FGM in the Context of Islam (Arabic)

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    21-Mar-2016
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Booklet explaining theological arguments against female genital-cutting/mutilation. Produced for the Egyptian National Council on Childhood and Motherhood, State Information Services and Ministry of Health by the USAID Communication for Healthy Living project implemented by the Johns Hopkins University Center for Communication Programs.

Transcript of FGM in the Context of Islam (Arabic)

  • fEG NSEG Qe

    GdG S .O.CGG Ad dG Od dG eCG

  • 1 SEG Qe fEG N

    fEG NSEG Qe

    GdG S .O.CGG Ad dG Od dG eCG

  • SEG Qe fEG N 2

    ```jG

    dG

    3 (GdG S .O.CG H) SEG Qe fEG N

    17 fEG N aj SEG AY Qc

  • 3 SEG Qe fEG N

    ? jT jf jOMCG e a OQh SEG FT e fEG N g:1S:gh Y G UCG gQOe e NDj eSEG jdG M EG : 1UCG Y IQG WhH LEGh dG jdG dGh dG BGdG

    .dG hd G SdGh dG

    fEa ,fEG N dCe eSEG jdG M Y f CG fOQCG GPEa ie eCG f K LEG K jdG dG K dG BGdG f

    -:SdG eEGN EG H hCG jb e IQTEG j f CG e dG BGdG N bh j CG Sb h ,a YT M Y LEG g dh .fEG

    .fCTe Jfhe H OQh ,YhG X Qe fEa jdG dG eCG d fCG Gh .CdG Gg Sh Y G U SdG EG He jhe YT M e Oj CG Rj dG U MGh dO jhG g

    .dCG c ffEG IM Y IQG dH dCe U a G PEG f j dG jOMCG ` dG gCG Y ` M h

    .GS hO S

    fEG N Y jhG jOMCG

    hCG jGH J fch ,zY CG{ J fc ,ICGeG CG a jOMCG TCG gh

    -:d b ,Sh Y G U ,dG CG ih oj ,IQG jG fEGzhdG Y MCGh Ld iSCG fCa ,J h TCG :Y CG j{

    hhQ ch ,HQe dCH OhGO HCGh dGh cG GhQ jG Ggh AMEG{ Y `J bGdG jdG jR aG dP sH c .V fSCH

    .(148/1) G`d zjdG ``YY ` HdG dG Y d Y hG dGh ` OhGO HCG Y bh ,OSEGh G Y Y hY H G Y Y hQ{ :dH jG Gg, (jG hGQ) M H h ,Se hQ bh ,dH g dh

    1zV jG Ggh

    126-125/14 ,zOG Y{ MT e OhGO HCG S 1

  • SEG Qe fEG N 4

    :dH OhGO HCG c Y OHBG dG G T eEG YhM H gh hGdG dh ,GVG LC dH jG d{ dNh ,dGh Y HG (M H ) OhGO HCG Jh z.......dG

    :a S H dG Y aG hGdG Ggh 2zchGh AdG MCG bfdG Y G S H g{Vh fEG :AdG Y b ,Gc (G S H hCG ,M H )eEG bh .(Sh Y G U G SQ EG Hc f CG) jM BG HQCG

    .3 nn nUh (bfdG H CG ) bfdG Y QG b :MCGM H J V ch ,jG Gg W jUG H L bh eH eSEG SGQdG PSCG) dG d QcdG edG b M

    :fEG N Y dSQ (jOdG HdG H VjdGY M ch ,bGdGh OhGO HCG G eeEG jg EG G YQ fa{

    .zjNCG e U e EG J h ,dHLhCG e hQ ICGG N jMh{ :OHBG dG G jdG T b b eh

    .4zaY c H MG j Th de V ch Ic.e OJ M h a N bW H PEG Y CG ja

    dG jG

    :b Sh Y G U dG CG n ph oQ e gh.zAd ee Ld S G{

    Gg V Y zjdG Y AMEG{ Y J bGdG aG f bh .dG Y HGh M HCG HGh dG FCG J EG Sh .jCG jG gh IWQCG H G ,Y J hCG ,Y QhJ jG Gg jGhQ W Lh

    .de fC H jJ) Hc M HG aG jCG jG Gg V Y sf bh fEG :a dG eEG b fh ,(dG aGdG jOMCG jJ G

    HdG LG 2

    S zfEGh QcdG N YdG G { dG d H dG edG Y QNH f 3

    .9U ,1995, dG dG SG d bEG G ,dG r ndG

    126-122 dG c jOMCG U kGe AdG N dG a bh .126 U ,14 ,OG Y 4

    r nLGa

  • 5 SEG Qe fEG N

    G e CWG dG{ dG Y HG b dch .eh V.5zH j hGQ jGhQ Y Qhj fEG{ :zfSCGh

    G e CWG dG{ Hc dG Y H Y HCG aG OQhCG bh gh ,Gg G HG jH S G L e MGh{ :tf e zfSCGhY LCG dGh H OfG j dh ,ICWQCG H M Y Qhj

