Greek heritage

(GREEK HERITAGE) Compiled by: Dimos Derventlis

Transcript of Greek heritage

  1. 1. Compiled by: Dimos Derventlis
  2. 2. , . , ( , 15 6 , ), ( , , ). Philagia , - , . 1.130 . , , . 5 .. (. 420-410 ..?), - . , , . Isolated as it is in a conserved environment, the Temple of Bassae is an outstanding example of a Hellenic votive sanctuary in a rural setting. It represents a unique artistic achievement, remarkable for its archaic features (elongated surface, an exceptional proportion of 15 columns on the longer side and 6 columns on the facade, and a north-south exposure), and for its daring innovations (the use of Ionic and Corinthian orders for a Doric edifice, the variety of materials used, and the originality of the layout of the cella and the adyton). The Temple was dedicated by the inhabitants of Philagia to Apollo Epicurius, the god-healer who had come to their aid when they were beset by the plague. Its ruins rise majestically to 1,130 m high in the mountainous region of Arcadia in the heart of the Peloponnese, near Andritsaina. Built in the second half of the 5th century BC (c. 420-410 BC?), it belongs to the first generation of post-Parthenonian edifices. Pausanias admired its beauty and harmony and, moreover, attributed it to the architect Ictinus, although contemporary archaeologists have been unable to provide confirmation.
  3. 3. . 5 ... , , , . , , , . . . 15 .. , 161 .. , . Athenian Acropolis is the supreme expression of the adaptation of architecture to a natural site. This grand composition of perfectly balanced massive structures creates a monumental landscape of unique beauty consisting of a complete series of masterpieces of the 5th century BC. The monuments of the Acropolis have exerted an exceptional influence, not only in Graeco-Roman antiquity, a time when in the Mediterranean world they were considered exemplary models, but in contemporary times as well. From myth to institutionalized cult, the Acropolis, by virtue of its precision and diversity, bears a unique testimony to the religions of ancient Greece. It is the sacred temple from which sprang fundamental legends about the city. It illustrates the civilizations of Greece over more than a millennium. From the royal palace of kings in the 15th century BC and the Pelasgic walls of the first fortification, to the Odeon constructed in AD 161 by Herod Atticus, a unique series of public monuments was built and conserved in one of the densest spaces of the Mediterranean.
  4. 4. , , , . , , 6 .., . . , - , , , ... - . , , . , . 8 .. . , , , . , , The layout of Delphi is a unique artistic achievement. Mount Parnassus is a masterpiece where a series of monuments were built whose modular elements - terraces, temples, treasuries, etc. - combine to form a strong expression of the physical and moral values of a site which may be described as magical. Situated in a magnificent natural setting which is still intact, it is an outstanding example of a great Pan-Hellenic sanctuary. During the Mycenaean period, the female deity of Earth was worshipped in the small settlement of Delphi. The development of the sanctuary and oracle were to begin in the 8th century BC with the establishment of the cult of Apollo. Under the protection and administration of the Amphictyony, the sanctuary continued to be autonomous after the First Sacred War and, as a result, increased its Pan-Hellenic religious and political influence. The Pythian Games were reorganized, the sanctuary was enlarged, and it was enriched with fine buildings, statues, and other offerings. The Pan-Hellenic sanctuary of Delphi, where the oracle of Apollo spoke, was the site of the omphalos, the 'navel of the world'. Blending harmoniously with the superb landscape and charged with sacred meaning, Delphi in the 6th century B.C. was indeed the religious center and symbol of unity of the ancient Greek world.
