Godlstein Soluciones 6
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Transcript of Godlstein Soluciones 6
Phys 7221, Fall 2006: Homework # 6
October 29, 2006
In the laboratory system, the scattering angle of the incident particle is , and that of theinitially stationary target particle, which recoils, is ; see Fig. 3.24, or Fig.1 below: whatare the differences in the figures?
Figure 1: A mass M1 scattered by an initially stationary target M2, in the laboratorysystem, from www.iue.tuwien.ac.at/phd/hoessinger/node38.html.
In the center of mass system, the scattering angle of the incident particle is , and thatof the target particle (initially stationary) is = pi : see Fig 3.25, or Fig.2.
Figure 2: A mass M1 scattered by an initially stationary target M2, in the center of masssystem, from www.iue.tuwien.ac.at/phd/hoessinger/node38.html
If V is the velocity of the center of mass, v2 is the velocity of the target particle inthe laboratory system, and v2 is the velocity of the target particle in the center of masssystem, then v2 = V + v2, represented in Fig.3.
Figure 3: Graphical vector sum v2 = v2 +V.
The components of the vector sum are equations relating the magnitudes of the vectorsand the angles ,, similar to the equaitons (3.106) for m1:
v2 sin = v2 sinv2 cos = V v2 cos
From these equations, we obtain an equation similar to (3.107):
tan = sincos (V/v2)
The magnitude of v2 is related to the magnitude of the relative velocity v: v2 = v/m2.The magnitude of the velocity of the center of mass V is related to the speed of m1 beforethe collision: V = v0/m2 (Eq. 3.105); the ratio is then simply V/v2 = v0/v. For inelasticscattering, this ratio is determined by the Q value of the inelastic collision (see 3.113), butfor elastic collisions this ratio is unity.
For elastic collisions, we see that since V = v2, the triangle in Fig.3 is isosceles, andthen = (pi )/2. We can also obtain this result from Eq.1, using some trig magic:
tan = sincos 1 =
2 sin/2 cos/22 sin2/2
= tan (pi/2/2)
Problem 3-30: Rutherford scattering for an attractive force
We consider an attractive gravitational force of the form F = ker/r2, and follow thederivation of the Rutherford formula in (3.98)-(3.102).
For a particle approaching an initially stationary target with impact parameter s, withvelocity v0 at infinity, the angular momentum is l = mv0s. The initial energy, if the targetis stationary, is E = mv20/2, so l = s
When the energy E is greater than zero, the orbit is a hyperbola given by
1/r = (k/l2)(1 e cos ),with
e2 = 1 + 2El2/k2 = 1 + (m/)(2Es/k)2 > 1.
We have chosen = pi, like in the textbook, so = 0 corresponds to periapsis. Noticethat the eccentricity is the same as in repulsive scattering, since it depends on k2, but theorbit equation is different, since it is proportional to k.
Since e > 1, the angular values are restricted so that cos < 1/e and the radialcoordinate is positive. The minimum radial distance will be when = 0, and r = 1/(1+e);the asymptotes with r = are at cos = 1/e (since > pi/2), as shown in Fig.. Forlarge energies and thus large eccentricities, the asymptotes are close to pi/2 (the orbit isalmost straight); for small energies, and eccentricities close to unity, the asymptotes areclose to pi (the orbit has almost a 90deg angle).
The scattering angle is related to as = 2 pi (similar, but different than3.94), and then 1/e = cos = cos(( + pi)/2) = sin(/2), and cot2(/2) = e2 1 =(m/)(2Es/k)2, which results in
of similar form than 3.101, and therefore the scattering cross section is
We consider a potential equal to zero for r > a, and equal to a negative constant V = V0for r a.
If the potential energy V is a constant, the force F = V is zero, and the motion is astright line with constant velocity. If the potential has different constant values in differentregions, the particle is refracted across the boundary (a sphere in this case), travelingin a straight line in all regions, but changing slope (velocity direction) and speed as theparticle goes in and out of the sphere. Since V/r > 0 across the sphere, the change inpotential represents a an attractive central force, acting only across the sphere boundary.
If the particle approaches the sphere with horizontal velocity of magnitude v0, theincident angle (angle between velocity and the normal to the sphere) is , such thatsin = s/a (see figure). As it gets refracted, the particle is in the sphere with velocity v1,with the angle between the velocity and the normal to the sphere .
