Focus on Psychodrama

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Ι Ν Σ Τ Ι Τ Ο Υ Τ Ο Ψ Υ Χ Ο Δ Ρ Α Μ Α Τ Ο Σ - Κ Ο Ι Ν Ω Ν Ι Κ Ο Θ Ε Ρ Α Π Ε Ι Α Σ Μετάφραση τοῦ βιβλίου τοῦ P. F. Kellerman: FOCUS ON PSYCHODRAMA Διπλωματική Διατριβή τῆς Μαρίας –Εἰλικρίνειας Ἀποστολίδη ΑΘΗΝΑ

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Transcript of Focus on Psychodrama

P. F. Kellerman: FOCUS ON PSYCHODRAMA

2005

, , . . . , ... . ,

, , . , .

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5-8 9-16 17-40 41-57 58-69 70-82 83-95 96-109 110-125 126-145 146-165 166-178 179-189 190-211 212-224 225-234 235-241 242-266 267-269 270-273

1: 2: 3: 4: 5:

6: 7: 8: 9: 10: 11: 12 : 13: 14: 1: . GLOSSARY

, , . , , .3

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J.L.Moreno, M.D. , , William James. James , , . ( John Locke David Hume) , (, , Hegel) . , James , ad hominem , . James, 20 . , , , , , Jung Freud. , , . . , , , , , , , , . . , , . , , 5

. , 30 50, . Beacon House : , 2 . , 30 . ( ) , Zerka Moreno. , . Peter Felix Kellermann , . . , , , , . , Kellerman : . , , . . , 6

, J.L. Moreno . , , . , , . Kellermann, . , , . , , , , . . , . , . , , . Kellermann . . , , , Kellermann . , , 7

. Jonathan D. Moreno, Ph.D

8

. , , . . J.L.Moreno (1889-1974), . . , , , , , , Zerka T. Moreno, . . , , , : , , , .

(II.vii) . , , , , , . , , . , . , 9

. , : , , , , , , , , , , . , . . , : - (make-believe) . , , , , , ( Witztum, Hart & Friedman, 1988): , , . , , , . , . , - . . , , . , , . , . . 10

. , , , , . , . , , . , . , , .

, , , . , , . . , , , , , . , . . . , 11

, . , , . . . , , , . . . ( ) Blatner (1973, 1988), Corsini 91967), Fox (1987), Goldman & Morrison (1984), Greenberg (1974), Haskell (1975), Holmes & Karp (1991), Kahn (1964), Kipper (1986) Leveton (1977), Leutz (1974), Petzold (1978) Schutzenberger (1970), Starr (1977), Warner (1975), Williams (1989) Yablonsky (1976), . J.L. Zerka Moreno, . 1 , . . , , , , , 12

. , Zerka T. Moreno. Journal of Group Psychotherapy, Psychodrama & Sociometry, 1987, 40, 76-80. Helen Dwight Reid (HELDREF), 1319 Eighteenth Street, N.W. Washington D.C. 20036-1802, USA. 2 . . . Journal of Group Psychotherapy, Psychodrama & Sociometry 1991, 44, 19-32, HELDREF. 3 . , , . . . , , . 4 , , . , Journal of Group Psychotherapy,

13

Psychodrama & Sociometry 1985, 38, 84-95 HELDREF. 5 , 1986. , , . 6 , . . , Journal of Group Psychotherapy, Psychodrama & Sociometry 1984, 37, 1-13 HELDREF. 7 (action - insight) . , , , . 8 . , . , . , , Journal of Group Psychotherapy, Psychodrama & Sociometry 1979, 32, 38-55. HELDREF. 9 (as if) . 14

. - (make believe) (play acting): . , Integrative Therapy, 1982, 8, 13-23. Junfermann Verlag, Paderborn. 10 acting out . , . Acting Out Group Analysis, 1984, 17, 195-203, . 11 . 12 - . , . Petzold H. (ed) Widerstand: Ein strittiges Konzept in der Psychotherapie.Paderborn: Junfermann Verlag, 1981, . 385405. Journal of Group Psychotherapy, Psychodrama & Sociometry, 1983, 36, 30-43. . 13 . K , Journal of Group Psychotherapy, Psychodrama & Sociometry 1988, 41, 2129. HELDREF.

15

14 . , , . , , . .

16

1 . , , , , , (), , , . , (Moreno 1972 p.a), , J. L. Moreno (Fine 1979, . 428), . , , . . , , . , , . , . , . , . , , . , , , , . . 17

, , , , . J.L. Moreno. Moreno , , . , Moreno , , (Moreno 1920), , (Moreno 1923), (Moreno 1953), . , . , , , , . Moreno , , . , , . , . (fixed role therapy) (Kelly 1955), 18

(Bandura 1971) Gestalt (Perls, Hefferline & Goodman, 1973) (Schutz 1971) (Jennings 1986, Landy, 1986) . , . , . . , , , , . , . (role playing) (settings), . , (role playing), - (proper) , . . , , . . 19

, . , , , . , , . , , , , ( ). , . ()- . . , . ( ) , , (Kipper, 1978). , , (enactment) . , . . , .

20

, : , -. . , , , , , , , , . . , . , , (doubling), , (concretizing), , () . , , , . (styles) : 1. - , , 2. (focus) - , . 3. - in situ, , , , . 4. (adherence) , , , . 5. - , , , , . 6. - , , , . 7. - , , , , , .