    6zLdG G Gj mhGQ EG Le ,V f fC ,M dG Gg a dP YhbCGh eG e hCG dG e ke kGeCG CH YT M e NDj a ,jGhH

    .U dH EG j YT M SGh ,e J CG dGMCGEa ,cP HdG Y CG jM e gGT hCG kGgT jd CH dP Y tO n oj h,a MOb H de ,U EG gP e H gOQhCG dG gGdG L

    .V Y kV EG fEG N eCG OGOj a ,H MG e feH jJ a d fEa ` dc d gh ` e jG CG G VdG Yh,H d fEG N CH jdG a H .G fEG Nh QcdG NAL M ` G VdG Gg Y ` SEG Cch .zee{ fhO Je EGhe ddG dG UH IOdG g jJ OGQCG fEG j dG Hh.hCG dG jGhdG dG zJ h TCG{ H bdG jZ bdGh ,bdG

    .dhCG NBG bj ` cdG dS ` Y CG jM CG EG f dG H EG KiSCG{ dGREG QeCG AG dP H AH CG H NBG h H eCG dhCG aa J G N c G UCG j GPa !zhdG Y MCGh Ld

    !?hdG Y IGh LdG IQfOGQCG dh .Gg a kFS kjhCJ ,H G VdG Y ,jGhdG hLd S G EG{ :d AdGh LdG H jdG Sh Y G U dG

    .keY kjJ j FY fEa ,Sh zS G{ :d hCG zAdGh

    jGh dG AdG Qc e gh QG HG eEG de U j dHh7 zJ S h dEG Lj N G d{ dG HGdG dG

    .124/14 ,OHCG dG G d OhGO HCG S T OG Y :fG 5

    .59/21 fSCGh G e CWG dG 6

    126/14 OhGO HCG MT OHG dG G T fCG 7

  • SEG Qe fEG N 6

    GDS GL VQ TQ dG PSCG edG ` d kGe ` H MG e gh8 .QG f

    a H Md j jG c eh{ cdG eEG dP jh dG e YCG QdG d dG d C G Y a M fCG Gh LdG G Lh Y dO j h ...dUCG UG

    .(135/1 QWhCG f ) zLGh d IdG N FSh ...S eCG jOMCG {:zdG b{ dG FGdG dDe HS S dG edG bh

    .9zT e j V ICGG H

    ddG jGgeCj QfCG Ad N :a ALh ,Y H G Y Y jG Gg h oQ ` L MCG ` f HCG OSEG 10cdG j M V jM gh..HhY H dN ` j`d NBG Qe ` Y HG OSEG h ,V gh Y HG e

    .e e VCG gh TdG

    HGdG jGG U G SQ EG Yae ` Y G VQ FY IdG Y dG dG dG GPEG{ :fCG J HQe dCH ihj jM ` FY Y abeh ,Sh Y,U eh ,CWG de jG Gg ihQ zdG Lh a fG

    .dG jG fhe UCG e gZh ,S Le HGh edGh jJ a PEG zfG{ :Sh Y G U db g gdG Veh Yhe Y M SdG H Gj b ,e ICGGh LdG N V

    .AdG N,Yhe hCG fEG H eCG Y Lh CG e dO fG cP dh ,dG S Y gMCG SH jeCG oO p nJ HdG dG dG EahCG ,ibCG hCG ,dG hCG dG e TCG SG e dG rs nK bhdG g fCG SG j bh ,kfCT YCG hCG ,kf NCG hCG ,QbCG

    -:Gdb fCG ,ac dG gCG aY dG ,dP eCG eh .j bh dh ,jCG dGh d) GdGh ,(dGh dG) GdGh ,(Yh H HCG) G odG GdGh ,(AdGh G) GAdGh ,(Y dG Qf SfG H Qf dG

    .618-617 U 1904 S 7 OdG ,QG 8

    .37U 1 ,HS S ,dG a 9

    .139U/1 QWhCG f 10

  • 7 SEG Qe fEG N

    idG J dGh , kUCG d Ad dh (AGh d) GOSCGh ,(dGh dG),(CGh CG gh) GHCG :jdGd Gdb ddh ,IOY ,dG QbCG hCG

    Ga Y Gg GdG j eh{ :J db c nfCT YCG j bhG dG dGh f hCa (12:Wa IQS) zLCG e Ggh HGT FS

