Growth and development iii

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  • 1. Growth & DevelopmentGrowth & Development (()) Dr. Eva GauchanDr. Eva Gauchan LecturerLecturer Paediatric DeptPaediatric Dept

2. Development - Fine motorDevelopment - Fine motor Co - ordination of eyesCo - ordination of eyes Hand eye coordinationHand eye coordination Hand mouth coordinationHand mouth coordination Skills for manipulation with handsSkills for manipulation with hands 3. Test objectsTest objects Red ring on red string (6.5 cm diameter) Pen torch Red cubes (1"x1") Pellet Cup with handle Spoon Book with thick pages Red pencil or crayon Red ball (5.0 cm d) 4. Tests objectsTests objects PaperPaper Wooden blocksWooden blocks DollDoll MirrorMirror Temple bell / rattleTemple bell / rattle 5. Shopping Cart Blocks/Balls Window House Standard Toy Set 6. Eye co-ordinationEye co-ordination Newborn - turns head & follows lightNewborn - turns head & follows light 4 weeks- regards lighted torch or a red4 weeks- regards lighted torch or a red ring kept at a distance of 20-30 cmring kept at a distance of 20-30 cm 6 weeks follows object side to side6 weeks follows object side to side 7. Eye co-ordinationEye co-ordination 2-3 months follows with steady eye2-3 months follows with steady eye movements and can converge & focus hismovements and can converge & focus his eyeseyes 3 months- converges upon fingers of3 months- converges upon fingers of hands & begins to reach out for objects athands & begins to reach out for objects at that distancethat distance 8. 4 months- macular fovea matures4 months- macular fovea matures visual cortex differentiatesvisual cortex differentiates accomodation ,mono-ocularaccomodation ,mono-ocular fixationfixation 4-6 months binocular vision develops4-6 months binocular vision develops 9. Visual distance:Visual distance: Birth: 20-30 cmBirth: 20-30 cm 3-4 months: 0.6-1 m3-4 months: 0.6-1 m 5-6 months: 1-1.6 m5-6 months: 1-1.6 m 9 months: 3.3 m9 months: 3.3 m 18 months: can follow with eyes small (318 months: can follow with eyes small (3 mm) object rolling at distance of 4 m awaymm) object rolling at distance of 4 m away 10. Hand eye coordinationHand eye coordination 3 months - hand regard3 months - hand regard 4 months grasps red4 months grasps red dangling ringdangling ring 11. 5 months-Takes cube from table5 months-Takes cube from table Plays with toesPlays with toes 12. 6 months- Transfer object from6 months- Transfer object from hand-to- handhand-to- hand Hold feeding bottleHold feeding bottle Bidextrous graspBidextrous grasp 13. 7 months crude pincer grasp7 months crude pincer grasp 14. 10 months pincer grasp10 months pincer grasp 15. 10 months-Poking with index10 months-Poking with index fingerfinger 16. 12 months Points to objects12 months Points to objects desireddesired 17. 12 months fine pincer grasp12 months fine pincer grasp 18. 12-15 months make tower of 2 cubes12-15 months make tower of 2 cubes 19. 18 months make18 months make tower of 4 cubestower of 4 cubes 18 months- Enjoys18 months- Enjoys pictures from thepictures from the booksbooks 20. 2 yrs 6 cubes2 yrs 6 cubes 3 yrs 10 cubes3 yrs 10 cubes 21. Hand mouth coordinationHand mouth coordination 5 months Hand mouth approach5 months Hand mouth approach 22. 12 months feed with spoon with spilling12 months feed with spoon with spilling 15 month feed with spoon without spilling15 month feed with spoon without spilling 18 month feed with cup with slight spilling18 month feed with cup with slight spilling 23. Skills for manipulation with handsSkills for manipulation with hands Birth grasp reflexBirth grasp reflex presentpresent 1-2 month-No grasp1-2 month-No grasp reflexreflex 3 months-hand3 months-hand loosely openloosely open 24. 3-4 months can3-4 months can hold objects withhold objects with ulnar approachulnar approach 5 months radial5 months radial approachapproach 25. Handedness:Handedness: Newborn: no hand preferenceNewborn: no hand preference Hand preference marked 1Hand preference marked 1stst two yearstwo years Hand preference established 3-4 yearsHand preference established 3-4 years True dominance develops by 10 yrsTrue dominance develops by 10 yrs 26. DressingDressing 7 months: takes off socks7 months: takes off socks 10 months: raises arms10 months: raises arms 1 year- can indicate where hat goes,1 year- can indicate where hat goes, tries to remove coat, tries to wear sockstries to remove coat, tries to wear socks & shoes without success& shoes without success 15 months- NO stage, dislikes15 months- NO stage, dislikes dressingdressing 18 months- Takes off pants, shoes,18 months- Takes off pants, shoes, gloves ,socks, easy zips & big buttonsgloves ,socks, easy zips & big buttons etc 27. 2 years- Puts shoes, socks and2 years- Puts shoes, socks and pantspants 28. 3 years- Dress and undress except shoe lace3 years- Dress and undress except shoe lace 29. 5 years Ties shoe5 years Ties shoe lacelace 30. 6 years- interested in dressing6 years- interested in dressing 7 years- chooses own clothes7 years- chooses own clothes 31. ScribblingScribbling 12 months spontaneously scribbles12 months spontaneously scribbles 32. Developmental stages of drawingDevelopmental stages of drawing 1-2 years: random scribble marks simply as a sensorimotor activity 33. ScribblingScribbling 15 months imitate straight lines15 months imitate straight lines 34. 