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HTHS 1110 / Biomedical Core Module 1 Measurement Systems and Calculations Used for the Human Body Body Plan & Organization Homeostasis Disease: A Disruption in Homeostasis

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HTHS 1110 / Biomedical Core

Module 1

Measurement Systems and Calculations

Used for the Human Body

Body Plan & Organization

Homeostasis

Disease: A Disruption in Homeostasis

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Body Plan & Organization

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Anatomy vs. Physiology

• Anatomy (study of structure)

• Word is from Greek: • ανα-, on/up/backwards/through/towards

• -τομη, cutting

• Anatomy = ―cutting backwards‖, putting things together from slices

• Physiology (study of function)• υυσις-, nature

• -λογος, study

• Includes homeostasis, the systems that keep the body in balance

Objective 1see footnote 1

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Structure and Function

• Structure and function are

complementary to each other.

• Structure determines functional

possibilities.

• Structure designs the specific function.

• Function influences the size, shape,

action, and reaction of the structure.

Objective 2

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Structure and Function Example

Objective 2

This structure is the liver, which has the function of filtering blood and producing bile. Can you see how the function is determined by the structure, and vice versa?

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Subdivisions of Anatomy

• Embryology– The first 8 weeks of

development

• Developmental Biology– All stages of development

• Cell Biology– Cell structure and function

• Histology– Microscopic structure of

tissues

• Surface Anatomy– Surface markings of the

body

• Gross Anatomy– Structures viewed without a

microscope

• Systemic Anatomy– Structure of specific systems

• Regional Anatomy– Specific regions of the body

• Radiographic Anatomy– Body structures visualized

with X-ray, CT, or MRI

• Pathological Anatomy– Structural changes with

disease

Objective 3

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Subdivisions

of Anatomy

Objective 3

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Subdivisions of Physiology

• Neurophysiology– Functional properties of

nerve cells

• Endocrinology– Hormones and how they

control body functions

• Cardiovascular physiology– Function of the heart and

blood vessels

• Immunology– How the body defends

itself against disease-causing agents

• Respiratory physiology– Functions of the air

passageways and lungs

• Renal physiology– Functions of the kidneys

• Exercise physiology– Changes in cell and organ

functions as a result of muscular activity

• Pathophysiology– Functional changes

associated with disease and aging

Objective 4

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Subdivisions

of Physiology

Objective 4

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Levels of

Organization

Objective 5

smallest

largest

• Chemical• Atomic

• Molecular

• Cellular

• Tissue

• Organ

• System

• Organism

Modules 1-7

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Objective 5

Raven, E

nviro

nm

ent, 7

e

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Movie showing levels of organization

http://www.wehi.edu.au/uploads/wehi-tv/Body_Code.mov

(8:36)

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Integumentary (Skin)

Skeletal

Objective 6

Module 8

Module 9

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Muscular

Nervous

Objective 6Modules 11‒13

Module 10

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Endocrine

Cardiovascular

Objective 6Modules 15‒16

Module 14

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Objective 6

Lymphatic & Immune

Respiratory

Module 17

Module 15

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Digestive

Urinary

Objective 6Module 19

Module 18

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Reproductive(these organs, the primary sexual characteristics, define the two human genders)

Female Male

Objective 6Module 20

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Systems of the Body

• The systems of the body may appear to

be separate and distinct in their

functions, but the maintenance of

normal body function requires the

integration of many systems.• Body temperature: integumentary, muscular,

cardiovascular, and nervous

• Body fluid composition: urinary, digestive,

respiratory, and cardiovascular

Objective 6

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Anatomy vs. Physiology

• Anatomy (study of structure)

• Word is from Greek: • ανα-, on/up/backwards/through/towards

• -τομη, cutting

• Anatomy = ―cutting backwards‖, putting things together from slices

• Physiology (study of function)• υυσις-, nature

• -λογος, study

• Includes homeostasis, the systems that keep the body in balance

Objective 6

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Levels of

Organization

Objective 6

smallest

largest

• Chemical• Atomic

• Molecular

• Cellular

• Tissue

• Organ

• System

• Organism

Modules 1-7

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Human Anatomical

Position• In the anatomical position the

subject stands erect facing the

observer with the head level,

the eyes facing forward, feet flat

on the floor, feet directed

forward, and the arms at their

sides with the palms facing

forward.