    .dG e fCT YCG dG C dPh dGh dG J Y GdG WCG dh

    dG L hjj JhG db dP eh dG g fCG j bh UCG gdG d J Ggh (jGh gd) GUCGh .eG e IhGh

    . GdCG Y jG CG hGh jG Y11 .dG H dG gCG Y he Qe dP ch

    ,fEG N Yhe Y a dO dG jG Gg fG a.ICGG Y, LdG CG ,ibCG J dG dG S Y EG Oj fEG M

    ` dP H ` jGh .UCG G eCG dh ,dG Lj a OQGh jGh.jEH EGh ,fG AdG O dG Lj a ,ac AdG Y hDe

    !?e dG j a ` b CG ` jG d G G J GPEa

    eG jGHCG `Y CWG deh MCGh FdGh edGh OhGO HCGh dG LNCG

    :Sh Y G U SQ :b ` Y G VQ ` Ij`g ,QXCG Jh ,QdG bh ,OGSGh ,G :IdG e N hCG N IdG{

    .zHCG fhfCG IdG N ` HdG e gZh Y G VQ ` FY IdG Yh

    .dG AYEGh ,QdG b e ,N Y

    QdG b EG M ,fEG N Y a M dG jG Gg EG e g IdG CT jG UCGh ,fEG hO QcdH UN dG AYEGhe hCG c dG Y gGHEG CG S H j Y CWG de GhQe fEG :bh ,dG dG Y HG f c ,AdG LEG Gg Yh ,NG

    .119-118/1 ,M Sd GdG dG :fG 11

  • SEG Qe fEG N 8

    U fCG dG f gh LdG cJ j dG SG S GcDe.SCG c ,fEG N

    AL ah dN e hCG IdG QeCG e fEG N EG j CG Rj aQcdG N g EG IdG N b e j dG G CG dP ,jOMCG Hj fEa fEG N eCG ,AdG UG h dG kfN j dG gh .zVN{ fCG e M CGh ,G S Y dh RG S Y kfNSdG CG Y dO CG Lj fCG ,fEG N Yhe Y e ,S e cDjh` SEG FT e fEG N c a ,JLhR hCG JH N b Sh Y G U

    .JLhRh JH Y W e hCG Sh Y G U SdG d `QT hCG

    j e CGh .fCG N Yhe Y a M dG dG CG j Gghhj eCG CGh .YT M e Oj V c fEd G jOMCG e H.dHEGh jJ eCG dG dG dh ed SEG J ,GOdG e IOY j CG

    j adG eEG ga :fEG N CT IOe AGQBG d dG SQGG :2SLGh G CGh{ ij M H MCG eEG geh, zAdGh LdG Y LGh G{de eEGh M HCG eEG geh ,zee H AdG Y LGH dh LdG YdP e Oj a .. MCG j h .ee Adh S Ld G EG j

    ? AdG ADg GOe ` bCG Y ` RGL

    dOCG e kGe kY dG YdG MCH dG :fCH dG AdG ns nY : 2WhH LEGh dG jdG dGh dG BGdG Uf e CG dG

    .dG hd G SdGh dG UCG Y IQGae ,jdGh dG H IG dG aG fL EG ,dG TGhX ,j hCG H j hCG SdG jh ,a j dG bGdH Ie

    .YVhCGh ahXMCG d dG Y G H j H Y g AdG ahAdG c j h .a jdG M Gaj CG G j e c jdG,YdG Ud a fCG Y H j H .zjO{ fCG Y H j h zjT{,dYEG ch UdG d aCG a EG S gh .bGdG Y d GfEGhe gDG Gh ,GdG a j c CG a jh ,ee d dh

    .j M kGMGh kGLCG QLCeh ,j M jLCG QLCe AdG

  • 9 SEG Qe fEG N

    j CN Z CGQh CG oj GU jCGQ{ :j f adG eeEGh.zGdG

    dG H ,jO fCT j jGh dG c Me OQh e c d fCG cj ,gfh AdGh AGdGh dG GHCG OQh e S ,MG g OQh

    .jO fCT

    -Sh Y G U- G SQ M ISCG d jdG Z dG h geCG e Ga ,dG HCJ H G eCG eY (dG HCJ dCe )U - G SQ jM Aa ,be c e dG e j dH GPEa ,HeCG H dG d Vd .zcfO H YCG fCG{ dG -Sh Y G

    .fdG T d eCGh IdGh jdG hDT d e H dG j CG j gfO T j SdG aa dd

    .kjU kf dJdG CGQ j jfO QeCG c jGh dG c IOQGdG dG QeCGh CGQh bGdG j g dGh da ,dGh dG CGQ j CG H aCGQ Y j g dG CGa .YdG G bGdG Gg Y j dG

