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GRAVITATIONAL INTERACTION OFQUANTUM LEVEL AND CONSEQUENCES

THEREOF

S. I. Fisenko and I. S. Fisenko

“Rusthermosinthes” JSC

6 Gasheka Str., 12th Storey, IC Technoprom, Moscow 125047

e-mail: [email protected]

(Received 23 June 2009; accepted 1 September 2009)

Abstract

Parity no conservation in the β-decay processes is con-sidered as fundamental property of weak interactions. Nev-ertheless, this property can be treated as anomaly, becausein fundamental interactions of the rest types parity is con-served. Analogously, anomaly in the short-duration strong-current pulse discharges is well known. The essence of thisphenomenon consists in generation of local high-temperatureplasma formations with the typical values of its thermo dy-namical parameters exceeding those related to the central sec-tion of a discharge. In this paper, an attempt is undertaken totreat these anomalies as manifestation of fundamental prop-erties of gravitational emission. Some consequences of thisassumption can be tested in the β-decay experiments as wellas in the experiments with short-duration z-pinch-type pulsedischarges.

Concepts of Physics, Vol. VI, No. 4 (2009)DOI: 10.2478/v10005-009-0010-5

495

The notion of gravitational emission as an emission of thesame level with electromagnetic emission is based on the provenfact of existence of electron’s stationary states in its own gravi-tational field, characterized by gravitational constant K=1042G(G – Newton’s gravitational constant).

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1 Gravitational emission of electrons witha banded spectrum as emission of the same levelwith electromagnetic emission.

For a mathematical model of interest, which describes a bandedspectrum of stationary states of electrons in the proper gravitationalfield, two aspects are of importance. First. In Einstein’s field equa-tions κ is a constant which relates the space-time geometrical prop-erties with the distribution of physical matter, so that the origin ofthe equations is not connected with the numerical limitation of the κvalue. Only the requirement of conformity with the Newtonian Clas-sical Theory of Gravity leads to the small value κ = 8πG/c4, whereG, c are, respectively, the Newtonian gravitational constant and thevelocity of light. Such requirement follows from the primary conceptof the Einstein General Theory of Relativity (GR) as a relativisticgeneralization of the Newtonian Theory of Gravity. Second. Themost general form of relativistic gravitation equations are equationswith the Λ term. The limiting transition to weak fields leads to theequation

∆Φ = −4πρG+ Λc2,

where Φ is the field scalar potential, ρ is the source density. Thiscircumstance, eventually, is crucial for neglecting the Λ term, becauseonly in this case the GR is a generalization of the Classical Theoryof Gravity. Therefore, the numerical values of κ = 8πG/c4 and Λ= 0 in the GR equations are not associated with the origin of theequations, but follow only from the conformity of the GR with theclassical theory.

From the 70’s onwards, it became obvious [1] that in the quantumregion the numerical value of G is not compatible with the principlesof quantum mechanics. In a number of papers [1] (including also[2]) it was shown that in the quantum region the coupling constantK (K ≈1040 G) is acceptable. The essence of the problem of thegeneralization of relativistic equations on the quantum level was thusoutlined: such generalization must match the numerical values of thegravity constants in the quantum and classical regions.

In the development of these results, as a micro-level approxima-tion of Einstein’s field equations, a model is proposed, based on thefollowing assumption:

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”The gravitational field within the region of localization of an el-ementary particle having a mass m0 is characterized by the valuesof the gravity constant K and of the constant Λ that lead to the sta-tionary states of the particle in its proper gravitational field, and theparticle stationary states as such are the sources of the gravitationalfield with the Newtonian gravity constant G”.

The most general approach in the Gravity Theory is the one whichtakes twisting into account and treats the gravitational field as a gagefield, acting on equal terms with other fundamental fields ([3]). Suchapproach lacks in apriority gives no restrictions on the microscopiclevel. For an elementary spinor source with a mass m0, the set ofequations describing its states in the proper gravitational field inaccordance with the adopted assumption will have the form

{iγµ(∇µ + κΨγµγ5Ψ)γ5)−m0c/h

}Ψ = 0, (1)

Rµν −1

2gµνR = −κ {Tµν(En)− µgµν + (gµνSαS

α − SµSν)} , (2)

R(K,Λ, En, rn) = R(G,E′n, rn), (3)

{iγµ∇µ −mnc/h}Ψ′ = 0, (4)

Rµν −1

2gµνR = −κ′T ′µν(E′n) (5)

The following notations are used throughout the text of the paper: κ= 8πK/c4, κ’ = = 8πG/c4, En is the energy of stationary states in theproper gravitational field with the constantK, Λ = κµ, rn is the valueof the coordinate r satisfying the equilibrium n-state in the propergravitational field, κ = κ0κ, κ0 is the dimensionality constant, Sa =Ψγaγ5Ψ,∇µ is the spinor-coupling covariant derivative independentof twisting, E′n is the energy state of the particle having a mass mn

(either free of field or in the external field), described by the wavefunction ψ′ in the proper gravitational field with the constant G. Therest of the notations are generally adopted in the gravitation theory.

