Gastronomy in byzantium

Gastronomy in Byzantium Comenius Project 2 nd High School of Kilkis, Greece 2013 – 2014 Project team no. 3 • Christos Christoforidis Stelios Foutsitzhs Thanos Mauropoulos Leonidas Naoumis

Transcript of Gastronomy in byzantium

Page 1: Gastronomy in byzantium

Gastronomy in Byzantium

Comenius Project 2nd High School of Kilkis, Greece2013 – 2014

Project team no. 3

• Christos Christoforidis• Stelios Foutsitzhs • Thanos Mauropoulos• Leonidas Naoumis

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In Byzantine Times The written sources testify much information about nutrition in Byzantium. Τhe main goal was the self-sufficiency of the household and therefore each family cultivated basic vegetables and harbored some animals (mainly poultry). Certainly this would be difficult to apply in large cities and especially in Constantinople, which in the heyday of it reached 500,000 inhabitants. For these cases the government behaved mainly through the governor of the city.

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Byzantine Diet



Dairy Products










Nutrition in Byzantium

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Main meals of the Byzantines

They used to eat mainly using hands, because the fork was unknown until the 10th century but after then, fork’s use was rare. They also used spoons and knives. Before and after dinner they washed their hands using chernivon which is something similar to the current basin!

Breakfast or





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SpicesThe shelves in the kitchen of a Byzantine house should be equipped with various spices. Cookers used them in order to create more delicious dishes. Some of these spices were definitely the salt, oregano, vinegar, thyme, sesame seeds, capers, cumin and several others.










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Some Information About SpicesOregano comes

from dried leaves and flowers of the

homonym tree. Mainly used in

cooking and as a decoction.

Dill. The herbaceous stems

of the plant are used in flavoring

various foods.

Cumin. The dried fruits of the plant

are used in flavoring dishes, main dishes of

Oriental cuisine.

Basil. Used mainly in cooking dried leaves of broadleaf variety whose flavor is a bit

like that of anise. Flavors mixed grill, salads, stews, etc.

Sesame seeds . The seeds of the plant

are of great economic

importance. They have many uses in cooking, baking , making oil etc.

Daphne. The leaves of the tree as fresh or dried

are used in flavoring blushed,

soups etc.

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Byzantine Recipes Monokythron: was cooked from various

salted or fresh fish, along with various pieces of cheese, eggs and vegetables in oil with pepper and garlic.

Myttoton: was chopped cloves of garlic mixed with olive oil and black olive puree.

Garos (sauce): blended small fish, offal, blood and gills of fish with salt. They added pepper and old wine. Simmer the mixture for several hours or let it "ferment" in the sun for 2-3 months. Garos was served mixed with oil (elaiogaros) or with water (ydrogaros) or wine (oinogaros) or vinegar.

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Κρασάτον ή ξιδάτον λαγομαγείρευμα: Οι Βυζαντινοί αγαπούσαν να μαγειρεύουν τον λαγό μέσα σε κόκκινο κρασί ή σε ξίδι, με την προσθήκη πιπεριού, γαριφάλου και νάρδου (βαλεριάνα). Για να ενισχύσουν τη γεύση

προσέθεταν, κατά το μαγείρεμα και λίγο χοιρινό κρέας. Φάβατα:

Έβραζαν σε νερό ξερά κουκιά μέχρι να μπορούν να τα διαλύσουν, ανακατεύοντάς τα με μία ξύλινη κουτάλα. Προσέθεταν λάδι και αλατοπίπερο.

Όρνις μονθυλευτή: Άφηναν ένα κοτόπουλο για λίγες ώρες σε κρασί ή ξίδι, με διάφορα καρυκεύματα (πιπέρι,

γαρίφαλο, κανέλα, μοσχοκάρυδο). Μετά το παραγέμιζαν με ψίχα ψωμιού, αμύγδαλα και άλλα καρυκεύματα. Συχνά, προσέθεταν σταφίδες, κουκουνάρια και ψιλοκομμένα μανιτάρια.

Σιγόβραζαν το κοτόπουλο σε κρασί ή το έψηναν στο φούρνο μέσα σ΄ ένα καλά κλεισμένο πήλινο σκεύος, αφού το άλειφαν καλά με βούτυρο.

Αμανίται: Έκοβαν φέτες μανιτάρια και τα αλατοπιπέρωναν και στη συνέχεια τα τηγάνιζαν με

φέτες αχλαδιού. Σφουγγάτον:

Έτριβαν ένα κρεμμύδι και το τσιγάριζαν στο τηγάνι. Προσέθεταν μυρωδικά και στο τέλος τ΄ αβγά.

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HospitalityXenia (Greek: ξενία, xenía) is the Greek word for the concept of hospitality, or generosity and courtesy shown to those who are far from home. It is often translated as "guest-friendship" (or "ritualized friendship") because the rituals of hospitality created and expressed a reciprocal relationship between guest and host. The Greek god Zeus is sometimes referred to as Zeus Xenios, meaning he was god of, among other things, travelers. This created a particular religious obligation to be hospitable to travelers, but guests also had responsibilities, beyond reciprocating hospitality.

Hospitality In Byzantium

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Material & Moral Obligations Of Hospitality

Moral Obligations

• The respect from host to guest.

• The host must be hospitable.• . It is not polite to ask

questions until the guest has stated his/her needs.

• The guest must be courteous to their host and not be a burden.

Material Obligations:

• The host must provide their guests with food, drink and a bath, if required.

• The parting gift (xenion) from host to guest. The parting gift is to show the host's honor at receiving the guest.