21

8. , , , . 9. - , , , , . 10. - , , ... , , (Fiske, Luborsky, Parloff, Hunt, Orne, Reiser & Tuma, 1970). , , , , (;), (;), ( ;) ( ;) ( ;). , , . (;) , ( ) . , , (sharing). , . , . , , .22

, (workshops) . (workshops) (self-disclosure), (affective involvement), . , , (central) , . , Hall (1977) , ( ) . , , . , . , , Mahler (1968), . . , . . - 23

, , . (Kellermann, 1987a). , , , , Butcher & Koss (1978). , . , . , , Kipper (1983) . (. 125). (;) . Moreno . , , , , . . Moreno & Moreno (1969, . 14) . . , , 24

. , , . , , , . , . ( ;) -. 20 50, . , , , . , . . Davies (1976, . 204) . , , , , . Kipper (1978) - - . , , , . . . , 25

, . , . , . . . Goldman & Morrison (1984) : , , , , , . ( ) , DSM III (Goldman & Morrison, 1984, . 3). ( J.L.Moreno), , . , , . , , . Polansky & Harkins (1969, . 74) , , , ( ) - . , (rituals) . , , . , , , ( ), 26

. , , , , (Wolson, 1974, . 437). . , . (structured action techniques), (Ossorio & Fine, 1959), . , , , , , , , , , , (Gonen, 1971, Wolson 1974, Petzold, 1979, Yalom, 1975). , , , , . Sacks (1976a), , , , . Sacks, , , (free interaction group). , , , , , . , , , , 27

, , Hols & Karp (1991). Leutz (1985a, . 246), , , . , , . , (Leutz, 1985a). . , , . 23 1952 1985, . , , , , , (Kellermann, 1987a). , , , . ( ;) , , . , , 28

/ . , , . ; , , , (goal limited) (Wogan & Norcross,1983), (Scheidlinger, 1982), (self disclosure) (Dies, 1977, Curtis, 1982) . , , , (Janzen & Myers, 1981). , . (. . 3) (. . 4). , . ( ;) Moreno, . , . . , Yalom (1975) , .

29

. , , . , Moreno (1953, . 312), . , , , , . , , (empathize) (doubling) . . , 10 15 . , . , - , . (open demonstration). (Sacks, 1976a). , . , , .

30

, , . . , , . (Kipper, 1978, 1989, Schramski & Feldman, 1984, Kellermann, 1987, D Amato & Dean, 1988, Schneider-Duker, 1991). , , , , , , -. - (quasi-naturalistic), . , , . , , , . . (follow up), , , . , , . Polansky & Harkins (1969, . 87) . ,31

. 50 , Zerka T. Moreno. . , . ; , , 29 Zerka Moreno 7 . : . . . . Zerka : ; ; ; : , , : . Zerka: . 1: : . , . .32

( ), . , . , . , , . . : , . . , , . : ; : . :, . 2: , - - , . , , . : ; : . : ; : : . 33

. ( ) , , , . ( ): , . , . : , ; ( ): . . : , . . : , . : , : . . . , . : , . : , . . : ; : . ; : . . : . . .. . : , . . ; : . . . : ( ) , . : , . : .34

3: . ( ) ( ) . ( ): . . ( ): , , . . ; : . ! ( ): . ! . ( ): . , , , . , , . : , . . , . . : , ; : . . : ; ( ). : ! : . ; ( ): . ( ,

35

. ). : : , . . 4: . : . ( ). . : ( ): , . . , . , , ! , . . . , . . , . 36

. , . , , . , , . , . , . , , (become his own authority). (. . 9) - (make believe), (action insight). . : , . , . : , , . , . . . . (pattern) . . , .

37

: . , . , . . , , : , . , , , .

38

2 . , . , . Farson (1978), -. , , , . , , , . , , , , . 1 . , , . . Kipper (1988, . 165) ( ) , , , . , , . Boria (1989, . 167) . , Polansky Harkins (1969, . 74), . , .39

. . . , , Gestalt, , /, , , , . J. L. Moreno . Moreno , , (Yablonsky & Enneis, 1959, . 149). , Moreno , . Moreno , . , , . Moreno - , , / , . , .

40

, (Kuhn,1970, Radnitzky, 1970, Hempel,1965, Lesche, 1962). , -. , 2.1 . 2.1. - - / Dilthey (1944), : . 2.2. : : : : : : , 41

: : : :

: : -

- -

- -

. , , , , , , , . , , , , , , -, (Giorgi, 1970). , , 42

( ) . , . , . , . 2.2. (Sturm, 1965) , , , . . : . Moreno, . (Moreno, 1937/1972, .177). , - , . , , . , . 43

. , , . , . , , . . Maslow. , . / . .

- , . Moreno -, - , (Moreno, 1963) . Moreno, . 44

, Moreno, , , , . , . , Moreno Moreno (1959, . 215) , . Jonathan Moreno (1974) . , . Marineau (1989) , Moreno (1920, . 108) , , , - . Moreno & Moreno (1959, . 216) : . . . , , . . Moreno, . , Moreno (1932 / 1972, . 184) , , . William James John Dewey Mead (1934, . 8), : . - 45

, , . , . (image) Moreno, , (Moreno, 1953, . 722). , . , Moreno , .. Aulinico (1954). Bergson (1982) Pierce (1931) Moreno, . , , . , , , . , , , , . Moreno, , (1951, . 201) ( ) , . , Bishof (1964) Moreno : , .

46

, , . , Farson (1978, . 27) , . Moreno - . , Moreno , . Moreno, Moreno (1953, . 39): . . , Moreno . . Moreno , , , (encounter). Moreno (1960b . 145), , . Moreno . Moreno (1953) - , .47

Moreno , (Moreno & Moreno, 1959, . 215). Moreno , , . (validation) . , Moreno 1925, . (Moreno, 1972, .11) C. S. Pierce, W. James J. Dewey . . , , -. , - - , : , , , , . , , . , , , ( ), ( ).48

, , , , , , , , , . Moreno William James (1909). (Knight, 1950, . 72). Spinoza, . . ( ). , , . Dilthey (1944), . , . , . - . , . 49

, , , . Moreno Freud . Bergson . , Moreno (1972, . 103) (operational) , , , , , . , Moreno (1951, . 208) -- . . , . ( ) . , - . , , / (-) . , . , , (n=1).