Equations (1) through (5) describe the equilibrium states of par-ticles (stationary states) in the proper gravitational field and definethe localization region of the field characterized by the constant thatsatisfies the equilibrium state. These stationary states are sources ofthe field with the constant G,and condition (3) provides matching the

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solution with the gravitational constants and G.The proposed modelin the physical aspect is compatible with the principles of quantummechanics principles, and the gravitational field with the constantsand Λ at a certain, quite definite distance specified by the equilibriumstate transforms into the filed having the constant Gand satisfying,in the weak field limit, the Poisson equation.

The set of equations (1) through (5), first of all, is of interest forthe problem of stationary states, i.e., the problem of energy spectrumcalculations for an elementary source in the own gravitational field.In this sense it is reasonable to use an analogy with electrodynam-ics, in particular, with the problem of electron stationary states inthe Coulomb field. Transition from the Schrodinger equation to theKlein-Gordon relativistic equations allows taking into account thefine structure of the electron energy spectrum in the Coulomb field,whereas transition to the Dirac equation allows taking into accountthe relativistic fine structure and the energy level splitting associ-ated with spin-orbital interaction. Using this analogy and the formof equation (1), one can conclude that solution of this equation with-out the term κΨγµγ5Ψγ5 gives a spectrum similar to that of the finestructure (similar in the sense of relativism and removal of the prin-cipal quantum number deµgeneracy).. Taking the term κΨγµγ5Ψγ5

into account, as is noted in [1], is similar to taking into account of theterm ΨoµνΨFµν in the Pauli equation. The latter implies that thesolution of the problem of stationary states with twisting taken intoaccount will give a total energy-state spectrum with both the rela-tivistic fine structure and energy state splitting caused by spin-twistinteraction taken into account. This fact, being in complete accordwith the requirements of the Gauge Theory of Gravity, allows us tobelieve that the above-stated assumptions concern ing the propertiesof the gravitational field in the quantum region are relevant, in thegeneral case, just to the gravitational field with twists.

Complexity of solving this problem compels us to employ a simplerapproximation, namely,: energy spectrum calculations in a relativis-tic fine-structure approximation. In this approximation the problemof the stationary states of an elementary source in the proper gravi-tational field well be reduced to solving the following equations:

f ′′ +

(ν′ − λ′

2+

2

r

)f ′ + eλ

(K2ne−ν −K2

0 −l(l + 1)

r2

)f = 0, (6)

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S. I. Fisenko and I. S. Fisenko

−e−λ(

1

r2− λ′

r

)+

1

r2+ Λ = β(2l + 1)×

×{f2

[e−λK2

n +K20 +

l(l + 1)

r2

]+ f ′

2e−λ

}(7)

−eλ(

1

r2+ν′

r

)+

1

r2+ Λ = β(2l + 1)×

×{f2

[K2

0 −K2ne−ν +

l(l + 1)

r2

]− eλf ′2

}, (8)

{−1

2(ν′′ + ν′

2)− (λ′ + ν′)

(ν′

4+

1

r

)+

1

r2(1 + e2)

}|r=rn = 0, (9)

f(0) = const <<∞, (10)

f(rn) = 0, (11)

λ(0) = ν(0), (12)

rn∫

0

f2r2dr = 1. (13)

Equations (6)-(8) follow from equations (14)-( 15)

{−gµν ∂

∂xµ

∂

∂xν+ gµρΓαρν

∂

∂xα−K2

0

}Ψ = 0, (14)

Rµν −1

2gµνR = −κ (Tµν − µgµν) (15)

after the substitution of Ψ in the form: Ψ = fEl(r)Ylm(θ, φ)exp(− iEth

)

into them and specific computations in the central-symmetry fieldmetric with the interval defined by the expression [4]

ds2 = c2eνdt2 − r2(dθ2 + sin2θdφ2)− eλdr2. (16)

The following notation is used above: fm is the radial wave functionthat describes the states with a definite energy E and the orbitalmomentum l (hereafter the subscripts Elare omitted), Ylm(θ, ϕ) arespherical functions, Kn = En/hc,K0 = cm0/h, β = (κ/4π)h/m0).

Condition (9) defines rn,, whereas equations (10) through (12)are the boundary conditions and the normalization condition for the

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function f, respectively. Condition (9) in the general case has theform R(K, rn) = R(G,rn).Neglecting the proper gravitational fieldwith the constant G,we shall write down this condition as R(K, rn)= 0, to which equality (9) actually corresponds.