    .dG dh dGe Y j fEa fEG N b Y HdG YGdG W GPEa IM SM b Jh SdG OTQE eCG Gd ijYGdG hCG YGdG hT dh ,dG hT a aGJ CG eh JHdH IG dG ae a aGJ CH dPh ,G hCG G hCGbdG ae EG aVEH ` dUCGh dG Sh ` YG eSEG,adGh YLG HSCGh ,jQdG UCG M e IOdG g YW M e H UCJ dG AYCG g M dG FGhLdGh ICGd ` kjO ` hG SG Ga gKCGh jG FXhhdG j dHh .Lh Y G N c H GPEG hCG UDSG GPEGadG Y dh dG FH ae Y e a CGQ J e

    .IOdG g M IG dG

    AYCd chCG FL b fCG :a d VGh fEG N dG CGdGh dG FXdG e ICGd eM dHh ,ICGG L LQG SdGSQ gh .AYCG g LCG e N dG YhG jG Gh

    .bM e UfGh ICGG Y IdG ag YLG

  • SEG Qe fEG N

    jG YLGh dG QG g c Y j CG H pdG pd a .!??gQGSG Y aGjh Zj CG dG IOdG g M

    ,fEG N dO j CG bj jdG jOMCG J Y OYG :3SNCG Qe Y j fC V jM JEG fEG dj SdG H C dPh

    ?eg a hCG gh) dG jH dG EG gj jdG CG g f CG j : 3 YCG Fa dP EG gj (dG jT Zh G Z e

    .fEG N eCG g c kfHh kf FGjEGh M H SdG LjOMCG J Y a bj fEG N aQ eSEG G sEG K

    :SSCG YGb IY Y j HKQGh GbCG dh fEG N IOd bdG YLGh dG dG -: khCG

    -:j e ae dP jh ,Y dG. IOdG d dG UdG

    fCG L AYCG g LCG e N dG dG FXdG IdG IdG YAGS IOdG g SQ Y JG dGh dG QKBG

    .VdG ICGG hCG jG ISCG aGhO g e CG ,IOdG d YLG SCG

    .JH

    ,kYLGh kY IOdG d bdG dGh dG Y G dG CGdG -: kfKBGdG gh Y G UCG QOG e PNCG YdG G J K ehSdGh dG UCG Y IQG WhH LEGh dG jdG dGh dG

    .kfBG H e f Y ,dG hd G

    fEG N IOd dG dG :hCG

    AYCd dG hCG FG SG hCG dG -:g fEG dG UdG .1.fCd LQG SdG

    SQ id FdG UdG dj fEG N SQ dG UdGhSdG AYCG e a hCG FGhd b fCG Y G Qj dG IOdG gdG Y H FGa d d fCG e j dG hCG IFGdG eh ,fCdY e dGh ,AYC b fCG dG UdG H .QGVCG d j b

  • SEG Qe fEG N

    FXh dh YCGh jedG IOQhCH iJ fCG e Y c Y j.fEG jQhVh eR jM

    dj e g g dGh ) AYCG g LCG e N dG dG FXdG -2-: j c gh (AWCG

    .dG AYCG bH jM LdG e c SMEG e jJh G Y d W GRGaEG QJ

    .H G dG ICGGh.dS cCG ` ffEGh kYT e gh ` ICGd G TEG

    Y a dHh ,G Y kGH QG EG dG QJ LJ Y YJ .AYCG g af

    AYCG g b Y JG YLGh dGh dG QKBG -3iG jWh iG Ib dGh dG QKBG Y f CG S f

    :dG f CG dGh ,dG dG c JbCG dGh ,fEG :dG iG Y

    LQO H AYCG d dG FXdG e kc hCG kFL ICGG eM .G AGL e j dG dG fh

    dG QNCGh YG e d ,dP H ICGGh ,IdG IdG VJ .JM GW d VY J hCG e J dG

    :YLGh dG iG Ye dG QGVCG e c dh ,IU Ia jC dH De H G

    .kfMCG dG h jdGdG dG Gah cGh GCG ,JGP Y e IQUh dSQ IdG IdG gP Sj fCG c JZQ dGh L GMG j eh bY Z Fc fCG ghH dP Y eZQEG Lh dd ,Vh Yh jO e RGH G cShdJ Y JH Hf fEa dHh .j M ejEGh SdG FYCG

    . kUCG WN SSCG c Y a ,kYLGh kjOa IQV bh

  • SEG Qe fEG N

    QGSG AGQh J dG ddGh GG g eh ,JH jG SCG J GP -4? IOdG g

    dG gjDJ YLG IOY fEG N CH dG Y MdG ZCG j : 4-:gCG ` Y SSCG H ` KQGG GYCGh ddG e

    LhG ICGGh Id G ZdG jJh J gj G CG .dGh dG Y aG dHh

    a G ICGG eCG ,LhdG bdG LdG gJ G Z ICGG hCG Ve dM LhR T J ,G W ae Zh GAhg cCGY fWGh LhdG bdG Y LdG AVQh IOS d Gg c .HZ