50

. Moreno (Bischof, 1964): . . . (act out) , . . . ( ) (Moreno, 1968, . 3). , . , , . Moreno (1953, . 64) , , , Malinowsky , , (symbolic interactionists) : , , research status - . , , - .51

(paradigm) . , , , . , . , , , . Moreno . ; Giorgi (1970, . 54), - . . , , . . Moreno , -, . , Moreno, . . Jonathan Moreno (1974), Leutz (1976, 1977), Petzold (1980), Buer (1989)

52

Marineau (1989) Moreno . Moreno , . . , (Moreno, 1951, . 205). Moreno Stern (1938), , (figure and ground), , . Moreno, Stern , , . , . Maslow (1968, . 174), . , . -, , . . , . . , - (Mahler, 1968), . Hegel, 53

, , . / Kuhn (1970), , , , , . . , . , , , , , , , , , , , , , . , Moreno , - , , , ; . .

54

3 , . . , , . , , (empathizing) , , , . O Weiner (1967) , , , , , , . , , , . , . . . , , , . , (Orlinsky & Howard, 1978, Liberman, Yalom & Miles, 1973), (Schaffer, 1983). , 55

. , , . , . . Moreno (1972) , / . , , . 3.1 , , . 3.1.

(Empathizer) (Manager)

. , . . , , 56

, . , , . , , , . . , , . 1. , (empathic) . , , , , , , , / (Rapaport, 1960). Moreno (1937 / 1972, . 247) - , , , . (action analysis) - - (Haskell, 1975), , . , ( ) - (abreaction) (. 10).57

. Rogers (1957) . , . , . . (1) , , ( ). (.. ) . , pacing (Buchanan & Little, 1983) NLP (NeuroLinguistic Programming ) (patterns), , , . . , . , .

58

(2) , . . , , . (3) , . , . Palmer (1969, . 234) , . , . . (4) , . , . . (5) , , , . , . Singer (1970, . 390) 59

, . , , , . , . . 2. , , . Moreno (1972), , . , . , , , , , , (concretisation), . , , , . Karp (1988, . 49) , 60

. , , . , . , (Riebel, 1990, . 129). , , , . , , . , , , , , , , . , , , . ( ). , Stanislavsky Brecht . . , . Ingmar Bergman. Bergman . 61

. , . Bergman , , . , . , , . , , (Marker & Marker, 1982). (illusion), Federico Fellini. O Fellini , , . , - (stage managers) ,, , . , , , . , , . , , , . , , . , . , , , 62

. , . , , (. . 11). 3. . Moreno (1972), . , . , , , , / . , , , / . . , (. . 12) . , , , , . . 63

, (, , , ) . . , . . , , , , (vocalisation), , . , . . . , , . , . , . . Fine (1959). , . : (confrontation), (clarification), (interpretation), (catharsis), (acceptance), (suggestion) (advice), (teaching), (self disclosure). (Bibring, 1954, Greenson, 1967, Goodman & Dooley, 1976). , . 64

, . (on the spot), . Moreno (1972), . , . , /.

65

4 Kotzk : , , . , . ... ... : , , , , .

, . , , , . . , , , . J .L. Moreno, , , . , . Moreno . , Moreno, (Greenberg, 1974, . 20), (Yablonsky, 1976, . 9). . 66

: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) . /. (.. , , , , ) , , , , , , , , , , / . Zaleznik (1974, . 233), . , , ( ), ( ), / (). . , . , , (Kohut, 1978, . 82b). . ( ) (Singer, 1970), , , , . , - , , , ( ) , 67

, (Scheidlinger, 1982). , Adorno, FrenkelBrunswik, Levinson, Sanford (1950), , , . , Lieberman, Yalom Miles (1973, . 29) , , , . . , , (self importance) . (Kohut, 1978). (empathy) , . Freud (1961 / 1931, . 218) : . , . , . (the led) (Weber, 1953, Parsons, 1967), (Hollander, 1967), (Jennings, 1950), (Lippit & White, 1958), (Scheidlinger, 1982 Berman, 1982), - (Hare, 1976), (Rioch, 1971, Deutsch, 1980), (Fromm, 1941, Schiffer, 1973). 68

. , , . , , , (helplessness) . . . , . , , . (infantilisation) . (Fromm, 1965/1941). Freud (1955 / 1921, . 81), , . . , , , , . , ( , ( ), ( 69

) (Schutz, 1966). , , Newman (1983, . 205), super star (pied piper): , . . , . . . . , .

. Bion (1961) (Basic Assumption Dependency Groups). . , . , , (Rioch, 1970, . 59). (Fromm, 1965/1941). , , , , , , . , . . Polansky Harkins (1969), , , 70

. , , , , . , (Sacks, 1976a, . 61). , , . . , , . , . , , . . , , (imaginative surplus reality) (. . 9). ( ), () (. . 8), . , , (sharing), , , , -

71

, ' . , , J.L. Moreno. Yablonky (1976, . 8) : . Moreno, . , . - ... , . Kobler (1974/1962, .36), Moreno , , bon vivant, . , . , . , , , , . Blatner (I966, . 129) Moreno . . Moreno, , . , Moreno, . , , . , Moreno . , Moreno , . , Zerka . Moreno (1976, . 132), , () . . 72

, , , , , , , . , Moreno , . , Moreno ( ) . ' Moreno . Moreno , , , , -, , ..., . - - . Freud, Moreno . , . . . , . Mreno. , , , , . , . Moreno . , Moreno , (Fine, 1979, . 436).

73

, , . ' , , ' . , . , . , , (Frank, 1973). , , , (placebo effect), , , , , - - , (.. , , , ). . , , , . , 74

() . Berman (1982, . 198), , . Liberman (1973) , , . , . , Wolberg (1977, . 5) : , , , . . , , . , ( ) (Rutan & Rice, 1981). , , . o , . , . , . , (Greben, 1983).75

, . , , , . , (Liff, 1975, . 121). . (. . 11). , . , . . ... ... (Volkan, 1980, .150). , follie-a-deux, . , , (cults). Temerlin Temerlin (1982, . 131), - , - , , , , . , , . - Moreno- Gonen (1971, .76

199) (mainstream) .

, : 1. (.. ) () . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. , 6. , . , . , . , , , , . .