The right-hand sides of equations (7)-(8) are calculated basingon the general expression for the energy-momentum tensor of thecomplex scalar field:

Tµν = Ψ+,µΨ,ν + Ψ+

,νΨ,µ −(Ψ+,µΨ,µ −K2

0Ψ+Ψ). (17)

The appropriate components Tµν are obtained by summation overthe index mwith application of characteristic identities for sphericalfunctions [5] after the substitution of Ψ = f(r)Ylm(θ, ϕ)exp

(−iETh

)

into (17).Even in the simplest approximation the problem of the stationary

states of an elementary source in the proper gravitational field is acomplicated mathematical problem. It becomes simpler if we confineourselves to estimating only the energy spectrum. Equation (6) canbe reduced in many ways to the equations [6]

f ′ = fP (r) +Q(r)z, z′ = fF (r) + S(r)z. (18)

This transition implies specific choice of P, Q, F, S, such that theconditions

P + S +Q′/Q+ g = 0, FQ+ P ′ + P 2 + Pg + h = 0 (19)

should be fulfilled, where gand hcorrespond to equation (6) writtenin the form: f” + gf ′ + hf = Q. Conditions (19) are satisfied, inparticular, by P, Q,, F, S written as follows:

Q = 1, P = S = −g/2, F =1

2g′ +

1

4g2 − h. (20)

Solutions of set (18) will be the functions: [6]

f = Cρ(r)sinθ(r), c = Cρ(r)cosθ(r), (21)

where C is an arbitrary constant, θ(r) is the solution of the equation:

θ′ = Qcos2θ + (P − S)sinθcosθ − Fsin2θ (22)

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and ρ(r) is found from the formula

ρ(r) = exp

r∫

0

[Psin2θ + (Q+ F )sinθcosθ + Scos2θ]dr (23)

In this case, the form of presentation of the solution in polar coor-dinates makes it possible to determine zeros of the functions f(r) atr = rn with corresponding values of θ = nπ (n being an integer).As one of the simplest approximations for ν, λ we shall choose thedependence:

eν = e−λ = 1− rnr + C1

+ Λ(r − C2)2 + C3r, (24)

where

rn =2Kmn

c2=

2KEnc4

=

(2Kh

c3

)Kn, C1 =

rnΛr2

n

, C2 = rn,

C3 =r − n

rn(rn + C1).

Earlier the estimate for K was adopted to be K ≈ 1.7 × 1029

Nm2kg−2. If we assume that the observed value of the electron restmass m1 is its mass in the ground stationary state in the proper grav-itational field, then mo = m1/3. From dimensionality considerationsit follows that energy in the bound state is defined by the expression(√Km0

)2/r1 = 0.17× 106 × 1.6× 10−19 J, where r1 is the classical

electron radius. This leads to the estimate K ≈ 5.1× 1031Nm2kg−2

which is later adopted as the starting one. It is known that by use

of the dependence E0 = e2

r0= mc2[7] for the impulse we receive the

expression Pi = 43E0

c2 vi, that is differentiated by the multiplier 4/3from the correct expression for the impulse of the particles, the massof which is m = E0

c2 . It is this fact that points at the correctnessof the estimates received for the electron, because the lacking partof the energy is in the bound state. Discrepancies in the estimatesK obtained by different methods are quite admissible, all the moreso since their character is not catastrophic. From the condition thatµ is the electron energy density it follows: µ = 1.1 × 1030J/m3,

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Λ = κµ = 4.4 × 1029m−2. From (22) (with the equation for f(r)taken into account) it follows:

2θ′ = (1 + F ) + (1 + F )cos2θ ≈ (1− F ), (25)

where

F =1

2g′ +

1

4g2 − h, g = rn

(2

r+ν′ − λ′

2

),

h = r2neλ

(K2ne−ν −K2

0 −l(l + 1)

r2

).

The integration of equation (25) and substitution of θ = πn, r=rn give the relation between Kn and rn:

−2πn = −7

4−rnK

2n

Λ2

3∑

i=1

{Ai

[(rn + αi)

2

2− 2αi(rn + αi) +

α3

(rn + αi)+

+2C1(rn + αi) + 2C1α2i

rn + αi+

C22αi

rn + αi

]+Bi

[9rn + αi) +

α2i

rn + αi+

2C1αirn + αi

− C22

rn + αi

]}+K2

0rnΛ2

3∑

i=1

A′i(rn + αi) +rnl(l + 1)

Λ×

×[d1rn −

C1d2

rn+

3∑

i=1

ai(rn + αi)

