Hope Herakles Reconsidered O Palagia

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    Summary. The Hope Herakles, hitherto thought to be Roman copy of statue by Skop, s hee show be ptiche. The head is tentotivelyrecognised clsicking portrait, whie the body ype, having come down w vaiety of reproductons carrying different head, sociated viththe Argive School of the t 5th c BC. dating of the laer's prototype coseto the g of 429 vell the Attic proveance of some of the copiessugget possible connection wih Hagelada' Herakles Aleikakos t Meite.

    The Statue of the Hope Herakles was fistbrought t the attention of md scholas the occasion of the sale of the Hope Col-lection 1917 (Fig. la-b). t was lying S fagments the grounds of Deep-dene (nea Doking), the country seat ofThomas Hope, rediscoveled too late to beincluded the Se. ts association withSkopas dates from soon aftr its introduc-tion into the market, where it remainedunsold for several yeas.l The piece finallyfound home the Los Angeles CountyMuseum of Art, 50.33.22. t iS now to the J. Getty Museum Malibu, L73 3.

    The Statue iS SuppoIted by tree-trunk atit back.2 The incised pupils of the eyes andthe upward glance indicate date theAntonine period or ater (Howd 1966, 35;Stewart 1977, 91). His weight ests theeft leg, the knees held cose together, thefeet ee. The head is inclined thediection of the Stiffleg. The right hand rests the downturned club close by the ide,while his skin hangs flom the extended

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    left foearm. Although the three apples the left hand as shown Figure 1 weremoden estoations, now removed, it is not that they reploduced the originalattribute, m Roman Ieplesenta-tions of Herakles (Howard 1978, 44 . 52,figs.86-88). The club, also mdaddition though certainly thee the ori-ginal as well, is supported by small bull'shead, pehaps }{ this caseto the cIetm Labour (LattimoIe 1975,25; Todisco 1979, 154-156). The bull's headrecuS more Roman variants of classicaltypes of s. t was presumably usedas substitute fol the g upport thefom of rock, and is best egarded as pictulesque detail ratheI than Significantattribute of,a palticular type.3 PIopS theshape of bull'S head also found sculptures of othe deities Such aS ,prbably reference sacriticial Victims(Pausmias 7.20.3-4; Todisco 1979, |52-155),

    Herakles' shot, waved locks cownedwith leaves of poplar, the ends of the bload



    Figue 1Hope Herakles, Los Angeles county {sm of AIt, 50.33.22. at the J, Getty Museum,

    L 73 3, Los Angeles County Museum photo.

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    Figure 1bHead of Hope Heakles. Los Angeles County Museum of AIt, 50.33.22. at the J. Gett}

    Museum, L 73 3. Getty Museum photo,

    headbad falling his shoulders, Thisyouthful head type was classed eally with number of mole or less related head afHerakles, variously wrahed. foming group wih the Genzano hm the tshMuseum (Fig. 2).1 1889 Gael associatedthis group ta the pedimental heads of thethen newly excavated temple af AthenaAlea at Tegea. Pausanias (8.45.5 and8.47.1) names skopas as the architect of thetemple and sculptor of the figules of Askle-pios and Hygieia placed beide the culttatue of Athena Alea. Despite the absenceof documentation, Skopas is also commonlycedited with the design of the hSculptues. thi assumption, Graef(1889, 189-216) poposed connection be-tween the Genzano herm with its Variants


    and h mb tatue of Herakles by Sko-pas that Pausanias (2,10.1) Saw thegymnasium at Sikyon. The full Skopaiccleation was tentatiely identified theligure the re\erse of bronze coinminted at Sikyon the g of Geta,known from heavily won exemplar the Blitish Museum (Fig. 3).5

    its emergence fom Deepdene, theHope Herakles was intoduced, theevidence of the Geta coin, as the Soecomplee marble repIica ot Skopas'saue,'The close relationship of the head of theHape statue with the Sculptures of Tegea (likeness which this Stage am inclined toexplain aS affinity of time rathe than tyle) points to date f the originald 340 BC.7 the othel hand. his



    Figue 2Genzano hem, London, Bitish Museum 1731. Museum photo,



    Figule 3HeIakles, Bronze coin of Sikyon, Geta, leese. London, Bitish Museum. "4c Sikyon, 247

    l{useum photo (1:).