77

5 ; , . (selfawarennes) . , . , . , , . . , , , . , , . , . , , . , (insight) . , (Bandura, 1977). (person centered) , , , . 78

. (Watzlawick, Weakland & Fish, 1974). - , , (placebo effect). , . , Frank (1961) , , , , . Bandura, (1977) - , -. (self-efficacy). Bandura : , , , (vicarious experiences), (performance accomplishments). Sundberg & Tyler (1962) , , , , , - . Marmor (1962) , , , , . , Lazarus (1973) , 79

Id : , , , , , . , Blatner (1973, 120) ( ) , . , , , , -, . Fine (1979) , (. 448). (.. Bloch & Crouch, 1985). 50 . Corsini & Rosenberg (1955) 300 . , : 1. : , , 2: : , , 3. (actional factors): , . 1960 , (Dikoff & Lakin, 1963, Butler & Fuhriman, 1983). Yalom (1975) 12 : - (), ( ), , 80

, , ( - family reenacment), , , , . Yalom, Tinklenberg Gilula (Yalom, 1975) , , . , . , (Kellerman, 1985, 1987c) . , . , , , . , J.L. Moreno - (social atom), , , , , (cultural conserves) (Bischof, 1964) - . , Zerka Moreno ( ) : () , (self disclosure) , ( ), , . , Zerka Moreno ( ) 81

. Leutz (1985), , ( ), , (, , ), , , . , , ( ) (Leutz, 1985b). Blatner Blatner (1988, . 88) : . . . . . , . , , , , , . . , , , . , , , - - .82

, , , : 1. (, ) 2. (, 3. (-, , , ) 4. ( , , ) 5. / - ( , ) 6. ( , , , ) 7. ( ) , . , . 5.1 ( ) . ( ). 5.1. (6) (7) 83

(8) (9) (10) (11)

(12 )

(3 )

(13)

, , , , , . , , , . , , . Appellbaum (1988, . 207), , . , , . . , , . . , (.. , , , , ) . , 84

, , , , . . , . , : , . . , Moreno (1972) : , . Moreno , 14. , . , , . / . Freud (1914) , . Jung (1967) : 1. 2. , 3. 4. . , 85

. , , (act fulfilment). , , , Strupp (1972) , . (high point) , Hollander (Hollander, 1969). , , . , . Petzold (1978, . 83) (integrative therapy), : ( -anamnestic) , . (-) , . () , . ( ) , . ; H , . , . , . , , . 86

. , ( ) , . , . . ( Jill) - , , . , . , , . , , . , , . , . . , , . , . , , , . , , . ( ) Jill . 87

, . , ! !. . : , () . , , , , , . ,, , . . . , , . , . , , . , . , , . Jill , . , , . , . ( )

88

, . - - . , , , . , , . . , . , , , . , , , (), (), ( ), ( ), () () . , , , . .

89

90

6 . , , . . . , . , , . , (, 1941, . 1460). , . . (cleansing) , . , , , , , , . Freud. Charcot, Freud , 91

libido (Breuer & Freud, 1893). , Moreno Diderot, Lessing Goethe ( ), . , , (Reich, 1929) (Horsley 1943), Gestalt (Perls, 1969) (Janov, 1970) (Lowen, 1975). , : . (build up) , , . . , ( ). (Bohart 1980), Freud (Blatner, 1985). , , , , , . , , , , . , - , , , , ( experience), , , , 92

. Blatner (1985) , , abreaction, , ( ) , . , , ( , , / .) Walter, . . , . , . , , . , Walter . , ( ) , . o - (make believe) Walter . , , , , . Walter , , (pushed around) ! ! !. 93

, . . , Walter , , , . , , . , Walter . , . , , . (emotion) e-movere . , , -- --. , , , , . - ( ) , , . . , , . , , (Yalom, 1975, . 84). 94

, . : ! , , !. : . !. . , (Schutzenberger, 1970), , (Leutz, 1974) (Z.T. Moreno, 1971). , , . , , , . , ( ) , , (Nichols & Efran, 1985, 55). , , , , . , - - . , . ; . 95

- , , (Freud, 1894, . 47). , , , - , , , . , -, - , , . . , , , (bottled up), , . , . , , . , . , , , , , , , . , . - . 96

, . , , . , (), . , , Goldman Morrison (1984) , bataka . , . -, Dollard, Doeb, Miller, Mowerer, Sears (1939), . , Feshpack, (1956), Berkowitz, Green & Macanley (1962), Kahn (1966), Mallick & Mc Candless 1966) Hokanson (1970) , Zumkley (1978), Bohart (1980), Warren & Kurlychek (1981) Tavris (1982). , , . , , / . , Bandura Walters (1965) , . , Gould (1972) . 97

, , , (Willis, 1991), . Yalom (1975, . 103) (restricted) . , , , . , Butler & Fuhriman (1983) , . . , Kris (1952) : , Binstock (1973, 509) . , Bibring (1954) Dewald (1964) Greenson (1967) , /. , Slavson (1951, . 39) (developmental arrest) . , Yalom, (1975, . 84) , . , . , . 98

Lieberman, Yalom & Miles (1973) Berzon, Pious & Parson (1963), , , . , , , , , , , Nickols Zax (1977) , , . , , . , - , , . Rose (1976) . , Scheff (1979) , , , . Janov (1970), Karle, Corriere & Hart (1973), Nickols (1974), Nickols & Zax (1977) Sheff (1979). , Heider (1974, . 30) . Gendlin (1964, . 105) . 99

. . , , . , , . , , , . . - , , , . Ginn, (1973) . Polansky & Harkins (1969, . 79) , . , , ( ) . , . , , . , 100

. , , , . () , , , , id . , , , , , , . , (Id) (), . Weiner (1974, 48) Freud , , . Moreno (1923/1940) , . , --. , , . (private) , , . , . , . : (1) (catharsis) (2) (). Zerka Moren (1965): .101

, - . , . , . , . , ! Moreno Stern (1938), , (figure and ground), , . Moreno, o Stern , , . , . Maslow (1968, .174) . , . -, , . . , . . , 102

- (Mahler, 1968), . Hegel, , , . / (paradigmatic shifts) Kuhn (1970), , , , , . . , . , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . , Moreno , - , , , ; . .