]− K2

nrnΛ2

{3∑

i=1

[2α2

iAi − 2αiBi+

−4C1Aiαi + 2C1Bi + C22Ai +

K20ΛA′iK2n

(αi − C1)+

−r2nΛl(l + 1)ai(C1 − αi

]ln(rn+αi)− rnΛ−1l(l + 1)(d2 + C1d1)lnrn

}

(26)The coefficients entering into equation (26) are coefficients at simplefractions in the expansion of polynomials, required for the integra-tion, wherein αi ∼ Kn, d2 ∼ Ai ∼ r−5

n , Bi ∼ r−4n ,

A′i ∼ r−2n , ai ∼ r−4

n , d1 = r−4n . For eliminating rn from (26),

there exists condition (9) (or the condition exp ν(K, rn) = 1 equiv-alent to it for the approximation employed), but its direct use willcomplicate the already cumbersome expression (26) still further. Atthe same time, it easy to note that rn ∼ 10−3 rnc, where rnc is

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S. I. Fisenko and I. S. Fisenko

the Compton wavelength of a particle of the mass mn, and, hence,rn ∼ 10−3 K−1

n .The relation (26) per se is rather approximate,but, nevertheless, its availability, irrespective of the accuracy of theapproximation, implies the existence of an energy spectrum as a con-sequence of the particle self-interaction with its own gravitationalfield in the range r ≤ rn, where mutually compensating action ofthe field and the particle takes place. With l = 0 the approximate so-lution (26), with the relation between rn and Kn taken into account,has the form

En = E0

(1 + αe−βn

)−1, (27)

where α = 1.65, β = 1.60.The relation (27) is concretized, proceeding from the assumption

that the observed value of the electron rest mass is the value of itsmass in the grounds stationary state in the proper gravitational field,the values r1 = 2.82 x 10−15 m,Kl =0.41 x 1012 m−1 giving exactzero of the function by the very definition of the numerical values forand Λ.

So, the presented numerical estimates for the electron show thatwithin the range of its localization, with K∼ 1031N m2 kg−2 and Λ ∼1029m−2, there exists the spectrum of stationary states in the prpergravitational field. The numerical value of K is, certainly, universalfor any elementary source. Existence of such numerical value Λ de-notes a phenomenon having a deep physical sense: introduction intodensity of the Lagrange function of a constant member independenton a state of the field. This means that the time-space has an inherentcurving which is connected with neither the matter nor the gravita-tional waves. The distance at which the gravitational field with theconstant is localized is less than the Compton wavelength, and forthe electron, for example, this value is of the order of its classicalradius. At distances larger than this one, the gravitational field ischaracterized by the constant G,i.e., correct transition to ClassicalGTR holds.

From equation (27) there follow in a rough approximation thenumerical values of the stationary state energies: E1 =0.511 MeV,E2

=0.638 MeV,...E∞ =0.681 MeV.The existence of stationary states in own gravitational field also

completely corresponds the special relativity theory. According toSRT, relativistic link between energy and impulse is broken, if we

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Gravitational interaction of quantum level and consequences thereof

assume that full electron’s energy is defined only by Lawrence’s elec-tromagnetic energy [7]. If to expand the situation it is as follows [7].Energy and impulse of the moving electron (with the assumption thatthe distribution of the electric charge is spherically symmetrical) isdefined by expression:

P = V43E0

/c2√

1− β2(28)

E =E0(1 + 1

3V2/c2)√

1− β2(29)

If these expressions were at the same time defining full impulse andfull energy, the following relation would take place:

E =

∫(V

dP

dt)dt (30)

However this relation cannot take place as integral in the right partequals to:

43E0√1− β2

+ const (31)

If we find that impulse contrary to the energy has strictly electro-magnetic character, then to E′ of the moving and full energy E′0 ofthe resting electron, and also to rest mass E0, following relators willtake place:

E′ =E′0√

1− β2, E′0 =

4

3E0, m0 =

E′0c2

=4

3

E0

c2, (32)

where rest mass m0 is defined by following expression:

P =m0V√1− β2

(33)

Then from eq.(33) it follows that full energy of resting electron equalsto 4

3 of its Lawrence’s electromagnetic energy. Numeric data of theelectron’s stationary states spectrum in own gravitational field fullycorrespond to it.

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Quantum transitions over stationary states must lead to the grav-itational emission characterized by the constant Kwith transitionenergies starting from 127 keV to 170 keV Two circumstances areessential here.

First. The correspondence between the electromagnetic and grav-itational interaction takes place on replacement of the electric chargee by the gravitational ”charge” m

√K, so that the numerical val-

ues K place the electromagnetic and gravitational emission effects onthe same level (for instance, the electromagnetic and gravitationalbremsstrahlung cross-sections will differ only by the factor 0.16 inthe region of coincidence of the emission spectra).