    Strongly aticulated anatomy, foursquaepropotions (not including the head) and'closed' composition ale lather early fea-ts nealer the 5th . BC. The uneasycombination of advanced 4th-c. headwith body was explained as result of Skopas' youthfu eclecticism, andthe Hope Herakles assigned to the begin-ning of his caleel the decade 370/60 BC(Lattimore 1975,20; Stewalt 1977,91). Theincongruous St, howeer, may well sug-get patiche of later peiod.8

    Let us re-examine the eidence Statingfom the Geta coin (Fig. 3). There is littedoubt that Roman coin t}?es borrowedmotifs from well-known Sculptures. But theappearance [ s coincould occasion mean that copy of thatStatue Stood the city where the coin wasissued. good illustration of this point iSthe case of the FaIneS Herakles. whoseoriginal location iS Still matte of dispute,but whose image iS repeated, for instance, Roman coins of Athens (Moreno 1982,505, fig. 63), Spta (Grunauer-von HoeI-schelmann 1978, 83, gloup 39, . 25, 3),even Rome itself (Moreno L982, 513, Iig.96). Mble copies of this te are attested three cities, Shown, to ome extent,by diminutive examples,o Even assuming.howeyel, that the Sikyonian coin -duces g piec of Sculptue rathethan , it mb to the Hope


    Herakles is probematic. areas ofdoubt concen fiIt, the position of the legs, longer yisible the coin, and second,the right aIm, here (Fig. 3) bent shaway from the side, holding the club at angle to the body. Hardly due to change ofViewpoint the part of the die engayer,this difference underlines the difficuty accepting the coin type aS eflction of theHope Herakles as opposed to anothe Her-S of SimilaI iconographica type. FoIexample, comparable genera outline iSS found the Lenbach Helakles, depart-ing fom the Hope precisely the allange-ment of the legs and of the right alm andclub, which are close to the figure.lo

    The agument f of Skopas has sofar relied mainly the assumption that theHope piece is h statue carrying head of the Genzano class. I Fig.4,however, is ilustrated similar head sitting body of the Albertini Herakles. Thiswork Roman Pastiche, three-qualtelife-size, display Osterey nearLondon.1 The potot}?e of the AlbertiniHerakles goes back to the second qualtr ofthe 4th c. BC; the oliginal appearance of itshead is probably lost (Linfelt 966,37-38;,75-76; Giuliano 1981, 339-340; 35-352).The pondeation diffeS fom the Statue the wider stide and shift of theweight onto the right leg.

    The body t}e of the Hope Herakes is


    Figue 4Herakles, ostelley Park. Photo afte Howad 1978, fig

    also known from few smaller marbletorsos, of Roman date and Suppolted by -.12 of finer q h -ette Eleusis Museum 5090 (Fig. 5), whichwill Serve as basis of comparison withothe culpture. The Hope figure lowersh gh shouIder enhancing he impressionof one-sided composition wheIe the ightside of the body falls consistently below its


    hoizootal axis. contrast, the right Shoul-der of the statuettes is aised; it iS thereforeunsafe to draw conclusions about the Sculp-tor'S presumed plediection for'open' and'closed' sides.|] Other small-scale versionsof h Hope body. not considered previous-, are seen to caly head with close-cropped hair, mare often than not boundwith fillet. miniature votiye lelief



    Figue 5Herakles. Eleusis Museum 5090. Photo, olga Palagia,

    of the 4th c. BC fm the Sanctuary ofHerakles Pankrates Athens hows thehero facing right, largeI than the two femaleworshipp$ approaching from that side.laHis general bearing is uggestive of cultStatue. The right g bent, Iight handIesting club touching the gIound,pointed Slightly foruard, pendentfrom the adyanced left forearm. The left fistis clenched, hoding out object thatcannot be detemined. He leans backwards,reproducing the inclination of the Hopefigue (c/. Stewart 1977, , 31b). His sholt


    hair is tied with Sm band. Simila,though stockie, is Herakles the Romanelief Tegea Museum 47 (Fig. 6). He standsbeside Artemis and Dionysos, facing, lefthand cenched, wearing his h like close-fitting cap. HiS club IetS diIectly theground, Both his companions echo creationsof the Second half of the 4th c, Bc. Artemisis dressed chiton under peplos beltedhigh over the overfold, and holds torch.Her hair is caught from the forehead plaits fashion reminiscent of theff of the arge bionze Artemi


    Figue 6Herakles, Artemis, Dionyso. Marble relief. Tegea Museum 47. Photo, olga Palagia

    Piraeus ( 1979, 49-53, pls. 20-23). HeI Sculptua type iS compaable toh ms 2834.|'Dionysos islong-haired, wapped lalge himationleaving his chest bae and foming t-gul overfold [. He holds thyrsos the ight hand, the left hand is placed hiship and his right leg is relaxed. The sculp-tual type, ejuvenated, is borrowed from Aklepios current the 4th c. BC,16

    variation of the Herakes is found mb Statue of thee-quarteS life size ofthe 2nd c. AD the Athenian Agora S 2438(Figs. 7-8. Hesperio 42,1973, 172, l. 38b;Thompson 19'76,28), Th anatomy retainSevere-Style tIaits, while the head, againbound with {illet, shows awareness of the


    Lansdowne Herakles (Fig. 9). He faces ri