  5. 5. 1309-1523 . . , Great Hospital , . , , . , , . , , , . The Order of St John of Jerusalem occupied Rhodes from 1309 to 1523 and set about transforming the city into a stronghold. It subsequently came under Turkish and Italian rule. With the Palace of the Grand Masters, the Great Hospital and the Street of the Knights, the Upper Town is one of the most beautiful urban ensembles of the Gothic period. In the Lower Town, Gothic architecture coexists with mosques, public baths and other buildings dating from the Ottoman period. Rhodes is an outstanding example of an architectural ensemble illustrating the significant period of history in which a military hospital order founded during the Crusades survived in the eastern Mediterranean area in a context characterized by an obsessive fear of siege. The fortifications of Rhodes, a 'Frankish' town long considered to be impregnable, exerted an influence throughout the eastern Mediterranean basin at the end of the Middle Ages.
  6. 6. - , , . , 14 15 , , ( , ) . , , , . , 373 . , . 'Suspended in the air' (the meaning of Meteora in Greek), these monasteries represent a unique artistic achievement and are one of the most powerful examples of the architectural transformation of a site into a place of retreat, meditation and prayer. The Meteora provide an outstanding example of the types of monastic construction which illustrate a significant stage in history, that of the 14th and 15th centuries when the eremitic ideals of early Christianity were restored to a place of honour by monastic communities, both in the Western world (in Tuscany, for example) and in the Orthodox Church. Built under impossible conditions, with no practicable roads, permanent though precarious human habitations subsist to this day in the Meteora, but have become vulnerable under the impact of time. The net in which intrepid pilgrims were hoisted up vertically alongside the 373 m cliff where the Varlaam monastery dominates the valley symbolizes the fragility of a traditional way of life that is threatened with extinction.
  7. 7. 1054, . , , . ( 20 1.400 ), , . , . 33.000 , , , . ( ), ( ), . An Orthodox spiritual centre since 1054, Mount Athos has enjoyed an autonomous statute since Byzantine times. The 'Holy Mountain', which is forbidden to women and children, is also a recognized artistic site. The layout of the monasteries (about 20 of which are presently inhabited by some 1,400 monks) had an influence as far afield as Russia , and its school of painting influenced the history of Orthodox art. Cloaked by beautiful chestnut and other types of Mediterranean forest, the steep slopes of Mount Athos are punctuated by twenty imposing monasteries and their subsidiary establishments. Covering an area of just over 33,000 hectares, the property includes the entire narrow rocky strip of the easternmost of the three peninsulas of Chalcidice which jut into the Aegean Sea in northern Greece. The subsidiary establishments include sketae (daughter houses of the monasteries), kellia and kathismata (living units operated by the monks), where farming constitutes an important part of the monks everyday life.
  8. 8. 315 .. , . , . , , 4 15 , , . , David . , 4 15 . , . , , . , . Thessalonika was founded in 315 B.C., the provincial capital and sea port of Thessalonika was one of the first bases for the spread of Christianity. Among its Christian monuments are fine churches, some built on the Greek cross plan and others on the three-nave basilica plan. Constructed over a long period, from the 4th to the 15th century, they constitute a diachronic typological series, which had considerable influence in the Byzantine world. The mosaics of the rotunda, St Demetrius and St David are among the great masterpieces of early Christian art. The Christian monuments of Thessalonika are outstanding examples of churches built according to central, basilical and intermediary plans from the 4th to the 15th centuries. For this reason, they constitute a series which is a typological point of reference. The influence of the Thessalonian churches on the development of the monumental arts was considerable, first in the Byzantine and later the Serbian world, whether in the early Christian period of the high Middle Ages or the Palaeologan Renaissance. The mosaics of the Rotunda, St Demetrius and St David's are among the great masterpieces of early Christian art.
  9. 9. , , , (), 6 .., , - . , , 4 . , , . , , , , 4 .. . , , , , . In a small valley in the Peloponnesus, the shrine of Asklepios, the god of medicine, developed out of a much earlier cult of Apollo (Maleatas), during the 6th century BC at the latest, as the official cult of the city state of Epidaurus. Its principal monuments, particularly the temple of Asklepios, the Tholos and the Theatre - considered one of the purest masterpieces of Greek architecture date from the 4th century. The vast site, with its temples and hospital buildings devoted to its healing gods, provides valuable insight into the healing cults of Greek and Roman .he Theatre, the Temples of Artemis and Asclepios, the Tholos, the Enkoimeterion, and the Propylaea make the Hieron of Epidaurus an eminent example of a Hellenic architectural ensemble of the 4th century BC. In particular, the theatre, an architectural masterpiece by Polycletes the Younger of Argos, represents a unique artistic achievement through its admirable integration into the site and the perfection of its proportions and acoustics.