    .Yh LhR SG CG e ICGd SdG AYCG QhOh M M jQSCG GQdG

    .EGh Ghd U Vf ICGeG J CG Y IdG Yj L Zh AGLCG e j fC fCd afh Y G

    .gL

    IOdG g ad SSCG eSEG YGdG Vf CG S e AV :fK :dG

    h kS fc h fEG N Lh Y dG dOCG e MGh dO j -1.J qs nJ CG S c . kee

    Gh jhdG jOCG FS dJh ,SEG dJ G eMh b -2 dPh ,S fh jL H (ICGGh LdG) fEG j CG

    :12 zQGV h QV { dG dG jd CG Y eh e c j zQGV h QV { jdG jG Gg EGdG c fc GPEa .H QdG EG hCG H QGVEG FGQh e JCj SQIdH cDG QdG j fEG N CG d cDJ ,ffEG IGh ,jGfeMh gL jM AYCG H jW Y dPh ,VdG ICGGh IdG

    bH 784/2 :Le HG S ,e T Y U :cG Y bh QG S HCG Y b QGdG GhQ 12

    ,227/4 :b QGdG Sh ,58/2 cd QGh ,69/6 :d idG dGh ,745/2 :de CWe ,2340

    .110/4 :FGhdG h

  • SEG Qe fEG N

    GW S fh U QKBGh QNC jJh ,d dG FXdG e,13zfCG GJ h{ :J dd YT QdG Gg b fEa ,JM

    .14zdG EG cjCH GJ h{ :fS ddhSG M e ICGG CG ,G dG e fh ,dH QV fCG jQ hU S H HG dhPG IOdG g H LGhR H G JH

    .SEG EG

    ..G N J Y dG -3 zJ MCG fEG N d{ dG Hc Jh QJ G j N b G Cc h ,fCd g fEG N EG Gdd SdG JCa ,(4:dG)

    .( TM) !!h jH ej gh CNh H ICGG LH J G jJh J g fCG N Ea Yj e Y Yh

    .dGhGG{ d Y Uh ,G N J Y Sh Y G U G SQ f bhH ,GG e dh AYCG H b UG e L dG BGdGh .zG Na ,G N H fbh efCG OBG H H j CG dG YJ gVC h Vhe f OY e JC bh G d{ :dG Y Jj eh G N a feCh fCG GPBG a feBh eC h

    .(dG :dG) 15zke kfGN N a G hO e kdh dG

    : n p r oeh Lf LhR bY ICGG M cDJ SEG dJ -4 EGh ,LhRh LdG H G bdG GMG EG fYJ G jO dJ EGfc PEG bdG g Jh ,Lfh IS bY jT Y W c MMh ffCd kG J dG g a ,NBG hO MGh W TEG Y J

    .eSEG Y fj e g GdGLdG M e j G bdG CH QaCGh Ge e KQh e EGGGh QaCG kG e gh ,ICGG hO bdG H YSGh

    .G bdG eh LdG IOH ICGG N HJ dG YLGYGh G d (ICGGh LdG) fEG e Qb a SEG dJ eCG

    .29 jBG e AdG IQS13

    .195 jBG e IdG IQS 14

    119:AdG 15

  • SEG Qe fEG N

    J H ,IdG g ehe d jdG e CGh ... IdG QeCG e d W.dG G IFGO d FGf TEG

    M GMGh ICGG Ye jYH fUhCGh ,bdG H YG b SEa.LdG T fCT G TEG

    h SG YdG M Y ICGG M Y dG BGdG UjhGebh T fCG KM GJCa d M cDhf{ LdG j e AGJQGe ICGG J M WGh dG EG IQTEG d dGh 16.fCGPEG M gjh ga ,gCG cMCG JCG GPEG{ dG h .Jd Y dMb GPEG K ,ba ,gCG LdG eL GPEG{h ,zdhCG f e BGQ e e iCGQ

    .zLM J M j a LMgYJ dG AYCG H dP e eM bh LM J CG ICGd a

    .jG XdG g b OY e gKQh dG dG GOdG dh ,ICGG Ye SEG MG d

    .ch b EG Y H Mh gYe

    N AGLE G aJ dG YLG GG aJ SEG dJ -5 :fEG

    N EG FdG aJ dG YLG GG c Wb aQ aj SEGIT EG j e hCG IOGQEG hCG Y H e OLCG AdG CH j e Ea .JH hCG f e kGMGh dO hj (!!) Ie jYh N LdG IT Y jJ AdGjU d FOeh SEG dd d gh .YGG g jDj Y hCG YYGG g H Wb f gh zLdG FT AdG{ :dG jG a

