Green Energy Opportunities in Cyprus

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WP 2 Training of trainers for participation at CTIsGreen Energy Opportunities in CyprusRenewable energy poses some unique challenges and opportunities in Cyprus.

1Dr Venizelos EfthymiouChairman of FOSS Research Centre University of Cyprusvenizelo@ucy.ac.cywww.foss.ucy.ac.cy

Green energy opportunities in Cyprus

PV Technology, University of Cyprus1

Venizelos Efthymiou (VE) - Strategy of Europe for 2020 to 2030 +

2 30% Energy Efficiency

Green energy opportunities in CyprusConclusions on 2030 Climate and Energy Policy Framework

GHG TARGET: a binding EU target of an at least 40% domestic reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 compared to 1990, the reductions in the ETS and non-ETS sectors amounting to 43% and 30% by 2030 compared to 2005, respectivelyRES TARGET: An EU target of at least 27% is set for the share of renewable energy consumed in the EU in 2030. This target will be binding at EU level.ENERGY EFFICIENCY TARGET: An indicative target at the EU level of at least 30% is set for improving energy efficiency in 2030 compared to projections of future energy consumption based on the current criteria

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The challenge of efficiency

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Green energy opportunities in Cyprus

, . . 2008, . , ,

Energy efficiency has a fundamental role to play in the transition towards a more competitive, secure and sustainable energy system with an internal energy market at its core. While energy powers our societies and economies, future growth must be driven with less energy and lowercosts. The EU can deliver this new paradigm. As the figure shows, well before the crisis hit in2008, the EU had started to decouple economic growth from energy consumption throughincreased energy efficiency. An increasing decoupling of economic growth and energyconsumption has continued since then, driven by price signals and by a comprehensive set ofenergy efficiency policies (see figure). 3

Energy in transition: Grid respondsWe are moving on a road that is characterised by fundamental changes in the energy mix; How do we transform the strategy of our countries for achieving the objectives set out collectively at European level? 4

How do we harvest the inexhaustive source of energy that is coming to us from the sun for economic and social prosperity?

Grid energy opportunities in Cyprus

Green energy opportunities in Cyprus

PV Technology, University of Cyprus4

Why Solar Energy?23/03/20175

PV Electricity Price: 9-14 c/kWhGrid Domestic Price: 18 c/kWh

Grid energy opportunities in Cyprus

Green energy opportunities in Cyprus

PV Technology, University of Cyprus5

Long-term utility-scale PV system price scenarios

Source: Fraunhofer ISE (2015): Current and Future Cost of Photovoltaics. Study on behalf of Agora Energiewende6

Grid energy opportunities in Cyprus

Green energy opportunities in Cyprus

PV Technology, University of Cyprus6

Crystalline Silicon Technology Portfolioc-Si - PV is not a Commodity, but a High-Tech Product! Material qualitydiffusion lengthbase conductivity device qualitypassivation of surfaceslow series resistancelight confinement cell structuresPERC: Passivated Emitter and Rear CellMWT: Metal Wrap ThroughIBC-BJ: Interdigitated Back Contact Back JunctionHJT: Hetero Junction Technology

Adapted from Preu et al., EU-PVSEC 2009

material quality

module efficiencyIndustryStandard

IBC-BJHJT

PERCMWT-PERC20%19%18%17%16%15%14%21%device quality

BC-HJT

Green energy opportunities in Cyprus

PV Technology, University of Cyprus7

20PV Market Growth: PV heading into the Terawatt Range!

Source: IEA 2014Rapid introduction of PV globally is fueled by availability of cost-competitive, distributed energy In 2050 between 4.000 and 30.000 GWp PV will be installed!By 2015, less than 300 GWp have been installed!

We are just at the beginning of the global growth curve!

Green energy opportunities in Cyprus

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Atmosphere/Energy Program, Dept. of Civil and Env. Engineering, Stanford UniversityInstitute of Transportation Studies, U.C. BerkeleyTechnical University of Berlin9

Green energy opportunities in CyprusDevelopment of super grids and smart grids. As soon as possible, countries should developplans for long-term power-transmission-and-distribution systems to provide smartmanagement of energy demand and supply at all scales, from local to international (e.g.,Smith et al., 2013; Blarke and Jenkins, 2013; Elliott, 2013).