  10. 10. , , 1249 , William . , , 1832, . 1348-1460 . , , ( ) . , 1669, , 1687 - 1715, 1715 , , 40.000 Mystras, the 'Wonder of the Morea', was built as an amphitheatre around the fortress erected in 1249 by William of Villehardouin. Reconquered by the Byzantines, then occupied by the Turks and the Venetians, the city was abandoned in 1832, leaving only the breathtaking medieval ruins, standing in a beautiful landscape. From 1348 to 1460 Mystras became the capital of the Despotate of Morea. The beauty of the churches of Mystras, which during the Paleologus Renaissance had been covered with dramatic frescoes, the renown of the libraries of Mystras and the glory of its writers (including Georges Gemiste Plethon and Jean Bessarion who brought neo-Platonic humanism to Italy) gave substance thereafter for the legend of the 'Wonder of Morea.' Dominated by the Turks, conquered briefly by the Venetians In 1669, then occupied for a longer period from 1687 to 1715, and recaptured in 1715 by the Ottoman Empire, Mystras never recovered its past grandeur, although it still numbered some 40,000 inhabitants
  11. 11. , , . 10 .., . ( ) : (6 ..) (5 ..). . , , - 438 430 .. : tympanums , , . . , 776 .. - - . : , . The site of Olympia, in a valley in the Peloponnesus, has been inhabited since prehistoric times. In the 10th century B.C., Olympia became a centre for the worship of Zeus.. The Altis (the sanctuary to the gods) includes the ruins of the two principal temples: the Temple of Hera (6th century BC) and the Temple of Zeus (5th century BC). The sanctuary contained one of the highest concentrations of masterpieces of the ancient Mediterranean world. Many have been lost, such as the Olympian Zeus, a gold-and-ivory cult statue which was probably executed by Pheidias between 438 and 430 BC. Other masterpieces have survived: large votive Archaic bronzes, sculptures of tympanums and metopes from the Temple of Zeus, and the Hermes by Praxiteles, found along with its base in the Temple of Hera. Olympia is directly and tangibly associated with an event of universal significance. The Olympic Games were celebrated regularly beginning in 776 BC. The Olympiad - the four-year period between two successive celebrations falling every fifth year - became a chronological measurement and system of dating used in the Greek world. The significance of the Olympic Games demonstrates the lofty ideals of Hellenic humanism: peaceful and loyal competition between free and equal men, who are prepared to surpass their physical strength in a supreme effort, with their only ambition being the symbolic reward of an olive wreath.
  12. 12. 5 1,3 . . , . , , ', . , ( , ), , . , , (. 540-528 ..) . 454, , , . 426 . . , . 422 .., , . , 314, , , Lagides . , 2 1 .., 25.000. Delos is a minuscule island stretching only 5 km north to south and a scant 1.3 km from east to west. It was here, that Apollo, son of Zeus and Leto, was born: like Delphi, Delos is the major sanctuary dedicated to Apollo, the Titan god par excellence, one of the most important in the Hellenic pantheon. On the island, which had already been the site of earlier human settlements (sparse during the Neolithic age, more dense during the Mycenaean period), everything revolved around the sanctuary of Apollo, the seat of the Ionian Amphictyonia. The Naxians, the Parians, and the Athenians disputed the site, with the last-named triumphing under Pisistratus (c. 540-528 BC). They ordered the first purification of the place. In 454, the treasure of the Delian Confederacy, which replaced the Amphictyonia, was moved to Athens. In 426 a second purification decree forbade being born or dying at Delos. Pregnant women and terminally ill persons were transported to the island of Rheneia. The decision, motivated by religious reasons, was not without political considerations. In 422 BC in a move to strengthen Athenian domination, the Delians were deported en masse. Except for some short reprieves and truces, their exile lasted until 314, when Delos regained its independence in principle and again became the centre of an island confederation that was tolerated and more or less controlled by the Lagides of Egypt and later by the Macedonians. It became a very important cosmopolitan Mediterranean port ,reaching outstanding levels during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, when the average population is estimated to have been 25,000.