    .c

    CG dG gVh Y dh ZQh gYe d e LdG e ICGaJ e Ca ,dGh G GMGh dJh jdG MCG M Y jo

    .fT c G

    dG bj c gh ,zICGG Id jJh jJ{ G EG b e ghda ,AYCG dh dG gQe ICGG id G ZdG EG d j dG

    .223:IdG 16

  • SEG Qe fEG N

    AYCG eCj dG dG Oj W hCG U c AGS LdGh ICGG id GdG ffEG ZdG c dG eGhC e ON a ,a GCG Ld hCG ICGd LQG G AYCd dh ,(dG.. .Gh dGh dG)jJ Y Yj Y fEG a dd .G dG hCG ZdG j QhOZ ICGG e G ICGd G dGh Zda ,cS jJ hCG ICGG ITNG eCG .IdG a CJ dG ISCGh HdGh NCG Y bj GSG e d M G ICGG Y dG FXdG f a

    .d N dG Xd AYCG g AGOCG e H W AYC

    ,AGS M Y LdGh ICGd He eSEG Fa IQdGh dGh dG EGG UdG g G Nh jdH dG jJh dG G Y HdGh

    .AGH kAGS LdGh ICGd

    le GPEG eCa ,fEG N j YT f Oj h ,MHEG ATCG UCG :5S?IdG eCG hh ISCG GJ e M

    SG MHEG H j ,U a IYb MHEG ATCG UCG ..f : 5 e eCG .G VQCG OQGeh QTCGh G e d G N dG ATCGddh .MHEG dh dG a UCa Sh VYh deh fEG LfGh ,jdGh jdH SdG d VdGh GeCG Y AGYG jeSEG jdG Y bJ dG FGG e dG hCG G hCG dH OLCG

    .kYOGQh kGjT HY fEG f CG Rj a dGh H IU Ia VJ g fEG Nh YdG IYdGh ffbh YT Gh QG e g H MG ATCG e

    .MHEG ,dG VGYCGh GeCGh AedG UCG CG Y G

    H NCG j a .. jdG QOe e dGh ,b IOYh Y fEG N :6S? G MHEG

    kGeh kaf j CGh YT d keOe j CG j H j dG dG : 6QGVEGh AYCG bh MGG Ud Oe Gh .Gh SdM d SdG GOY C ,eR W e H dG jL j a ,SdHhCG a CGH c Gg LGe OGYG Rj h .YdG UdG dj a

    .Y j b S jdG UCG e d fCG J eH a ge

  • SEG Qe fEG N

    Y jh Zj G Y JGP IdG hCG IdG eCG h aGe dCG :7S? fdGh YdG iG

    eCG h C dPh ,G H JGP IdG hCG eCG h aGe EG :7.fT IYGeh HJh jOCJ M a g ,a dG M hCG IdG L dG d M jCG Ida dd ,a d M d e G EG

    .QfGh G AGjEG SEG M bh .jJ c gL b CG Y AdG f bh ,kffbh kYT ke j GH fEG Nh HY jdGh ,edG jdG (ICGd LQG SdG AYCG e gh) jdGPGdG j{ jdG jH fCH dP GYh ,j jJh aj eh jdG HdG g Lj e H hCG PGdG Gd f a .zH

    17. hCG J dh K Ybh QfG e hCG g H ,b FL S

    dPh ,YdG hCG jaEG G dh dG N hCG YdG G g jf e :8 Sc fG gh .dG dj NCG Yh jdG jdG dH k gG Gg c j M fEG N EG nj h e edG jdG

    ?cdGh ,fEd zdG N {Y j jdG jdG dG SQ g d :8gCGh dG dG IM FbOh UJ c S dG jdG jdG IdG EG KhCG JH N b -Sh Y G U- G SQ CG Y cP CG a Oj H

    .AdG e H gCG e kjCG hCG JLhRjQSh dh G hOh ,jOdG HdG G e eSEG hdG ZCG EGIOdG gJdG ....jdehfhfEGh ,GhFGGhfJhdh ahFTeegIThdG gcGjCGG ea,WEGY

    .??HGYjc zfEGN{YCG, IcDe jf ShCGSEG

    kYJG hCG dG dG dj e AGQh kjL d IOdG g Y AdH gG EG Gg aGQ dGh 1994 Y e Y dG hdG dGh dG De GQ,(CNN) g jeCG fjJ T Y jPCGh e e Ia N Qj dG dG