• All anatomical descriptions are

in reference to this position.

Objective 7

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Objective 8

Irela

nd, V

isualizin

gH

um

an B

iolo

gy, 2

e

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Superior ̶ Inferior

Medial ̶ Lateral

Proximal ̶ Distal

Anterior ̶ Posterior

Ventral ̶ Dorsal

Ipsilateral ̶ Contralateral

Objective 9

this arm is ipsilateral to this leg

this leg is contralateral to this arm

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deep

superficial

superficial superficial

superficial

deep

parietalvisceral

Objective 9

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Cardinal Body

Planes

• Sagittal

• Midsagittal• Divides the body into two

equal, mirror-image halves

• Parasagittal• Parallel to sagittal, but not

through the midline

• Transverse

(Horizontal)

• Frontal (Coronal)

Objective 10

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Sagittal (Midsagittal)

Frontal (Coronal)

Transverse (Horizontal)

*note the relationship between the plane of section and the shape of the section ̶̶ that’s anatomy! (See Objective 14.)

Objective 10

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Objective 10

Cardinal Planes in Imaging

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Body

Cavities

Objective 11

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Body Cavities

Objective 11

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Major Body

Organs

Objective 12

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Major Body

Organs

Brain + Cranial Nerves

Spinal Cord + Spinal Nerves

Objective 12

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Objective 12

Anato

my a

nd P

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logy fo

r the M

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pie

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Alte

rs, Bio

logy: U

ndersta

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ife, 1

/e

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Objective 12

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Objective 12

Heart

Superior vena cava

Inferior vena cava

Aorta

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Diaphragm

(divides thorax from abdomen)

Major Body Organs &

Structures

Objective 12

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Trachea

Esophagus

Stomach

Liver

Small Intestine

Large Intestine

Objective 12

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Objective 12

Anato

my a

nd P

hysio

logy fro

m S

cience

to L

ife, 2

/e

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Objective 12

Intro

ductio

n to

the H

um

an B

ody, 8

e

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Objective 12

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Objective 12

Anato

my a

nd P

hysio

logy fro

m S

cience

to L

ife, 2

/e

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Objective 12

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Quadrants and Regions of the

Abdominopelvic Cavity

• Identification of quadrants and regions

in the abdominopelvic cavity helps

clinicians describe the location of the

many abdominal and pelvic organs.

• There are 4 abdominopelvic quadrants

and 9 regions.

• The dividing lines between these are

centered on the umbilicus (―belly button‖)

Objective 13

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Objective 13

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Objective 13

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Objective 13

RUQ

liver

LUQ

spleen

left kidney

RLQ

cecum (where small intestine meets large)

appendix

LLQ

left ovary (if this were a woman)

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Objective 14

Cross-Sectional Anatomy:

Thorax

Tortora & Derrickson

Figure 1.10

Identify:

Pleural cavity

Pericardial cavity

Heart

Right lung

Aorta

Thymus

Left lung

Esophagus

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Cross-Sectional Anatomy:

Head• Imaging modalities are methods used to see

anatomy

– X-rays are a modality

• These images are from the Visible Human

Project

• From top to bottom:

– photograph of frozen, sawed head

– computed tomography (CT) scan of the same

level/plane

– magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of

the same level/plane

• Note brain in each section: how does it

appear different depending on modality?

http

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mich

.edu

/

Objective 14

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Objective 14

Cross-Sectional Anatomy:

Thorax

• This section through the thorax is about the

same level/plane as Tortora & Derrickson

fig 1.10

• Find: lungs (left and right), thymus,

esophagus, aorta, heart

• Why is the lung on the right side of this

drawing labeled ‗left lung‘?

http

://vhp.m

ed.u

mich

.edu/

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http://vhp.med.umich.edu/browsers/images/female/color/transverse/high/1298.jpg

http://vhp.med.umich.edu/browsers/images/female/color/sagittal/high/1111.jpg

http://vhp.med.umich.edu/browsers/images/female/color/coronal/high/700.jpg

Objective 14

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Objective 14

http

://vhp.m

ed.u

mich

.edu/

Sectio

n 1

798

liver

spleen

kidney

sm intestine

Cross-Sectional Anatomy:

Abdomen

• This section is through the lower arms (note

two bones) and kidneys

• Abdominal organs at this level are the liver,

spleen, small intestines and kidneys

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Identify

Major

BonesSkull

Vertebral Column

Sternum

Ribs

Objective 15

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Identify

Major

Bones

Clavicle

Scapula

Humerus

Radius

Ulna

Carpals

Metacarpals

Phalanges

Objective 15

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Identify

Major

Bones

Objective 15

Pelvis

Femur

Patella

Tibia

Fibula

Tarsals

Metatarsals

Phalanges

Irela

nd, V

isualizin

g H

um

an B

iolo

gy, 2

e

Pelvis

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Homeostasis

Disease: A Disruption in

Homeostasis

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Homeostasis: A Balancing Act

Homeostasis

The condition of equilibrium (balance) in the

body‘s internal environment due to the

constant interaction of the body‘s many

regulatory processes

Objective 16

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Homeostasis

Objective 16

The condition of

equilibrium (balance)

in the body’s internal

environment due to

the constant

interaction of the

body’s many

regulatory processes

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Homeostasis

Objective 17

Component Function

ReceptorMonitors controlled

condition

Control CenterReceives input and

provides output

EffectorsBring about change in

controlled condition

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Negative

Feedback Loop

Example: Blood

Pressure

Objective 18

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Positive

Feedback Loop

Example:

Childbirth

Objective 19

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Homeostasis

Positive Feedback Characteristics

Negative FeedbackCharacteristics

Strengthen or reinforce a change.

Reverses a change in a controlled condition.

Action continues until it is interrupted.

Action stops automatically when setpoint is reached.

Reinforces conditions that do not happen very often.

Regulate conditions that remain fairly stable over

long periods.

Objective 20

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Homeostasis

Positive Feedback

Examples

Negative Feedback

Examples

Blood clotting Body temperature

Childbirth Blood glucose

Severe blood loss Many, many others

Objective 20

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Disease: A Disruption of

Homeostasis

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Generalized Signs & Symptoms

of Disease• Signs

– Determined by observation of patient

• i.e., what we see

– Examples of signs

• swelling, redness, rashes, pus, fever, vomiting

• Symptoms

– Determined by asking the patient

• i.e., what the patient tells us

– Examples of symptoms

• nausea, pain, shortness of breath, headache, generalized

malaise

• Laboratory tests are used to determine presence of

infectionObjective 21

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Syndrome

• A syndrome is a set of signs and/or symptoms

that often occur together

• Usually, we don‘t understand the relationship

between these

• For example, in metabolic syndrome, four

signs occur together

– Hypertension (high blood pressure)

– Dyslipidemia (abnormal fats in blood)

– Obesity (overweight)

– Type II diabetes (increased sugar in blood)

Objective 21

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Abnormal

Homeostasis in

Autoimmune

Disease

Objective 22

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Diseases from Internal and

External Sources

• Disruptions in homeostasis can be caused by

genetic or environmental factors

• For example, autoimmune diseases are

disruptions in the homeostatic loops involved in

defense against invaders

• Disruptions in homeostasis can also be caused

by outside agents (infectious disease)

– More on this in Module 6

Objective 22

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Modes of Disease Transmission

• Contact Transmission

– Direct (touching, kissing, intercourse)

– Indirect (fomites: shared objects)

– Droplet (distance < 1 meter)

• Common Vehicle Transmission

– Contaminated food, water, blood

• Airborne Transmission

– Pathogens stay alive in droplets or dust

traveling > 1 meter

Objective 23

The Velveteen Rabbit was a fomite

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Modes of Disease Transmission

• Vector Transmission

– Organism that transmits disease

• Tick that transmits Lyme Disease

• Mosquito that transmits malaria

• Flies transmit various diseases

• If the vector is a person who does

not appear to be ill, they are called a

carrier

Objective 23

―Typhoid Mary‖ was a carrier

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Scientist working with the H1N1 influenza virus

