Global Water Cycle (Water fluxes in 1000 km 3 /yr)

download Global Water Cycle (Water fluxes in 1000 km 3 /yr)

of 33

  • date post

    06-Feb-2016
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    21
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

description

Global Water Cycle (Water fluxes in 1000 km 3 /yr). Latitudinal Trends in Global P and E. Equilibrium Fractionation between Water Vapor and Liquid. Temperature Dependence of Equilibrium Fractionation for Water Phases. e (‰) d 18 O. e (‰) d D. α = R(liq) / R(gas). - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Global Water Cycle (Water fluxes in 1000 km 3 /yr)

  • Global Water Cycle(Water fluxes in 1000 km3/yr)

  • Latitudinal Trends in Global P and E

  • Equilibrium Fractionation between Water Vapor and Liquid

  • Temperature Dependence of Equilibrium Fractionationfor Water Phasese ()dDe ()d18O = R(liq) / R(gas)

  • Rayleigh Distillation Predictiond18O vs Tempd18O = -2 dD = -7 d18O = -5 dD = -32

  • d18O vs Temperature for Precipitationd18O ()

  • dD vs d18O for Global PrecipitationdD ()d18O ()

  • dD of Precipitation GloballydD of Precipitation in N. America

  • d18O Precipitation vs Altitude

  • d18O of Precip vs Distance from Coast

  • Seasonality of d18O of Precipitation

  • Deviations from MWLAlthough global pattern of d18O and dD of precipitation follows MWL, there can be significant deviations.Mainly in arid regions, where evaporation is important.Use Deuterium Excess to quantify departure from MWL.Implication is that evaporation can play a significant role in the isotopic composition of precipitation by imposing kinetic, rather than equilibrium, isotope effects.

  • dD vs d18O in Arid RegionsRio Grande (Southwest US) and Darling (Central Australia)In arid regions, dD vs d18O slope is significantly less than 8 of MWL.

  • d18O of Precip at Tropical Sites with Seasonal Cycle in Humidity

  • Deuterium Excessd-excess () = dD () 8* d18O ()d-excess of MWL = 10 ()Prediction: d-excess depends on Relative Humidity

  • Effect of humidity on dD vs d18O slopeLakes E. WashingtonLakes W. Washington MWL

  • Isotopic Signatures of the Global Water Cycle

  • Air-Sea Transfer of Water Vapor

  • d18O versus Borehole Paleothermometrya controversy in Greenland Ice Cores(DTemp/Dd18O= 1.5 C / ) Current Precipitation DTemp/Dd18O= 3 C / Borehole TempsClimate scientists favor the borehole temperature changes.

  • Greenland Ice Core d18O and Temperature RecordUsing borehole temperature vs d18O calibration

  • Antarctic Ice Core Record of dD and Implied Temperature

  • Seasonal Records of d18O and dD in PrecipitationdDd18OTemp

  • d18O and dD as a Water Source Tracer in Steams and RiversdD ()d18O ()Five European Rivers22 = Rhine River

  • d18O and dD in US RiversMissouri R.Mississippi R.Meramac R.?L

  • d18O and dD as a Water Source Tracer in Rivers

  • d-excess of US Rivers

  • d18O in Ground Waters

  • d18O and dD as Groundwater Tracers in Arid Regions

  • Surface Ocean d18O ( vs SMOW)(LeGrande, GRL 2006)

  • Surface Salinity

  • d18O vs Salinity

  • d18O in the Deep Atlantic Ocean

  • dD of Seawater in the Deep Sea