103

7 , . -- . o . , (Kellermann, 1985b). H . , (self actualization), , (enlightment), (illumination), . , - (Bandura, 1977), - - , , - . , . (Freud, 1910, 1937, Adler, 1930, Ferenczi & Rank, 1925, Alexander & French, 1946, Horney, 1950, Fromm-Reichmann, 1950, Sullivan, 1953, Hobbs, 1962, Gendlin, 1961, Singer, 1970, Janov, 1970, Kohut, 1984). , . (Thorne, 1973, . 865, Yalom, 1975, . 43). . 104

, . , (Appelbaum, 1988, . 205). , . (Appelbaum, 1988). O , , , (Rycroft, 1968) . , , . , , , , , . M . - - . Maslow (1971, . 47) , . , . , , (Wheelis, 1950). , , (anticipatory awareness) (Rapoport,105

1970). , Moreno . - , . . (action learning). , , , . , , - (action catharsis). , (Moreno, 1965). (introspective analysis) . , , , , , , . , - (action- language) (. . 10). , . , , , . Blatner (1973, . 2), (acting in): . . 106

- : , . . . . . . ! ! . , . (either-or) . . , , : , . . . , . - . , ( ). , , : !. . , : 107

! ! ! ! , : . , , : ! ; ;. , , . . , (cognitive illumination) , , , (Buxbaum, 1972, . 161). , . (remembering) . , , (gestalt), !, (Perls, 1969, . 236). . . Wallas (1926), : , (incubation), (illumination) . . , , . (O Skinny Joe . Bully 108

Skinny Joe. .) , . . ( Joe , , ). , . ( Joe body building ). , . ( Joe ully, . Joe!). , . . , , ( o Moreno), . Zerka Moreno (1965) , . , . (. ), . , . (reno, 1972, . 236 237). Kipper (1986, . 104) : , , , . , 109

(actional language). , - - . , /. -, -. -, , ( . ) (. ) / () (. . 10). . o , , , . , , . - . , Evelyn, , . , , . , , . , : ! . : , !. Evelyn (frustration) . , . , Evelyn 110

, . . . , , , . , . , -- (), , , (reflection), (observational self) ( ). , (mirroring technique), o , . , . , , . , , (Moreno, 1972, .xxi). , , . 111

, , . , . : (1) , (2) (3) . 1. . , , (Polanyi, 1962). , . , - - , , , . , , . Rogers (1969), (Freedom to Learn), . , . : . , , (. 4). , , , Leutz (1985b) (experience of evidence). , , , Alexander (1946). H 112

( , -, / / , . Moreno, 1923, (. 76), . , , (reparenting) . , , . Stone (1981, . 103), , , , , (. 103). , , (supercede) . - - , , , . , . , Robert , (non assertive) , . , -- . , Robert . Robert , . , 113

, Robert , . , , Robert, . , Robert , , . Robert, , Robert , . , Kutter (1985) . 2. , , , , . . . , , . , , , , , , . , , (Fox, 1972, .191). . , .114

, , . , . , , , : ; , ;. , , , . , , . Schafer (1976) , . , , . T : William . , . , , William . , , . , , . , , William . 3. . , , . , . , , 115

, (gut level) , - , . , . (knowing) , Bohart& Wugalter (1991) , - . , . Greenberg (1974, .19) , , (tele) - Moreno- ( ) (configurational learning). , . , -, . , , , o , . (holding action) (Winnicott, 1965) , (nurturing) . . Thomas , - - . , , . , , ( ). Thomas , , Thomas 116

. , Thomas , . Thomas . , Thomas , : ! . .!. , : , . . , . . Thomas . , . . , , . , , Thomas . . , , , . , . , , , . : , . , , . , . , , , (Sacks, 197b, . 42). , 117

( , (assertiveness), ), . . , , . Buhler Kalen Hamman , , (.10). , , , . , , , . , , , . , , , , (Buhler, 1979, .19). 6, , (integration). . , , , , (Yalom, 1975, . 28).

118

8 . . , . , , . Moreno (1937) - , - , (Moreno 1914). , , , ( , , ) , . , , , , , . , . Schechter (1973, . 21) , . 119

Moreno (1953) . Moreno (1953) . , Moreno . , . , Fine (1979, . 442) : , . , , . , . . . . , , , . . , , , , , (Mead, 1934) . . , 120

, . , , , , . , . , , . , , , , . . ( ) , ( ), ( ) ( ). . Blatner & Blatner (1988, .119) , , , , .121

, . , . Sandler & Rosenblatt (1962, . 134) : ( ) . ( ) . , , , , , . , , . , . , . , . . , () . , . .

122

, . . Rachelle , , vette, . Yvette , Rachelle Yvette. , !. , , Yvette Rachelle , . Rachelle, Yvette (coaxing) . , Yvette Rachelle Yvette . Rachelle Yvette . , , , , . , , . - . , , , : , . , 123

, . , Rycroft (1968): , . / , . , , . Dewald (1964) , , , , . , , . - . Heimann (1950), Little (1951), Gitelson (1973) Racker (1968) , , . . . , Charles, , , . . . 124

, Charles . , - Charles- . Charles . , Charles , . , , - , Charles . , , Charles , , . , Charles , . , , , Charles, : . , , . Freud . Williams (1989, . 193) , ,125

, (family of origin psychodrama). , , , , . , , ( ) . , . , . , . - . , . Moreno (1972, . xviii) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) , . , , , . Moreno & Moreno (1959), , . 126

, Moreno, . , Moreno , . Moreno & Moreno (1959, . 6) . . , . , Moreno & Moreno (1959) , . , . , . , . , Moreno , , , (separateness), (connectedness), , , (empathy), . (Moreno 1953, .127

314). , , Moreno , Moreno . , , , , (Moreno & Moreno, 1959, .6) , , . , . Moreno (1951, 275) () . , , , . Moreno - Martin Buber (1923). , . Buber , . -, -. - , , , , , , Moreno , . , , , . , , . 128

Moreno , . , , Moreno & Moreno (1959), , , , , . - Temple (Sloane, Staples, Cristol, Yorkston & Whipple, 1975), Menninger (Kernberg, Burstein,Coyne, Appelbaum, Horwitz & Voth, 1972), Tavistock (Malan, 1976a, 1976b) Vanderbild (Strupp & Hadley, 1979) - . , . , Frank (1961) . - Zerka Moreno- , , . . ( ) () , Moreno. , (working alliance) (Greenson, 1967). 129

, .