100% Clean and Renewable Wind, Water, and Sunlight (WWS) All-Sector Energy Roadmaps for 139 Countries of the World

Figure 2. Mean change in 139-country end-use power demand for all purposes (electricity, transportation,heating/cooling, industry, agriculture/fishing/forestry, and other) and its supply by conventional fuels andWWS generators over time based on the 139-country roadmaps. Total power demand decreases uponconverting to WWS. The percentages next to each WWS source are final (2050) estimated percent supply ofend-use power by the source. The 100% demarcation in 2050 indicates that 100% of all-purpose power isprovided by WWS technologies by 2050, and the power demand by that time has decreased.

kilo-k or K**103210mega-M106220giga-G109230tera-T1012240peta-P1015250time has decreased.PV Technology, University of Cyprus9

Business is not as usual: A new norm is bornThrough the dynamics of RES we are re-shaping the electrical industry,We need to go beyond integration RES is not as conceived, a tolerable integration into status quo arrangements but a much smarter need, Through the adoption of these new technologies, a new norm is born that requires:10

Grid energy opportunities in Cyprus

Green energy opportunities in Cyprus

PV Technology, University of Cyprus10

Convergence between policymakers for better prices and demand reliability from System Operators

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Grid energy opportunities in Cyprus

Green energy opportunities in Cyprus

PV Technology, University of Cyprus11

Rebalancing between opportunities of developers and grid challenges of System Operators

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Grid energy opportunities in Cyprus

Green energy opportunities in Cyprus

PV Technology, University of Cyprus12

New market models for expanding the electricity business into the internet of energy

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Grid energy opportunities in Cyprus

Green energy opportunities in Cyprus

PV Technology, University of Cyprus13

Value of Grid Service: Five Primary Benefits

14The full value of a grid connection is not fully understood. Grid-provided energy (kWh) offers clearly recognized value, but grid connectivity serves roles that are important beyond providing energy. Grid capacity provides needed power for overload capacity, may absorb energy during over-generation, and supports stable voltage and frequency.

Grid energy opportunities in Cyprus

Green energy opportunities in Cyprus

PV Technology, University of Cyprus14

Grid is becoming bi-directionalTodays power system has served society well, with average annual system reliability of 99.7% + in Cyprus, in terms of electricity availability.15

The classic vision of electric power grids with one-way flow is changing. Consumers, energy suppliers, and developers increasingly are adopting DER to supplement or supplant grid-provided electricity. This is particularly notable with respect to distributed PV power generation.

Grid energy opportunities in Cyprus

Green energy opportunities in Cyprus

PV Technology, University of Cyprus15

Decarbonisation & RES

A smart approach is needed to manage the shift from centralized to dispersed energy

Distribution networks need to become smart to cope with the power decarbonisation challenge & required RES penetrationDSO16

Grid energy opportunities in Cyprus

Green energy opportunities in CyprusWe need to take smart decisions and urgently. Investments on the electrical grid are happening and they should not be like for like. Distribution networks need to become smart to cope with the power decarbonisation challenge & required RES penetration. The industry is ready to invest smartly and the manufacturers are ready to deliver but the right incentives are a must from the Regulators and the policy makers. A smart approach is needed to manage the shift from centralized to dispersed energy

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Scaling up of smart grid connectivity is flexible ...17

Green energy opportunities in CyprusDistributed resources are with us and growing. Price of electricity is the governing motive for such investments. However, they can offer much more than what is currently allowed in grid and market rules.PV Technology, University of Cyprus17

Aggregation is flexible ...18

Green energy opportunities in Cyprus

PV Technology, University of Cyprus18

Market functioning is flexible ...19

Green energy opportunities in Cyprus

PV Technology, University of Cyprus19

Market functioning through aggregators20

Green energy opportunities in CyprusMarket rules can be flexible, simple and robust but above all forward looking. Current version is an extension of business as usual that has served well the past years but not in line with the new norm that is emerging. The relatively small island of Cyprus should have market rules that are capacity driven and technology driven not energy driven, with a well balanced portfolio of ancillary services secured b