(note Biosafety Level 3 precautions)PHIL #7988Infections in

Populations

• Sporadic infection

– Individuals are infected here

and there through the

population

• Endemic infection

– Occur regularly in low to

moderate levels in a population

within a given geographic area

• Epidemic infection

– Disease has a higher-than-

normal incidence in a given

population

• Pandemic infection

– Worldwide epidemic

– e.g. HIV

Objective 23

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Nosocomial Infections

• Nosocomial means ―hospital acquired‖

– Most severe in patients who have problems with their

immune system function (immunocompromised)

• Exogenous

– Transmitted from external environment

• Endogenous

– Infections arise from organisms already present in or on

the patient

– For example, diseases kept in check by immune system

begin to cause problems

– Organisms may be introduced during invasive procedures

Objective 23

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Universal Precautions

• Guidelines from CDC to help reduce

transmission of infections

• Hand-washing

• Protective barriers

• Strict protocols for the disposal of

contaminated needles, scalpels, and

other equipment

Objective 23

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Measurement Systems and

Calculations Used for the

Human Body

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The English System

(The US Customary System)

Objective 24

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Système Internationale d‘unités (SI)

The Metric System

Objective 24

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Getting Rid of all the Zeroes

• No one has enough time to write all of the

zeroes if we frequently use very small or very

large measurements. To alleviate this

problem, we have exponents.

• An exponent is a little number that is raised ½

a space above (superscript) a big number.

• 103, 22, 53, etc.

• An exponent tells you how many times you

multiply the big number by itself.

(23 = 2 x 2 x 2)

Objective 25

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Exponents in the Metric System

• Working with exponents in the metric system is

very easy because it only deals with units of

10. The decimal system is also based on units

of 10, so converting from one unit to another

requires only the movement of the decimal.

• If the number is getting bigger (positive

exponent), the decimal moves to the right. If

the number is getting smaller (negative

exponent), the decimal moves to the left.

• 1x103 = 1000.0 and 1x10-3 = 0.001

Objective 25

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Metric System Prefixes

Objective 25

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Objective 26

Converting US Customary to Metric

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Objective 26

Converting Metric to US Customary

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Significant Figures

• We can‘t create information where none

existed before

• For example, what‘s one-seventh of a foot?

• A foot is 12 inches, divide by 7.00

• 12 inches / 7.00 = 1.714285714285714 inches

• Rulers aren‘t that accurate!

• One-seventh of a foot is 1.7 inches

• 12 has two significant figures and 1.7 has two

significant figures as well

Objective 27

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What if we don‘t have a direct

conversion factor?

• A problem-solving technique that converts

from one unit to another by using

conversion factors is called ―Dimensional

Analysis‖• A (given unit) x B (requested unit) = D (requested unit)

C (given unit)

Objective 28

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Dimensional Analysis

or

The Factor-Label Method

http://bit.ly/DimensionalAnalysis

http://bit.ly/FactorLabel

Objective 28

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Make the Units Work

The ―philosophy‖ behind

Dimensional Analysis (also called

the ―Factor-Label Method‖) is that

as long as we make the units work

out, we can get to the right answer

Objective 28

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Dimensional Analysis Toolbox

What do we need for Dimensional

Analysis?

1. Given amount, with units

2. Desired units (we are

calculating the amount)

3. Conversion factors

Objective 28

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Make the Units Work

Realize that conversion factors can be

turned into fractions that are equal to 1

It‘s always ―legal‖ to multiply by 1 — it

doesn‘t change anything except the

units.

Objective 28

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Multiplying by 1 to Change Units

• For example, we know that

• So if we divide both sides of the equation

by 2.54 cm, we get

(1 inch

)2.54 cm

1 inch = 2.54 cm

1

=(2.54 cm

)2.54 cm

(1 inch

)2.54 cm=

Objective 28

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Putting Conversion Factors to

Work

X5 cm (1 inch

)2.54 cm=

X5 cm (1 inch

)2.54 cm= (

5)2.54

inches

5 cm = 1.97 inches

Objective 28

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Significant Figures

X5 cm (1 inch

)2.54 cm=

X5 cm (1 inch

)2.54 cm= (

5)2.54

inches

5 cm = 1.97 inches

5 cm = 2 inches

We can’t create digits where there are none!

The original question had one digit; the answer needs to be one digit as well.

Objective 28