------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------ - ------------------------------------------------------------------- 8.1. - 8.1 , , , . , , , . , ; . , . , , , ( ! !). , ( , !).130

, , , , . , . - - . , . / / / , . Greenson (1967, .402) : , . . . , , , . , - , . Koestler (1969, .188) , - (). , . . Moreno, , . , , , ( ) 131

. . (Leutz, 1971). , . , , , . - , , . , / . , . , , de roling ( . , ) ( , ). , - . (Moreno & Moreno, 1959, 96), , . Schutzenberger (1970) , . , Williams (1989, . 193) , , . , , .132

4, , , (surrogate holding) . , , , , , , . , , , . Moreno . , , , Blatner & Blatner (1988, . 160) , Zerka Moreno Williams (1989). , . , . , , , . (borderline cases), . , , , Moreno (1972) (caretaker) .133

, - . , (holding) . , , . , , , , , . , . Kernberg (1976) , . ( ) , (.. , , , ..), (.. , , , ). , Strachey (1934) . Dewald (1964) Blanck & Blanck (1974) . Gitelson (1973) / . , Anna Freud (1965) , .

134

. . , , , . , , . . , , - () (non contagious setting). , , , , , , , , , . . . (Gitelson, 1973, . 192). Viderman (1991) /- . , , . , (Witenberg, 1973, .8)135

incognito , - ( Curtis (1982) Dies (1977). . Moreno - . Williams (1989, . 183), , () . . . ( ) , , . , , . . , , . , , . , 136

- , , . . : , / /. - , - , - .

137

9 , ( J.L. Moreno: , 1969/1972). . (Oscar Wilde).

, , . , , . , . (mental imagery), , . , . , . , Moreno Freud: . . (Moreno, 1972, . 5-6). . .138

, . - , , , , - (Buchanan Little 1983). , , , Geller (1978) , . , , , - . - , ,, , . , , . Moreno (1972, .89) : , , ... , . (cosmetic) . . , , Arthur o Bill BiII Arthur. , BiII Arthur, Arthur. Arthur 139

. Arthur . , , Arthur , . Arthur . , Arthur , , . . , . , , , . , . , , . . , . . . , , , . , . ( ), . , 140

, . , . : . . ; . , , . , , . . , , , , . , , . , , . (hypotheticalness) (Sarbin, 1972). - , , , (Vaihinger, 1911). - , , , . (Sheikh & Jordan, 1983). , . , , , , , . , (Isaacs, 1952), 141

, . Jung . Jung (1967) , , . Jung . . Desoille (1965), Fretigny Virel (1968) Leuner (1978). Sheikh Jordan (1983) . (Singer, 1974 Singer & Pope, 1978) (Ahsen, 1968 Ahsen, 1984) . , (Psychosynthesis) (Assagioli, 1973), (Bandura, 1971) (Bandler & Grinder, 1979, Buchanan & Little, 1983). , (Mosak, 1979, . 71 Adler, 1963) . , , . (Kipper, 1986),

142

(Kelly, 1955) . . . , , . . Singer (1974) : (1) / (2) (3) (4) (5) . , . , , - (make-believe). . , . , . , , , . , , 143

. , , , / . Blatner Blatner (1988, . 95), . Bellak, Hurvich, Gediman (1973), , , , , , , , , , , , - , ( Blatner Blatner, 1988, .95-99). Marianne 21 , , . , , . . , , Marianne . , , Marianne , , (. (judgment technique), Sacks 1965), . (vicarious) Marianne (). , Marianne . 144

Marianne, . , Marianne , . , . (surplus reality) To - : - (Moreno, 1966). , . , , (Moreno & Moreno, 1969). Moreno (1972, . 214) , . , . Blatner (1973, . 124), . , , . - , ... . , , , . . , (145

) (Moreno & Moreno, 1969, . 234). , : , , , , , (deja vu) , , (Leutz, 1974, Blatner Blatner, 1988, Karp, 1988). ( ). , ( ) () . , , ... (Seeman & Weiner, 1985, 151-152).

, . - - . J. L. Moreno, (Moreno & Moreno, 1969). John, . Moreno ( ) John, Mary . Mary, Moreno . Mary , , , , ,146

. Mary , John, . - - . ( Mahoney, 1974) . , , . . . , . (. ) : , !. . , , . , , , . Henne (1979) Pitzele (1991), : , . , . () , . , 147

. , Rebecka . , ( (figurative pshychodrama) Gonseth & Zoller, 1982) . . (Lippitt, 1958), . , / Gestalt. figurative , . , , . ' , (Id), . ' , , . , , , , !. , , . , . . (Jennings, 1986, Landy, 1986) - (Nolte, Weistart, Wyatt, 1977). 148

: , , , , . Jane, , . 1 ( ;), . . . . , , . . Anzieu (1960, .43-44), Lacan : , . , . , , , . , , . Levi- Strauss (symbolic efficacy). 149

. . , . , . - - ' . Moreno Freud (1908) . , , , ' . , , . , , . Singer (1977, . 141), make-believe , , . - (make-believe) o -. , . . : , , , , . Piaget (1951) ,150

. , . Moreno (1960a, .81) : , . William James, C.H. Cooley, G.H. Mead . , . , , . (Me) , . , , Blatner Blatner (1988). (Bandura, 1971) . : . , Jacobson (1964, . 43) - (make-believe) , : , , , , , 151

