using this product. For research use only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.

    Catalog Number DTA00C Catalog Number STA00C Catalog Number PDTA00C

    For the quantitative determination of human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) concentrations in cell culture supernates, serum, and plasma.

  • MANUFACTURED AND DISTRIBUTED BY:

    USA & Canada | R&D Systems, Inc. 614 McKinley Place NE, Minneapolis, MN 55413, USA TEL: (800) 343-7475 (612) 379-2956 FAX: (612) 656-4400 E-MAIL: info@RnDSystems.com

    DISTRIBUTED BY:

    UK & Europe | R&D Systems Europe, Ltd. 19 Barton Lane, Abingdon Science Park, Abingdon OX14 3NB, UK TEL: +44 (0)1235 529449 FAX: +44 (0)1235 533420 E-MAIL: info@RnDSystems.co.uk

    China | R&D Systems China Co., Ltd. 24A1 Hua Min Empire Plaza, 726 West Yan An Road, Shanghai PRC 200050 TEL: +86 (21) 52380373 FAX: +86 (21) 52371001 E-MAIL: info@RnDSystemsChina.com.cn

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    SECTION PAGE

    INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................................................1 PRINCIPLE OF THE ASSAY ..................................................................................................................................................2 LIMITATIONS OF THE PROCEDURE ................................................................................................................................2 TECHNICAL HINTS ................................................................................................................................................................2 MATERIALS PROVIDED & STORAGE CONDITIONS ..................................................................................................3 OTHER SUPPLIES REQUIRED ............................................................................................................................................4 PRECAUTIONS ........................................................................................................................................................................4 SAMPLE COLLECTION & STORAGE ................................................................................................................................4 REAGENT PREPARATION ....................................................................................................................................................5 ASSAY PROCEDURE ............................................................................................................................................................6 CALCULATION OF RESULTS ..............................................................................................................................................7 TYPICAL DATA ........................................................................................................................................................................7 PRECISION ...............................................................................................................................................................................8 RECOVERY................................................................................................................................................................................8 SENSITIVITY ............................................................................................................................................................................8 LINEARITY ................................................................................................................................................................................9 CALIBRATION .........................................................................................................................................................................9 SAMPLE VALUES ....................................................................................................................................................................9 SPECIFICITY .......................................................................................................................................................................... 10 REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................................................................ 11 PLATE LAYOUT .................................................................................................................................................................... 12

  • www.RnDSystems.com 1

    INTRODUCTION Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), also known as cachectin and TNFSF1A, is the prototypic ligand of the TNF superfamily (1). It is a pleiotropic molecule that plays a central role in inflammation, immune system development, apoptosis, and lipid metabolism (2-5). TNF-α is also involved in a number of pathological conditions including asthma, Crohn’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, neuropathic pain, obesity, type 2 diabetes, septic shock, autoimmunity, and cancer (5-11).

    Human TNF-α is synthesized as a 26 kDa type II transmembrane protein that consists of a 35 amino acid (aa) cytoplasmic domain, a 21 aa transmembrane segment, and a 177 aa extracellular domain (ECD) (12, 13). Within the ECD, human TNF-α shares 97% aa sequence identity with rhesus monkey, and 71-92% aa identity with bovine, canine, cotton rat, equine, feline, mouse, porcine, and rat TNF-α. It is produced by a wide variety of immune, epithelial, endothelial, and tumor cells. TNF-α is assembled intracellularly to form a noncovalently linked homotrimer which is expressed on the cell surface (14). Cell surface TNF-α can both induce the lysis of tumor cells and virus infected cells, and generate its own downstream cell signaling following ligation by soluble TNF RI (15, 16). Shedding of membrane bound TNF-α by TACE/ ADAM17 releases the bioactive cytokine, a 55 kDa soluble trimer of the TNF-α extracellular domain (17-19).

    TNF-α binds the ubiquitous 55-60 kDa TNF RI (20, 21) and the hematopoietic cell-restricted 78-80 kDa TNF RII (22, 23), both of which are also expressed as homotrimers (1, 24). Both type I and type II receptors bind TNF-α with comparable affinity and can promote NFkB activation (25-28). Only TNF RI, however, contains a cytoplasmic death domain which triggers the activation of apoptosis (3, 29). Soluble forms of both types of receptors are released into human serum and urine and can neutralize the biological activity of TNF-α (30-32).

    The Quantikine Human TNF-α Immunoassay is a 3.5-4.5 hour solid phase ELISA designed to measure human TNF-α in cell culture supernates, serum, and plasma. It contains E. coli-derived recombinant human TNF-α and antibodies raised against this protein. It has been shown to accurately quantitate the recombinant factor. Results obtained with naturally occurring TNF-α samples showed linear curves that were parallel to the standard curves obtained using the Quantikine kit standards. These results indicate that this kit can be used to determine relative mass values for natural human TNF-α.

    Since the measurement of TNF-α is insensitive to the addition of recombinant forms of either of the two types of soluble receptors, it is probable that this measurement detects the total amount of TNF-α in samples, i.e., the total amount of free TNF-α plus the amount of TNF-α bound to soluble receptors.

  • For research use only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.2

    PRINCIPLE OF THE ASSAY This assay employs the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique. A monoclonal antibody specific for TNF-α has been pre-coated onto a microplate. Standards and samples are pipetted into the wells and any TNF-α present is bound by the immobilized antibody. After washing away any unbound substances, an enzyme-linked polyclonal antibody specific for TNF-α is added to the wells. Following a wash to remove any unbound antibody-enzyme reagent, a substrate solution is added to the wells and color develops in proportion to the amount of TNF-α bound in the initial step. The color development is stopped and the intensity of the color is measured.

    LIMITATIONS OF THE PROCEDURE • FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY. NOT FOR USE IN DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES. • The kit should not be used beyond the expiration date on the kit label. • Do not mix or substitute reagents with those from other lots or sources. • It is important that the Calibrator Diluent selected for the standard curve be consistent with

    the samples being assayed. • If samples generate values higher than the highest standard, dilute the samples with the

    appropriate Calibrator Diluent and repeat the assay. • Any variation in standard diluent, operator, pipetting technique, washing technique,

    incubation time or temperature, and kit age can cause variation in binding. • Variations in sample collection, processing, and storage may cause sample value differences. • This assay is designed to eliminate interference by soluble receptors, binding proteins,

    and other factors present in biological samples. Until all factors have been tested in the Quantikine Immunoassay, the possibility of interference cannot be excluded.

    TECHNICAL HINTS • When mixing or reconstituting protein solutions, always avoid foaming. • To avoid cross-contamination, change pipette tips between additions of each standard level,

    between sample additions, and between reagent additions. Also, use sepa