Second. The natural width of the energy levels in the above-indicated spectrum of the electron stationary states will be very small.The small value of the energy level widths, compared to the elec-tron energy spread in real conditions, explains why the gravitationalemission effects are not observed as a mass phenomenon in epiphe-nomena, e.g., in the processes of electron beam bremsstrahlung ontargets. However, there is a possibility of registration of gravitationalemission spectrum lines. The results are given below. There is cer-tain analytic interest in β-decay processes with asymmetry of emittedelectrons [8], due to (as it is supposed to be) parity violation in weakinteractions. β - asymmetry in angular distribution of electrons wasregistered for the first time during experiments with polarized nucle-uses 27

60, β-spectrum of which is characterized by energies of MeV.If in the process of β-decay exited electrons are born, then along withdecay scheme

n→ p+ e− + ν (34)

there will be also decay scheme

n→ p+ (e∗)− + ν → e− + γ + ν, (35)

where γ is the graviton.Decay (35) is energetically limited by energy values of 1 MeV

order (in rough approximation), taking into consideration that thedifference between lower excitation level of electron’s energy (in owngravitational field) and general <100 keV and the very character β-spectrum. Consequently, 27

60 nucleuses decay can proceed with equal

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probability as it is described in scheme (34) or in scheme (35). Forthe light nucleuses, such as 1

3 β-decay can only proceed as it isdescribed in scheme (34). At the same time, emission of graviton byelectron in magnetic field can be exactly the reason for β-asymmetryin angular distribution of electrons. If so, then the phenomenon of β-asymmetry will not be observed in light β-radioactive nucleuses. Thiswould mean that β-asymmetry in angular distribution of electrons,which is interpreted as parity violation, is the result of electron’sgravitational emission, which should be manifested in existence oflower border β-decay, as that’s where β-asymmetry appears to be.

2 Gravitational Emission in Dense HighTemperature Plasma

2.1 Excitation of Gravitational Emission in Plasma

For the above-indicated energies of transitions over stationarystates in the own field and the energy level widths, the sole object inwhich gravitational emission can be realized as a mass phenomenonwill be, as follows from the estimates given below, a dense high-temperature plasma.

Using the Born approximation for the bremsstrahlung cross-sect-ion, we can write down the expression for the electromagnetic brems-strahlung per unit of volume per unit of time as

Qe =32

3

z2r20

137mc2 ne ni

√2k Teπm

= 0.17× 10−39z2neni√Te, (36)

where Te, k, ni, ne, m, z, ro are the electron temperature, Boltz-mann’s constant, the concentration of the ionic and electronic com-ponents, the electron mass, the serial number of the ionic component,the classical electron radius, respectively.

Replacing ro by rg = 2K m/c2 (which corresponds to replacing

the electric charge e by the gravitational charge m√K, we can use

for the gravitational bremsstrahlung the relation

Qg = 0.16Qe. (37)

From eq.(8) it follows that in a dense high-temperature plasma withparameters ne = ni = 1023 m−3, Te = 107K, the specific power of

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the electromagnetic bremsstrahlung is equal to ≈ 0.53 1010 J/m3 s,and the specific power of the gravitational bremsstrahlung is 0.86109 J/m3 s. These values of the plasma parameters, apparently, canbe adopted as guide threshold values of an appreciable gravitationalemission level, because the relative proportion of the electrons whoseenergy on the order of the energy of transitions in the own gravita-tional field, diminishes in accordance with the Maxwellian distribu-tion exponent as Te decreases.

2.2 Amplification of Gravitational Emission in Plasma

For the numerical values of the plasma parameters Te = Ti =(107−108K, ne = ni = (1023−1025)m−3 the electromagnetic brems-strahlung spectrum will not change essentially with Compton scat-tering of electron emission, and the bremsstrahlung itself is a sourceof emission losses of a high-temperature plasma. The frequenciesof this continuous spectrum are on the order of (1018 − 1020)s−1,while the plasma frequency for the above-cited plasma parameters is(1013 − 1014)s−1, or 0.1 eV of the energy of emitted quanta.

The fundamental distinction of the gravitational bremsstrahlungfrom the electromagnetic bremsstrahlung is the banded spectrum of thegravitational emission, corresponding to the spectrum of the electronstationary states in the own gravitational field.

The presence of cascade transitions from the upper excited levelsto the lower ones will lead to that the electrons, becoming excited inthe energy region above 100 keV, will be emitted, mainly, in the eVregion, i.e., energy transfer along the spectrum to the low-frequencyregion will take place. Such energy transfer mechanism can take placeonly in quenching spontaneous emission from the lower electron en-ergy levels in the own gravitational field, which rules out emissionwith quantum energy in the keV region. A detailed description of themechanism of energy transfer along the spectrum will hereafter giveits precise numerical characteristics. Nevertheless, undoubtedly, thevery fact of its existence, conditioned by the banded character of thespectrum of the gravitational bremsstrahlung, can be asserted. Thelow-frequency character of the gravitational bremsstrahlung spec-trum will lead to its amplification in plasma by virtue of the lockingcondition ωg ≤ 0.5

√103ne being fulfilled.

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Gravitational interaction of quantum level and consequences thereof

From the standpoint of practical realization of the states of ahigh-temperature plasma compressed by the emitted gravitationalfield, two circumstances are of importance.