2-21/2 years: controlled scribbling. The child begins to develop some control of his fine motor abilities, and the scribbles gain some direction and control. After some experience with controlled scribbling, a child may name his picture a motorcycle or a big wheel, although there appears to be no resemblance. This is an intellectual accomplishment for the child, an indication that he is taking his first step toward being able to do representation Developmental stages of drawingDevelopmental stages of drawing (continued)(continued) 35. ScribblingScribbling 2 yrs draws2 yrs draws horizontal / verticalhorizontal / vertical lineslines 3 yrs draws circle3 yrs draws circle 4 years-Draws4 years-Draws rectangle / + (plus),rectangle / + (plus), squaresquare 5 years-Draws5 years-Draws triangle & X signtriangle & X sign 36. Developmental stages of drawingDevelopmental stages of drawing (continued)(continued) 2 1/2 -3 years: the face. The next major development is for the circle to become a face 3 -4 years: arms and legs. The circle person develops sticks arms and legs, which protrude from the circle, or the head; there is no body yet 4 years: the body. The human figure begins to acquire a body. Gradually more and more body parts are added (hands, feet, hair, ears, etc.) 37. Developmental stages of drawingDevelopmental stages of drawing (continued)(continued) 5 years: the floating house: First house drawings usually resemble a face, with windows placed like eyes and door like a mouth. These first houses are usually somewhere in the middle of the paper and seem to be floating in space 5 - 6 years: the house on a bottom line. The bottom of the paper is used as a baseline and the house rests on it 38. Developmental stages of drawingDevelopmental stages of drawing (continued)(continued) 5 -6 years: a baseline supports the house. A baseline appears within the drawing and the house rests on it 6 -7 years: two-dimensional drawing. The baseline begins to take on the quality of a horizon, which indicates the childs awareness of two- dimensional space 39. Picture bookPicture book 13 month turn 2-313 month turn 2-3 pages of bookpages of book 24 months turn24 months turn pages one at a timepages one at a time 40. SocialSocial 4 weeks regards mothers face4 weeks regards mothers face 8 weeks-Social smile8 weeks-Social smile 3 months- Smile when spoken to/Follow a3 months- Smile when spoken to/Follow a person with eye / recognizes motherperson with eye / recognizes mother 41. 6 months- Smiles and vocalizes6 months- Smiles and vocalizes mirror imagemirror image 42. 7-9 months- liking ,disliking, fear of strangers7-9 months- liking ,disliking, fear of strangers (stranger anxiety)(stranger anxiety) 43. 9-10 months- Wave bye, bye9-10 months- Wave bye, bye 44. 12 month- Stranger anxiety / concept of self12 month- Stranger anxiety / concept of self plays simple ball gameplays simple ball game 45. 12 month- separation anxiety12 month- separation anxiety 46. 15-18 months-Domestic mimicry15-18 months-Domestic mimicry 47. 15-18 months-Domestic mimicry15-18 months-Domestic mimicry 48. 18 months- points to 3 parts of18 months- points to 3 parts of the bodythe body 2 years- Demand constant2 years- Demand constant attentionattention 49. 2 yrs Parallel play2 yrs Parallel play 50. 2 yrs Parallel play2 yrs Parallel play 51. 2 yrs Parallel play2 yrs Parallel play 52. 3 yrs- knows gender3 yrs- knows gender handednesshandedness 53. 3-4 yrs :plays with peers3-4 yrs :plays with peers 54. HearingHearing Birth : Startling/Birth : Startling/ Blinking /StopBlinking /Stop cryingcrying 3 months: Turns3 months: Turns head towardshead towards sound (level)sound (level) 5 months: Turns5 months: Turns head towardshead towards sound below thesound below the level of earlevel of ear 55. 6 -7 months:6 -7 months: Response to nameResponse to name Turns head towardsTurns head towards sound at the levelsound at the level of earof ear 9 months: Turns9 months: Turns head above level ofhead above level of earear 56. Distance at which sounds can beDistance at which sounds can be heard:heard: 6 months- 45 cm6 months- 45 cm 9 months- 1 m9 months- 1 m 18 months- 2 m18 months- 2 m 57. SpeechSpeech 3 months-Vocalizes when spoken to3 months-Vocalizes when spoken to (cooing)(cooing) 6 months- says ba, da, ka,ma6 months- says ba, da, ka,ma 9 months bisyllables (mama, baba)9 months bisyllables (mama, baba) 12 months-two words with meaning12 months-two words with meaning 58. 18 months- 10 words with meaning18 months- 10 words with meaning 2 years- 50 words with meaning2 years- 50 words with meaning 21-24 months spontaneously join 321-24 months spontaneously join 3 words together to make sentenceswords together to make sentences 36 months- tells a story36 months- tells a story 59. Toilet training/Bowel control:Toilet training/Bowel control: Birth: reflex actBirth: reflex act 4 weeks: wakes up on passing stool4 weeks: wakes up on passing stool 4 months -Gastrocolic reflex weakens4 months -Gastrocolic reflex weakens 7 months- bowel movements irregular7 months- bowel movements irregular 10 mo- can sit on toilet seat10 mo- can sit on toilet seat 60. 12 months: grunts after passing stool12 months: grunts after passing stool 15- 18 mo : can walk to toilet15- 18 mo : can walk to toilet 2 yrs : toilet trainable2 yrs : toilet trainable 3 yrs : can postpone bowel movements3 yrs : can postpone bowel movements 61. Bladder control:Bladder control: Birth: reflex actBirth: reflex act 4 weeks: cries when nappy wet4 weeks: cries when nappy wet 40 weeks: dry for 2 hrs40 weeks: dry for 2 hrs 24 months: dry by day24 months: dry by day 30-36 months: dry by night30-36 months: dry by night 4 yrs- dry by day & night4 yrs- dry by day & night