    .jOh Wh dU Y QZ e Wh c ASG dG Gg b d dH

    Y UdG Lh EG dNh dP AdG AGQBG f M ,458/10 ,gdG M HC G fCG17

    j :gMCG ,jCGQ f M 546/11h 158 /12 ,zeb H G {h ,G Y jdG fh ,G

    .UdG AGLEH J a GQY jdH j dGh ,jdG b UdG

  • SEG Qe fEG N

    e hCG SEG AY e idGh CGdG gCG b e AGS jM gG d ghAWCG L{ N e jG AWCG QUCG a ,G Gh dhdGe IOdG g HQ IYO hCG ` H SCJ J AWCG Hf C ` ze

    .VG dG e jdG NGhCG dG MdGN CG cDJ VG dG e HQCG EG LJ YT iha g CG c M dG G dG ia e ;cJ e Y KEG h ;H d fEGG dDG CG dG HS S edG dGh ,1949 Y jG QjdG ehJ fC keg kLe QU dGh jdG dG e HQCG (dG a)Gg cCG d ,Uh dG jU e dOCH fhe eSEG dG Fe

    18 zT e j V fEG H eCG jOMCG{ :dG dG

    .1904 S QG GVQ TQ dG ia ehh C a T c b fEG gG g fEG N Y AdH gG EGaGj CG QGVCG e Y Jj S eh HC j e M j (CG hCG CG) eCG

    .dG g AGLEG YAdH GUSG{ Sh Y G U SdG Uh cdh JH G a

    .zGN

    fEG N aj SEG AY Qc1904 Y VQ TQ / dG -1

    1322S GG IZ G IQOdG QG VQ TQ / dG c: j e cCa ( S hCG G Lh GY 1904 S SQe 18 -`gFdG MGh : J S h dEG Lj N G d : QG HG b ee LdG S G dGh MCG Y eSCG j S fCH

    . de IWQCG H G jhGQh AdG

    M / dG -2 dG HGd SDe GY ch , (1950-1946 ) jG QjdG e gYCG AdG dc NGh , jOdG HdG H eSEG,Hh J BGdG c c e edG dDG e jdG d .jOdH

    .37U 1 ,HS S ,dG a 18

  • SEG Qe fEG N

    M dG .dG....YSh BGdG IhJ GOBG , BGdG dG IU.TG bGd FG Gah MUEG QaCH

    (1949) fEG N Y M dG iaN CGh KEG Lj cJh kLGh d fCG N CG Y dG gCG cCG : CGG

    . dG Y gGHEG eh G QT gh LGh cdGG gh dG VN Y dG aCG dG Y e ASG dEG OQh : S

    . LGh Z hCG kYT LGh g g HS hCG LGh g g fCGh cdG e d G M GNG AdG EG : LCGM LGh fCG Y hdG eEd G c adG ga .LGH dhgPh . QG H b dG QG dG gG gY gh fCGh cdGg H LGH dh QcdG M LGh fCG EG eGb H G c HGdGh G geh . dG gCG e c b gh fCG M eeh S

    . SEG QT e gh M LGH dh S fCG EG

    b gh kLGh d fCG VN CG Y dG gCG cCG CG dP e aLj a adG UCG H Y kjCG iheh HGh dGh G

    Y gGHEG e eh G QT e gh LGh QcdG N CGh - KEG cJ.HGh adG ge e gh dG

    CG e c Y QO c ( fN ) dG N J KEG CG j Gg eh. YCG J Gh .d dH

    dG a c dDe HS S / dG -3HS S dG CGH dh . jdG dG e SEG AY gCG e MGh gdG SGh , HQCG e dG a IdG YSe Hc YSe Jh . eY jY e cCG YSG g Jh dCJ SGhdG jbh Fe dhJ fC dPh , Y dW C SSCG Le dG ajdG jdG dG Uh dG BGdG jU e dOCH fhe eSEG

    LEGh:dG a Hc HS S dG G edG j

    19 T e j V ICGG H eCG jOMCG43`U , HdG YEd dG QGO ,hCG G , dG a HS dG 19

  • SEG Qe fEG N

    G jG QjdG e T O dG -4 20(1959 Y) T O dG ia

    .. fCG `N, jCGh H S e a , fCG N AWCG AGQBG NG : MU bjM , `H e `NG Gg ZQ `Y S`dGh . Q`Mh fCG e ehjh , jdG dEG Yj CT fCG hjh , jSCG FdG d jh fj :Ye bh f CGh ! a SEG M f CG d a , d kUN kGQT

    ? dG YcCG e dh ,G Y SEG M j e hCH Gg MU dhU fc fCG Z . Ic Ge a c a . a c e hCG d kHGL dGY a Ca dG ZQ MCG CG dG KBG bh .FQdG d , FdGjdG M gh ,dEG YSCG gJ e L e SdG GPBG JU d e jWjh ,dG g e dG be FdG Zh FdG a ,SEG Mh