First. Plasma must comprise two components, with multiplycharged ions added to hydrogen, these ions being necessary for quench-ing spontaneous emission of electrons from the ground energy levelsin the own gravitational field. For this purpose it is necessary to haveions with the energy levels of electrons close to the energy levels offree excited electrons. Quenching of the lower excited states of theelectrons will be particularly effective in the presence of a resonancebetween the energy of excited electron and the energy of electronexcitation in the ion (in the limit, most favorable case — ionizationenergy). An increase of z increases also the specific power of the grav-itational bremsstrahlung, so that on the condition ωg ≤ 0.5

√103ne

being fulfilled, the equality of the gas-kinetic pressure and the radia-tion pressure

k(neTe + niTi) = 0.16(0.1710−39z2neni√Te)∆t (38)

will take place at∆t = (10−6 − 10−7)s

for the permissible parameter values of compressed plasma ne = (1+ a) ni = (1025 — 1026) m−3, a > 2, Te ≈ Te = 108K, z >10.

Second. The necessity of plasma ejection from the region of themagnetic field with the tentative parameters ne = (1023 — 1024)m−3, Te = (107 — 108) K with subsequent energy pumping from themagnetic field region.

2.3 A series of actions required for obtaining steady statesof dense-high temperature plasma

• Forming and accelerating binary plasma with multivalent ionsby accelerating magnetic field in a pulse high-current discharge.

• Injection of binary plasma from the space of the acceleratingmagnetic field:

exciting stationary states of an electron in its own gravitational fieldin the range of energy up to 171 keV with following radiation (Fig.

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S. I. Fisenko and I. S. Fisenko

1) under the condition of quenching lower excited energy levels ofion electron shell of a heavy component (Fig. 2, including quenchingexcited state of electrons directly in nuclei of small sequential numberas carbon) when retarding plasma bunch ejected from the space ofthe accelerating magnetic field. Cascade transitions from the upperlevels are realized in the process of gravitational radiation energytransit to long-wave range.

The sequence of the operations is carried out in a two-sectionalchamber (Fig. 3); the structure of the installation is most suitablefor the claimed method of forming steady states of the dense high-temperature plasma [9]) with magnetodynamic outflow of plasmaand further conversion of the plasma bunch energy (in the processof quenching) in the plasma heat energy for securing both furtherplasma heating and exciting gravitational radiation and its transitinto a long-wave part of the spectrum with consequent plasma com-pression in the condition of radiation blocking and increasing.

Figure 1: Graviton emission when quenching an electron in a nucleus.

Of interest there are two modes of the installation operations de-pending on the work gas composition:

• a composition with hydrogen and xenon providing only forachieving steady states of plasma with consequent realizationof thermonuclear reactions for compositions of (d+t) + multi-charge atoms type;

• a composition with hydrogen and carbon providing thermonu-clear reactions of carbon cycle in plasma steady state mode,including energy pick-up in the form of electromagnetic radia-tion energy.

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Figure 2: Quenching lower excited states of electron by: a) many-electron ions (photoelectric effect with release of one electron or au-toionization (Auger effect) with release of two electrons dependingon the ion number and quenching energy); b) nuclei without electronshells when an excited electron returns to normal state transferringexcess energy directly to the nucleus with higher probability for thelover energy levels of excited electrons.

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Figure 3: Forming of stable states of dense high-temperature plasma:the scheme

3 Experimental data

3.1 Registration of electron gravitational radiation linesand energy spectrum in their own gravitational field:

It is known that the form of free neutron decay β-spectrum satis-factorily corroborates theoretical dependence for allowed transitionsexcept soft parts of β-spectrum. Corresponding theoretical and ex-perimental spectra are shown in Figs. 4, 5. The soft part of thespectrum is clearly linear exactly corresponding (taking into accountkinetic energy of an outgoing electron) to the spectrum of electronsteady states in its own gravitational field in then range of the steadystate energies up to 171 keV.

In independent experiments [12] when at the same time electronenergy distribution after electron beam passing through a foil wasregistered, clearly line energy spectrum was observed: Fig. 6(a).The line radiation spectrum is also clearly seen: Fig. 6(b) whichcan not be explained only by the presence of accelerated electrongroups. The quantitative identification of the spectrum requires moreprecise and broad measurements including identification algorithmof energy spectrum quantitative values relating directly to steady

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Figure 4: Beta-spectrum of free neutron decay obtained by Robson[10]. The strait line is Fermi graph, the experimental data pointsaccording to Robson [10].

Figure 5: Beta-spectrum of free neutron decay obtained by Chris-tensen et al. [11]. The curve corresponds to a theoretical spectrumcorrected for spectrometer energy resolution.

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states of electrons. Nevertheless, registered the line type of electronenergy spectrum and corresponding line electron radiation spectrumpreliminary corroborate as a rough approximation the very fact ofelectron steady states in their own gravitational field exactly in theenergy range up to 171 keV.