. . , Winnicott (1971) , , ( - ) ( - Me). , , , , , . Winnicott - - . , (pacifier), . , . (Kipper, 1986). , , . , . Martin (1991, . 588), , , (props), , , .., . , , (Stanislavski, 1936) (Diderot, 1951). , . 152

(Sarbin & Allen, 1968, Goldfried & Davidson, 1976, Yablonsky, 1976, Kipper, 1986). . , . , , . , . Stanislavski (1936), Stanislavsk , . , . , . . Moreno (1923), . (sua sponte: , ), . Yardley (1982), , Moreno (1972, . 297) , Stanislavski / , . , - : 153

. , . , . , Stanislavski Moreno (as is) (Ginn, 1974, .132). , . Janov (1970), , , . . Shakespeare, , . , (dissimulators); , ; . , . . , , . 154

. , , . . . , , , . - (make-believe) (Martin, 1991) , . ( ) . (self-altering experiences), (Tellegen & Atkinson, 1971), (Scheff, 1979), , . , Yardley (1982), . (1) (particularisation). , ( ) . (2) (personalization) . , . (3) (presencing) , --, , . .

155

, . , . , , (as it is) (as if) (Kipper, 1986, .28).

156

10 (Acting out) , () , . . , , . , , , . Breuer Freud (1893, . 8) . , , - - , , . . - - , , , . , , , , - . . , (Abt Weissman, 1965). , . . , Moreno (1972) : ()157

. . , , , out. . Rexford (1966), A. Freud (1968) Sandler, Dare & Holder (1973). : 1. , , . 2. () . 3. , , (reenacment) . 4. 5. 6. : . . 7. , , (). 8. , . 9. . 10. , , 158

. Walter , , . Tom . . , , , . - . Yalom (1975, . 427) , , . . . , , . , , . , , (A. Freud, 1968). Grotjahn (1976) , , , (enacment). , Moreno (1972, . 9) : / / / ; , , , 159

, , . : 1. , . 2. ( ). 3. , , -, - . 4. . 5. , -. 6. (, ) . , , . , , , . - -. Moreno , . , . : , Ethel, , . , . Ethel ( ). Ethel . Ethel - . : , !. . , , 160

, , . Ethel , . Ethel , - - . , , . , . , (Polansky & Harkins, 1969). . Moreno (1972) , , , , . , , Moreno . out (. acting out, . ) . Menninger & Holzman (1973, .11) () (). Sandler (1973, . 95) agieren: out (. acting

161

out, .) . , . Eidelberg (1968, .11) . : , . Eidelberg . , . Zeligs (1957) Rosen . Robertiello (1965), acting through - - . (Hulse,1958) Bromberg (1958), , . , Blatner (1973, . 2) (acting in) , . , in (. acting in, . ), , (insight) (within) . ut (. acting out) , : 1. : , , . 2. : , , . 3. : ( ). ut (acting out). 162

( ), . out . . . , . ( ) (Boesky, 1982). in out, , , . () , , . , (acting out), (feeling out), (thinking out), . Rangell (1968, . 200): , . . , : (1) (), (2) ( ), (3) () ( ) 163

, . , , , . , - . . , . , 1985. Jean-Claude Rouchy, , (. 63), Marcia Karp, (. 65). (Parsons and Shils, 1951, Moreno, 1953, Hartmann, 1964), - , - , - , - , - , - - . : . ; , ; , . : 1. - , 164

. , , , . 2. . . , . 6, , . 3. , . , , . 4. , , , , (Ekstein & Friedman, 1957). , . . , Iris, 32 . , Iris 2 EST Workshop. , . Iris , , , . Iris , . 165

: Iris . , Iris . . , , , : Iris , . , , . , Iris 2 (workshop). A , Iris , . Iris. , , , , , , . - - -, , (Montagna, 1982). , . - , . 166

Schafer (1976, . 244) , -. , , - - . , ,- . Lebovici (1974), , . , , , , . , - , - . , . . , , . , -, . , . , , 167

, . , ( , ) , . , ( ) . , , .

168

11 , , , , (tele), (as-if) . , , , , , , . (Frank, 1961). , : , , . . , . ( ), . , . . , . , , . , . . , , , . , Moreno . . , . , ( ) , 169

. , , . . , -- , . , , , : , , , , , , , . , . , , . , (Moreno, 1966). , , , , , , , , , (Williams, 1989, . 79).

. , , , , . 170

, Coriat (1923), Frazer (1951), Malinowski (1954), Kiev (1964), LeShan (1966), Middleton (1967), Ehrenwald (1967), Dossey (1982), Versluis (1986). O Bandler Grinder (1975) , - (..). Buchanan Little (1983, . 114) , , . Karp (1988, . 49) . , (Bonilla, 1969) (Colomb de Preneuf, 1979), , , ESP, . ( - of make believe) , . Tom Wingfield (Gassner, 1947) Tennesse Williams: , . . , , . . . , . : - (Moreno, 1953), Yin and Yang, - - (Freud), -, (Magnusson Endler, 1977), (Bateson, 1972) (Lewin, 1951).171

, , . . , Fenichel (1946, . 3), . , (placebo) (Shapiro, 1971), - - , . , . , (Frank, 1969): , . , (Strupp, 1972, 1973, Kazdin, 1979) , , . , . , , , - . ( ) , , placebo (Goldstein, 1960). , , , , . . , 172

, . . , , : . , , Zerka, -. . !. , , , , . - - , , . , , . (Frank, 1971, Hobbs, 1962, Strupp, 1973). , , [-, , , ( -). , ( ) , ( ) ( . 4). , . , . , . , 173

- (ritualisation)- . , . , , . , (Bibring, 1954, Wolberg, 1977, Appelbaum, 1988). , . , , , , . - - , . , , . . , Luhrman (1989, . 161), . . , , . . . . , , . , . 174

, . , , (Zerka Moreno, 1965). , , . , (Fraiberg, 1958). . , - . , Freud (1913-1914, . 58), , . . Appelbaum (1988, . 203):, , , , (needfulness), , . , . , () - , , , . , ,

175

, -.