  13. 13. (Monasteries of Daphni, Hosios Loukas and Nea Moni of Chios)
  14. 14. ( , 11 . , , 67 , , ). . , . , . : . . Although Although geographically distant from each other (Daphni is located in Attica, 11 km from Athens; Hossios Luckas in Phocis, 67 km from the capital, and Nea Moni in the centre of the island of Chios), the three properties belong to the same typological series and share the same aesthetic characteristics. These three monasteries are outstanding examples of a type of construction characteristic of the middle period of Byzantine religious architecture. Nea Moni illustrates the simplest expression, an octagonal church with no added spaces. Hossios Luckas and Daphni are more complex: they have a central octagonal space surrounded by a series of bays that form a square. This more elaborate structure defines a hierarchy of volumes and functions and permits the implementation of an extensive iconographic and decorative plan.
  15. 15. , . . - 4 3 .., 16 .., , . , , 8 .., ? 7 . , 570 .. , 45 m 80 m. - . 100 , . , , . , , , , , 5 . Pythagoreion is a classic site from the period of Greek colonization, situated round a good natural harbour on a peninsula that is protected by steep mountains behind it. It also had the advantage of being very close to the mainland of Asia Minor. The earliest finds are pre- classical, dating back to the 4th or 3rd millennium BC, but the main settlement began in the 16th century BC, when it was colonized by Minoans from Crete, later to be supplanted by Mycenaeans. The great Temple of Hera, or Heraion, had its origins in the 8th century BC, when it was the first Greek temple to be surrounded by a peristyle of columns; its 7th century successor was also innovatory in that it was the first temple to have a double row of columns across the front. But these were surpassed by the temple begun around 570 BC by Rhoecus and Theodorus, who built a colossal structure measuring sorne 45 m by 80 m. the earliest in the new Ionic order. It was supported by at least 100 columns, whose moulded bases were turned on a lathe designed by Theodorus. Thirty years later this temple was destroyed in a Persian raid and a replacement was planned on an even vaster scale, but it was never to be completed. The complex around the Heraion includes altars, smaller temples, stoas, and statue bases, all located inside the sanctuary, along with the remains of a 5th century Christian basilica.
  16. 16. rchaeological Site of Aigai (modern name Vergina)
  17. 17. , . . (3 ..), ( ) . 300 (1100-700 ..). , (800-500 ..) . 6 5 .. . 5 , , . The ancient city in the northern foothills of the Pierian range has been identified with certainty as the capital of the kingdom of Lower Macedonia, Aigai According to tradition it was founded by Perdiccas I when the Macedonians of the Argive spread northwards over the plain of Emathia. This region was already settled in the Early Bronze Age (3rd millennium BC), as evidenced by a tumulus (grave-mound) near the river Haliakmon. The wealth and density of over three hundred grave- mounds in the cemetery of the Tumuli testifies to the importance of Aigai in the Early Iron Age (1100-700 BC). The quality of the grave-goods shows that this was a period of highly developed culture and technological skills in the community.