Figure 6: Energy distribution of (a) electrons and (b) X-ray quanta[12]

It is obvious that these data need to be supplemented with directexperimental identification both regarding both electron gravitationalradiation spectrum lines and electron steady state energy spectrum

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in its own gravitational field. Fig. 7 shows electron beam energyspectra in a pulse accelerator measured by a semicircular magneticspectrometer. Two peaks of the energy spectra are connected to thefeature of the pulse accelerator operations, the secondary pulse is dueto lower voltage. This leads to the second (low-energy) maximum ofthe energy spectrum distribution.

A telemetry error in the middle and soft parts of the spectrumis not more than ± 2%. The magnetic spectrometer was used formeasuring the energy spectrum of electrons after passing throughthe accelerator anode grid and also spectra of electrons after passingthough a foil arranged behind the accelerator mesh anode. Thesedata (and the calculated spectrum) are presented in Fig. 7. Simi-lar measurements were carried out for Ti foil (foil thickness 50 µm)and Ta (foil thickness 10 µm). In case of Ti the measurements werelimited from the top by energy of 0.148 MeV, and in case of TA byenergy of 0.168 MeV. Above these values the measurement errors in-crease substantially (for this type of the accelerator). The differencebetween the normalized spectral densities of theoretical and experi-mental electron spectra after passing through Ti, Ta and Al foils isshown on Fig.9. The data indicate that there is a spectrum of elec-tron energy states in their own gravitational field when the electronsare excited when passing through a foil. The obtained data are notsufficient for numerical spectrum identification but the very fact ofthe spectrum presence according to the data is doubtless.

3.2 Micropinch plasma electron gravitational radiation inpulse high-current discharges

The concept of a thermonuclear reactor on the principle of com-pressing dense high-temperature plasma by emitted gravitational fieldis supported by the processes of micropinching multicharged ion plas-ma in pulse high-current diodes. Figs 9, 10(a) show characteristicparts of micropinch soft X-ray radiation spectrum. Micropinch spec-trum line widening does not correspond to existing electromagneticconceptions but corresponds to such plasma thermodynamic stateswhich can only be obtained with the help of compression by grav-itational field, radiation flashes of which takes place during plasmathermalization in a discharge local space. Such statement is based on

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Figure 7: Electron energy spectra: 1 – after passing the grid, 2 – afterpassing the Al foil 13 µm thick; 3 – spectrum calculation accordingto ELIZA program based on the database [13] for each spectrum 1.The spectrum is normalized by the standard.

Figure 8: Difference of spectral density for theoretical and experi-mental spectra of electrons passed through Ti, Ta and Al foils.

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the comparison of experimental and expected parts of the spectrumshown in Fig. 10(a,b). Adjustment of the expected spectrum portionto the experimental one [15] was made by selecting average valuesof density ρ, electron temperature Te and velocity gradient U of thesubstance hydrodynamic motion.

As a mechanism of spectrum lines widening, a Doppler, radiationand impact widening were considered. Such adjustment accordingto said widening mechanisms does not lead to complete reproductionof the registered part of the micropinch radiation spectrum. Thisis the evidence (under the condition of independent conformationof the macroscopic parameters adjustment) of additional wideningmechanism existence due to electron excited states and correspond-ing gravitational radiation spectrum part already not having clearlyexpressed lines because of energy transfer in the spectrum to thelong-wave area.

That is to say that the additional mechanism of spectral lineswidening of the characteristic electromagnetic radiation of multiple-charge ions (in the conditions of plasma compression by radiatedgravitational field) is the only and unequivocal way of quenching elec-trons excited states at the radiating energy levels of ions and excitingthese levels by gravitational radiation at resonance frequencies. Suchincrease in probability of ion transitions in other states results in ad-ditional spectral lines widening of the characteristic radiation. Thereason for quick degradation of micropinches in various pulse high-currency discharges with multiple-charge ions is also clear. There isonly partial thermolization of accelerated plasma with the power ofgravitational radiation not sufficient for maintaining steady states.

The firm line in variant (b) corresponds to density of 0.1 g/cm3 ,the dotted line – to 0.01 g/cm3; it was assumed that Te = 0.35 keV,[15].

It should be noted that widening of the spectral characteristicof the electromagnetic radiation [16] gave rise to a wrong conclusionabout abnormal increase of the energy conservation law, while thewidening of the spectral lines has a distinct and explicable nature, asstated above.

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Figure 9: A part of vacuum sparkle spectrum and a correspondingpart of solar flare spectrum. [14].

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Figure 10: Experimental (a) and calculated (b) parts of a micropinchspectrum normalized for line Lyβ intensity in the area of the basicstate ionization threshold of He-like ions.