The angular momentum L = r p = l k is conserved. The magnitude of the angularmomentum before the particle enters the sphere is l = mav0 sin, and the angular mo-mentum just after it enters the sphere is l = mav1 sin. Since the angular momentum isconserved, we obtain Snells law:
sin = n sin,
with an index of refraction n = v1/v0.Energy E = T + V is conserved too. The energy before the particle enters the sphere
is E = mv20/2, and after it enters the sphere, is E = mv21/2 V0, so
E + V0
Since n > 1, < : the particle gets refracted down, like expected from an attractiveforce.
When the particle goes out of the sphere, it gets refracted again, exiting the spherewith velocity v2 = v0, at a direction with angle with respect to the normal to the sphere,at the exiting point. The scattering angle is then
= 2( )In order to get the scattering cross section, we need the function s(), where s is theimpact parameter. We use sin = s/a and sin = sin/n = s/an to get what we need:
a= sin = sin(/2 + )
= sin/2 cos + cos/2 sin
= sin/2 cos +s
a(n cos/2) = n sin/2 cos(s
)2(n cos/2)2 = n2 sin2/2 cos2 (s
)2(n cos/2)2 = n2 sin2/2(1 s
)2 ((n cos/2)2 + sin2/2) = n2 sin2/2
s2 =a2n2 sin2/2
1 + n2 2n cos/2s =
an sin/21 + n2 2n cos/2
This formula gives the impact parameter as a function of the scattering angle andthe index n, itself a function of the energy E and the potential parameter V0. The functions() is antisymmetric on : a particle with negative impact parameter s will scatterdownwards with a negative angle , equal to minus the upwards scatter angle for aparticle approaching with a positive impact parameter s and the same energy.
At s = 0, = 0 and the particle is not refracted at all, since it enters the spherein a normal direction. The function s() has a maximum s = a at cosmax/2 = 1/n,n sinmax/2 =
n2 1. So, there is a maximum angle max = 2 cos1(1/n), which is the
scatter angle of particles grazing the spherical region (particles wills scatter down from thetop of the sphere, and up from the bottom of the sphere).
As the energy of the approaching particle increases, the index of refraction n =V0/E + 1
1 , and max = 2 cos1(1/n) 0: the particles get only slightly deflected.For small incident energies, n =
V0/E + 1 is large, and max = 2 cos1(1/n) pi:
the particle is refracted by = pi/2 across the first boundary, and then goes back in thedirection it approached.
From the function s(), we obtain the scattering cross section (not a pretty formula!):
(cos/2 n)(1 n cos/2)(1 + n2 2n cos/2)3/2
4 cos/2(cos/2 n)(1 n cos/2)
(1 + n2 2n cos/2)2
The total cross section is
T =4pi()d = 2pi
dd = pi(s2(max) s2(0))
= pia2n2 sin2max/2
1 + n2 2n cosmax/2 = pia2
which is of course the cross section area of the incoming beam of particles incident on thesphere, the only ones that are scattered.
Consider a potential of the form V (r) = k/r k/a if r a, and V (r) = 0 if r a, atruncated Coulomb potential. This is a central potential so energy and momentum areconserved. Since the potential is continuous across the spherical boundary, there is norefraction as there was in Problem 3.32.
Outside the sphere, the potential is zero, so the particle moves in a straight line. Insidethe sphere, the orbit is an hyperbola , as shown in the figure:
1e cos 1 =
where we have chosen the origin for angle theta at the closest point to the center, wherer = rmin = (l2/mk)1/(e 1).
When the particle enters the sphere, r = a, = , with the angle shown in thefigure. When the particle exits the sphere, r = a and = . The scattering angle is = pi 2(+ ), or
sin/2 = cos(+ ).
We need then to find expressions for and relating those angles to the scattering pa-rameter s and the energy E. From the drawing, we see that sin = s/a.
The angular momentum is l2 = m2v20s2 = 2mEs2. From the orbit equation, evlauted
at = where r = a, we have1a=
l2(e cos 1) = k
2Es2(e cos 1)
The x and y coordinates of the trajectory inside the sphere are given by x = r cos(+++) = r sin(/2), y = r sin(+++) = r cos(/2). When the particleenters the sphere, r = a, = , and the velocity is horizontal, so y = (dy/d) = 0,providinga nother relationship between and :
dcos( /2) r sin( /2)
e sin e cos 1 cos( /2) sin( /2)
= 0 =e sine cos 1 cos(/2) sin(/2)
tan(+/2) =e sin
e cos 1tan(pi/2 + ) =
e sine cos 1
tan =e cos 1e sin
e sin sin = e cos cos coscos = e cos(+ ) = e cos(pi/2/2)cos = e sin/2