(Weiner, 1959, Schutzengerger, 1970, Petzold, 1978). , . - - , . , , , . , . , , . ; , . , . , , . - , . Petzold (1978), , ( ) . , , - - , , 176

. , . , , , , . , . , . , , . . , Hart Ebbers (1981), (. 189). , (Pitzele, 1991), , (Williams, 1989). Aguilar Wood (1976) , . , , , . , , . , (Siroka Schloss, 1968), 177

( ) , / . , . , ( ), . , , , , . , ( ) . Hart (1983), o , -- . , . , , (Selvini Palazzoli ., 1977), , ( , ) . , . , , . . , 178

, . Wittgenstein (1922) , .

179

12 , . , , . . . , / . . (Moreno, 1953, .iv). , , . , , - . , , . , (, ). , , . 180

. , . (Wachtel, 1982, .42), . , Moreno (1953) , --. , . , (Moreno, 1972, p.viii). . . / . John, . . John, . , : . ! , !. , Mary, . . . 181

. , - (Greenson, 1967), - (Menninger & Holzman, 1973), (, 1957) (Perls, Hefferline, & Goodman, 1950) . , , - . , , . , , , . , , , . , . ; . . , , , . . . , . , , , 182

, , , , . . , , , . , , ( ...) ( ). , "" . : , . , , . , , : , - ! . , , (). Bentley (1967) : . ! Leveton (1977, .16) : ; , , . ; ; , ... . , , 183

. , , . Korn (1975, .187), (interhuman) (become mattering). - . . . . Seabourne (1966) , , , , , " " , (, , /) . , . , Sacks (1976b) , , , , . (Quin, 1991, . 241), . , . 184

" " , , . . Moreno (1972, . 215) , , . , , , . Kruger (1980, . 243), . Ralph, . Ralph . ' , Ralph , . . . Moreno (1972, p.xvi), ( ), ( ). , . , Sam, , 185

, . Sam , . (1961) Bion (, -, ) Whitaker Lieberman (1964) ( ). , . . , . . , , , , . . , ... . -, , , . , ... , . , .

186

; , , . , . . . / . , , , , , , , , . Henry Kellerman (1979, .101-l02) . , : . , .. , , . , (compensate) . , . , . , . , . ; , . (take it in). , - . ; , 187

, .... "," , . , . , , , (1929/50). , , , , , , . (shock), Moreno (1939, . 3) . . . , , . , - , , - , . ( ), , . , , , . 188

, . -, . , , . , , , , . , -, . Blanck Blanck (1979, .149), -, . - () : , , , , , . , , , . . , . , , / , . . ; ; , , 189

: . ! /, . , , / . , , . , . , . , , , . , . . , . , , . .

190

1. , . . ( ...) , - , , - - - . ( , , ). . Z.T. Moreno (1965, . 23b), , . .... Hart, Corriere, Binder (1975, . 40), () . , , . . 2. , , . ;, . ( ). 3. , , , . ( , , ...). , .191

. Blatner (1973, . 36), (1) (2) (3) , (playfulness) (4) . . ' , . , , , . , , , , . , : ... Moreno (1972) , . , , . . . , Bertha. Bertha . 192

, , , . Bertha !. , . , -- , , , , ..... . --. , , ., . , , . . , . . : . !. , : ; ; ;. : ! , . - , . . , , . , . . . .

193

, . / . , (, , , , ) . . Tom , , . Tom , , , , . . , Tom, . , , . Jane, , . Jane , , . , Jane , ... . Jane : , 194

. , . .... , Jane . , Jane , . . William . , , . William , ! : ! ! Moreno & Moreno (1969, . 241) , , , , . , . Paul, , , . , Paul , . , ., , .

195

. , , . : . , , . , . - . , . , . , (overdramatic) . , , . .

196

. , , , , . Marilyn . . , Marilyn, Marilyn Marilyn . , Marilyn . : Marilyn ! !. , Marilyn , . , . , Z.T. Moreno (1965) . , . Seabourne (1966) : , , , , . , 197

. . . , . , , , Watzlawik, Weakland, Fish 1914) . , , : , , , , , , . ;. ' , . , , . , . . , - (Moreno & Enneis, 1950, . 2). , . , , . , ,198

, , , , , . , ( ) (Moreno Moreno, 1959, .97). coupling . , . , , , , . , (counterposition) -. , . ' , (Z.T. Moreno, 1965), Blanck Blanck (1979, . 224) , . Blatner (1973, .63) : , , . . Moreno :

199

. , , .

200

13 (closure) . , , , . , . Finis Corona Opus . . , . . - - . , , , . , . Yalom (1975, . 365), . , , . . , , .201

, Moreno. gestalt . , , gestalt . , : , . , - (post action) (Barbour, 1977). , , . , (Warner, 1975, .9). , . , , , . . , , . (deroling). . , , , . , . , . 202

, . , . Paula. Paula , . , . , , Paula . , , . ( ) , . , Paula. , . , Paula . , Paula . , Paula . ( ) Paula. Paula . , 203

, . , , . , , Paula . , Paula, Paula . . Weiner & Sacks (1969). . Barbour (1977) , . Levy (1969), (warm down) . . , , . , , , () , , (Hollander, 1969), (Goldman & Morrison, 1984), (Hart, Corriere & Binder, 1975). , . , . 204

, (Hollander, 1969, .5) , , Schramski (1979) - , (). , Petzold (1978) (closure phase) . - (anamnestic) - , . - (central concern model) Buchanan (1980). , , - , - , . . . , . Z.T.Moreno (1965) (Goldman & Morrison, 1984, . 27). , . . , (primal cathartic force). (Landy, 1986, . 115). , 205

, . ; Warner (1975, . 9) , . . Goldman Morrison (1984, . 31), . Warner (1975), , . ipper (1986), (1) . (2) (3) . (4) .(5) (6) . : 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. . 6. . 7. ( ).206

8. ()