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    2009

    CERN

    Lorentz

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  • ASTRONOMY, PHYSICS AND COMPUTER SCIENCE

    2009

    NEWTON KEPLER AND THE FALLING MOON

  • Universal Gravitation

    Newtons law of universal gravitationFree fall acceleration and gravitational forceKeplers lawsThe gravitational field

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  • Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation

    Gravitational force is always attractive. It follows an inverse-square law.F1 and F2 are an action-reaction pair.m1 and m2 are attracted to each other with the same force.We can treat spherical mass distributions as if the mass was concentrated in the center of the sphere.

  • Free Fall Acceleration and Gravitational Force

    For an object on the surface of Earth:

    For an object at a height h above Earth:

  • Keplers Three Laws

    First Law: Planetary orbits are elliptical with the Sun at one focus.Second Law: A planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times as it orbits the Sun.Third Law: The orbital periods scale with ellipse size such that the period squared is proportional to the semi-major axis length cubed. The square of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit (T,a)

    For any two planets:

  • In the Solar System

    Planets (except Mercury) are on an almost circular orbit.

    For Earth:

    For the solar system planets:

  • The Gravitational Field

    *

    Good morning/afternoon ladies and gentleman

    FROM NEWTON TO CERNuk.innovativeteachers.com

    Assessment and StandardsThis project focuses on enhancing students creativity, innovation, critical thinking, problem solving, communication and collaboration while achieving curriculum objectives. These are innovation skills that students who are prepared for increasingly complex life and work environments should master. People in our century live and work in a technology and media-driven environment, characterized by quick search and access to information, fast changes in tools and methods and the ability to collaborate and make individual contributions on an phenomenal scale. To be effective in our century individuals must be able to exhibit Information and Communications Technology (ICT) literacy. Interdisciplinary work can help students see the crucial connections between bodies of knowledge, and more fluently synthesize different and distinct domains. Click the documents below to see the assessment rubrics and standards cover in this learning project:Assessment Rubrics: Examples of assessment rubrics provided to students showing how the project was assessed.Mapping the Standards: Mapping this projects learning objectives against curriculum standards.National Educational Technology Standards for Students (NETS): Performance indicators for technology-literate students.

    Documents

    Assessment and Authenticity

    The authenticity of the context in which we develop students understandings is crucial to the degree to which those understandings can be applied to new and different situationsa salient difference between simply recounting facts and applying knowledge to new problems. In discussing standards for student work, Sergiovanni refers to the work of Newman, Lopez, and Bryk, which suggests that authentic work involves the original application of knowledge and skills rather than routine use of facts and procedures. It also entails disciplined inquiry into the details of a particular problem and results in a product or presentation that has meaning or value beyond success in school. (Sergiovanni 2001, 91)

    For knowledge to be authentic it must have value in some utilitarian, aesthetic or personal way, beyond simply confirming that a school objective has been met. Quizzes, exams, spelling bees may have their place, but the proof of authentic learning is in its relationship to real-world problems and issues; in the ability of students to understand them, to engage them and to offer defensible solutions. (Sergiovanni 2001, 91)

    As we develop curriculum for understanding and embed technology within that experience, designing authentic assessment tasks is essential: the proof of authenticity is in its relationship to real-world problems and issues. The Virtual Classroom Tour projects accompanying these guides have been selected because of their authenticity and their relationship to real-world problems and issuesfor example, overcoming prejudice and intolerance in a global society.

    Assessment needs to be seen as a continuum of assessment methods, including ongoing assessment and informal assessment, to help students achieve understanding and avoid misunderstanding.

    Continuum of Assessment Methods (Wiggins and McTighe 1998, 12)

    As the performance task is developed, it is wise to bear in mind the need for a product or presentation that has meaning or value beyond success in school. Wiggins and McTighe suggest that in designing lessons, a teacher needs to think like an assessor, and they acknowledge that this is not a natural or easy process for many teachers. Thinking like an assessor involves considering two basic questions:

    Where shall we look to find hallmarks of understanding?

    What should we look for in determining and distinguishing degrees of understanding? (Wiggins and McTighe 1998, 67)

    As we design performance tasks and assessment criteria for the use of technology, we also need to use at least two distinct criteria to assess quality: the quality of the performances (this would include the technology use) and the quality of the ideas.

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    Sergiovanni, T. 2001. Leadership: Whats in It for Schools? London: Routledge Falmer.

    Wiggins, G., and J. McTighe. 1998. Understanding by Design. Alexandria, Virginia: ASCD.

    Microsoft Innovative TeachersMicrosoft.com/Education/InnovativeTeachers

    _1080302000.vsd

    Title

    Double-click to type notes. Subselect "Title"to edit the title.

    Informal Checks for Understanding

    Observation/Dialogue

    Quiz/Test

    Academic Prompt

    Performance Task/ Project

    Figure 1.3: Continuum of Assessment Methods

    Mapping Curriculum Standards

    The standards for this project are indicated below.

    These standards will assist you in mapping the project against your own state or district standards. You may consider using the following Web sites to help you in this process:

    http://edstandards.org/standards.html

    http://www.statestandards.com/

    You might also like to consider how this project may be used to develop technology standards. A useful framework for reviewing student technology standards is the ISTE NETS project. Use this URL to search the NETS standards:

    http://cnets.iste.org/index2.html

    When you are mapping activities against standards, it is better to focus on a small collection of critical standards, rather than link activities to a large number of standards, which will broaden the focus and make assessing student work more difficult.

    Direct evaluation

    The evaluation of the overall activity was made with the following criteria:

    Comprehension

    Teaching efficiency

    Participation

    Enthusiasm

    Collaboration

    Motivation to improve

    The results were amazing and show the superiority of this approach.

    Students believe that this activity presents:

    Combination of technology with learning

    Direct and empirical application of their knowledge

    Conversion of knowledge to experience and expertise

    Dissemination of outcomes and results to the school community

    Exit Skills and Assessment

    Content

    Skills / Objectives

    Assessments

    Applications of motion of charged particles in magnetic field

    Keplers laws of Planetary Motion

    Lorenz force

    Magnetic field on a current-carrying conductor

    Magnetic force on a current loop

    Magnetic force on a moving charged particle

    Newtons Laws of Motion.

    Particle accelerators and detectors

    Particle physics

    Quarks

    Solar System

    The Copernican Revolution

    Describe how accelerators built, how does they work, and why and where is it used

    Draw the lines of magnetic field around current-carrying wire

    Explain how astronomers have measured the true size of the solar system.

    Explain how is a mass spectrometer built and how does it work

    Explain how the observed motions of the planets led to our modern view of a Sun-centered solar system.

    Know the biggest accelerators in the world

    Know the direction of the particle motion in a magnetic field

    Know the formula for magnetic force acting on a charged particle; know the right hand thumb rule;

    Know the formula for magnetic force acting on a straight wire

    Know the unit of a physical quantity magnetic field