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3.3 Thermonuclear plasma steady states generation

Available experimental data show that they can be reproducedin an active experiment directly with thermonuclear plasma on theground of existence of gravitational radiation narrow-band spectrumin the range up to 171 keV with long-wave spectrum part realized bycascade electron transitions from the upper energy levels. Quenchinglower excited states of electrons on the electron shell energy levelsof heavy component ions in combination with cascade transitionswill result in plasma compression in the conditions of blockage andgravitational radiation intensification.

Operation capacity of the chamber according to the scheme shownon Fig.3 with deuterium-tritium composition was tested experimen-tally. The obtained experimental data of plasma compression in thechamber [17]; however the holding time is not sufficient, there needto be longer holding time. The choice of such design as a design fora thermonuclear reactor is unequivocal since it is completely corre-sponds to the system of exciting and amplifying gravitational radia-tion when plasma is thermolized after outflow from the nozzle, andrequired additional compression actually takes place when the work-ing plasma composition is changed (many-electron ions) and current-voltage characteristic of the charge changes correspondingly.

References

[1] Siravam C. and Sinha K., Phys. Rep. 51 (1979) 112.

[2] Fisenko S. et all, Phys. Lett. A, 148,8,9 (1990) 405.

[3] Ivanenko D.D. et al. Guage Theory of Gravity, Moscow, MGUPublishing House (1985).

[4] Landau L.D. and Lifshitz E.M., Field Theory, Moscow, Publish-ing House “Nauka” (1976).

[5] Warshalovich D.A. et al. Quantum Theory of Angular Momen-tum, Leningrad, Publishing House “Nauka” (1975).

[6] Kamke E. Hand-book on Ordinary Differential Equations,Moscow, Publishing House “Nauka” (1976).

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[7] W. Pauli: Theory of Relativity; Pergamon Press; 1958.

[8] Wu Z. S., Moshkovsky S. A., β-Decay, Atomizdat, Moscow(1970).

[9] Fisenko S., Fisenko I., PCT Gazette 46(2005) 553 (IPNWO2005/109970A1).

[10] J. Robson, ibid, p.311;

[11] C. Christensen et al. Phys. Rew. D5, 1628 (1972);

[12] V. F. Tarasenko, S. I. Yakovenko,http://zhurnal.ape.relarn.ru/articles/2006/146.pdf

[13] D. E. Cullen et al., Report IAEA – NDS-158, September (1994);

[14] E.Ya. Goltz, I.A. Zhitnik, E.Ya. Kononov, S.L. Mandelshtam,Yu.V. Sidelnikov, DAN USSR, Ser. Phys., 1975, V. 220, p. 560);

[15] V.Yu. Politov, A.V. Potapov, L.V. Antonova, Proceeding of In-ternational Conference “V Zababakhin Scientific Proceedings”(1998);

[16] M.G. Haines et al., PRL, 96, 075003 (2006);

[17] R. Lindemuth at al., PRL, v.75, #10, p1953 (1995).

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Comment

Comment onGRAVITATIONAL INTERACTION OF

QUANTUM LEVEL AND CONSEQUENCESTHEREOF

Vladimir V. Nesterenko

Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics

Joint Institute for Nuclear Research

Dubna, Russia

The article poses in a new way the problem of the self energy ofelementary particle (electron) when taking into account the gravita-tional field connected with this particle. Namely, the authors considerthe energy levels of an electron in its own gravitational field. Assum-ing that at short distances the gravitational field is characterized byan extremely large gravitational constant G, the authors arrive atthe spectrum of stationary quantum states which can be occupied byan electron. It is worth reminding that usually the field (electromag-netic, gravitational, and so on) generated by an elementary particleis expected to contribute to physical characteristics of the particle,specifically, to its mass, spin, electric and magnetic moments and soon.

It is this new point of view on the elementary particle self en-ergy that forms the rational kernel of this article. Certainly, theauthors justification of their assumption concerning the value of G is

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Comment

not convincining. However this hypothesis is non physically absurdbecause one usually believes that the gravitational interaction shouldbe strong at the Planck scales.

The attempts undertaken by the authors to apply their idea toexplanation of anomaly events in plasma are not substantiated. Nev-ertheless these attempts play also a positive role because they draw,once more, the attention to these anomalies and point out to thenecessity of their explanation.

Taking into account all the above mentioned, one can infer thatthe paper at hand meets completely the basic goals of the Journal”The Old and New Concepts of Physics. An Open Dialogue Jour-nal”, namely, the papers submitted to this Journal should deal ”withold and new ideas on Nature. The articles may be, and often mustbe, controversial, and occasionally hard to accept for other scientificjournals”.

In the first place the ideas themselves are put instead of theirthorough elaboration. Thus the article ”Gravitational interaction ofquantum level and consequences thereof” by S.I. Fisenko and I.S.Fisenko can be recommended for publication in this Journal.

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