  18. 18. , 15 12 .. . , , . (16 ..). - , . (1580-1500 .. .) (. 1500-1400 ..) , . II - () . (.. 1400-1120 ..), . , , ? , . , , . . , The archaeological sites of Mycenae and Tiryns are the imposing ruins of the two greatest cities of the Mycenaean civilization, which dominated the eastern Mediterranean world from the 15th to the 12th century B.C. and played a vital role in the development of classical Greek culture. These two cities are indissolubly linked to the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey , which have influenced European art and literature for more than three millennia. The Mycenaean civilization developed on the Greek mainland in the late Bronze Age (16th century BC). It was essentially a continuation of the Middle Helladic culture, transformed by Minoan influences from Crete. Knowledge of its two earlier periods I (c . 1580-1500 BC) and II (c . 1500-1400 BC) comes mainly from burials, notably the shaft graves at Mycenae. Towards the end of Period II more elaborate tomb types developed - large chamber tombs for families and beehive-shaped (tholos) tombs for royalty. The apogee of the Mycenaean civilization came in Period III (c . 1400-1120 BC), when strong citadels and elaborate palaces were built. Towards the end of this period a script, known as Linear B, came into use; the language used has been shown to be an early form of Greek, confirming that the Mycenaeans were Greek speakers of Indo-European origin. The political structure was that of an autocratic monarchy, the ruler of which was known as the wanax, who administered his territory by means of a hierarchical structure of officials. There was a special class of priests and priestesses. The people were organized in an elaborate class system, and slavery was widely practised. .
  19. 19. The Historic Centre (Chor) with the Monastery of Saint-John the Theologian and the Cave of the Apocalypse on the Island of Ptmos
  20. 20. . 10 . . , , . ( ) , , . , 12 . . 88 2, , . : , 19 , . . The small island of Ptmos in the Dodecanese is reputed to be where St John the Theologian wrote both his Gospel and the Apocalypse. A monastery dedicated to the beloved disciple was founded there in the late 10th century and it has been a place of pilgrimage and Greek Orthodox learning ever since. The fine monastic complex dominates the island. The old settlement of Chor, associated with it, contains many religious and secular buildings. The Monastery of Hagios Ioannis Theologos (Saint John the Theologian) and the Cave of the Apocalypse on the island of Ptmos, together with the associated medieval settlement of Chor, constitute an exceptional example of a traditional Greek Orthodox pilgrimage centre of outstanding architectural interest. The town of Chor is one of the few settlements in Greece that have evolved uninterruptedly since the 12th century. There are few other places in the world where religious ceremonies that date back to the early Christian times are still being practised unchanged. Ptmos is the northernmost island of the Dodecanese group with an area of some 88 km2 , is largely barren, formed from three volcanic masses connected by narrow isthmuses. There are three settlements: the medieval Chor, the 19th-century harbour of Skla, and the small rural Kampos. The site selected by Christodoulos for his Monastery of Hagios Ioannis Theologos dominates the whole island.
  21. 21. , , , 8 ... , , . , , , 19 . . , . . , 8 .. . . 15 , , , . , . , Sanmicheli, . , . , -. The Old Town of Corfu, on the Island of Corfu off the western coasts of Albania and Greece, is located in a strategic position at the entrance of the Adriatic Sea, and has its roots in the 8th century BC. The three forts of the town, designed by renowned Venetian engineers, were used for four centuries to defend the maritime trading interests of the Republic of Venice against the Ottoman Empire. In the course of time, the forts were repaired and partly rebuilt several times, more recently under British rule in the 19th century. The mainly neoclassical housing stock of the Old Town is partly from the Venetian period, partly of later construction, notably the 19th century. As a fortified Mediterranean port, Corfus urban and port ensemble is notable for its high level of integrity and authenticity. The ensemble of the fortifications and the Old Town of Corfu is located in a strategic location at the entrance to the Adriatic Sea. Historically, its roots go back to the 8th century BC and to the Byzantine period. It has thus been subject to various influences and a mix of different peoples. From the 15th century, Corfu was under Venetian rule for some four centuries, then passing to French, British and Greek governments. At various occasions, it had to defend the Venetian maritime empire against the Ottoman army. Corfu was a well thought of example of fortification engineering, designed by the architect Sanmicheli, and it proved its worth through practical warfare. Corfu has its specific identity, which is reflected in the design of its system of fortification and in its neo-classical building stock. As such, it can be placed alongside other major Mediterranean fortified port cities