    . jdGh dH bY eCG e H Y FQdG

    .. b CT GY GhSGh , jQdG a e SdG e c aY , b G Yhf ``fCG Z . `X - k`K``fEGh kGQcP -GNh GNGh ,SEG AL MdG FGhdG dGREG IdG jGgh idG dG jd gQe cCG : jdHgQe c CG , QdGh iPCG e T FH j b dG hCG , FH N j dGh ? VG jQdG M SQ hCG f d Y X , kjO kJ

    . a SEG Mh jdH bY ae g

    `Gh A`dGgGe Y M eeCG AdG c , jhG e L fCT KCG bhQcdG jO LGh fCG iCGQ e a . jU f a Oj e c fCT - LdG Gg Y M AdG NG ch .ee a fCGh , fEGhQd M bCG EG QJh , Yd M bCG EG a dG Lh YJ dGa . kjCG LdG Gg Y Y a i dG YdG bdG GNG -, S Y dG j CG b eM e eh , e bH j fCG iCGQ e

    ,hH/ IgdG hdG QGO ,edG edG JM UG G SGQO , ihdG ,T O 20

    .1980

  • SEG Qe fEG N

    Y f e NBG EG eh eh , IOdG e SCG H bh L e eh. AGQBG e dP

    .. G dG LhOj e c H ddG dG CdG gh - Gg aNG e NCf CG d c GPEGh,eSEG jd G VdG ae H f e - jU U f adG M Y j gh iG SGh jM Y Gfc dG CG NCf e hCG Eac h ddG b J , jJ QOe e dEG GUh hCG dEG Uh aGfch , jCGQ f Y c dh MU Y gMCG j , Y G G

    . GfG hCG dG GSEG hCG eJ hO aj hCG a G j

    CG dEG MhCG K ) : J dH G Lh EG gGdG j CG e ZCG dhgGHEG CG jG AL b fEG djh ( 123 : 16dG ) ( kM gGHEG e JGY j HUCGh H eCG dG JGh S fK Y JCG eH NG. YJCGh Y kLGh gGHEG a bh G j PEGh ,gGHEG a e Gj CG

    NBG SG f e gh , d dG Y H Hb e jZ , SG GSEGJCGh gGHEG H G HG dG QeCG MCG G CG : gh kjCG LdH Fd( Ca H HQ gGHEG `HG PEGh ) : J dH dG G`H gcP

    : IdG N g ``dG J CG S`Y `HG `Y OQh G`d`b ( 124 : 2 I`dG )Dhfh Gdb e NBG EG , QXCG Jh , HEG fh , QdG bh , G gh

    . dG c e hGG

    .. VG jCGQCG j e a d fCG Y G dCe jhG VGSG e LN bhdG dG gh dG OLdG Y ka , dG dG Y kdO jLj N G a d : dH Y Yh , HdG AdG H dEG UhGPEG , ge jhG H AL dG ( S ) c CGh J S h dEGSdG d Y dG OJ h , bdG dP dG Y adCG jdG , U

    . H a H aY dG dG gfCGh cdG j EGh , e d j dG M CG GQCG dGhHJh ,Y OJ d EG kYT Rj G jEG CG gh : eY YT IYd

    . j dG CG Y

  • SEG Qe fEG N

    .. cdG Na ,fEG Z cdG UCG dP AV G EG ff GPEG fh

    . H j dG CG Y H HJ e hP a

    J J EG iODJ dG GRGaEG jd N e dG NGO CG dPj , g eh ..cdG VGeCG e Z hCG WdH HUEd J KGL eM dG f NCj Gg eh..JM fEd j kF`bh kjW G

    . dGh LdG

    .. fCG dHa SdG M , f ..NCG c j M FbdG f a fCG eCG.Vh G IjdG TEG e AWCG H j e M Qhj NBG fL

    PEGh . j e EG aJ Hh, IjdG J j G J CG H iaa j G CG hNBG ijh ..VdGh d jbh G j,LdG d kM cJ j PEGh ..JM Y J OG fSG EG LdG

    . fdGh dG

    .. gh g GSEGGSEG gf Lh AWCG GSEG TCG e : b GPEG kjCG kae cCG dhN V hCG Jb J G IjdG Ea . gGe dOCG AdGEG fGh . kNh kWfh , kVh Ib OdGh dG J EGh , eY hCG fCGjG OGM e Aheh ge g c fd j e kGc j e

    . SdG j cCG e QGh , VdGe dEG UGdG dEG H fdh`j `EG IQdG OGG dh`j jdGhjJ d `N gh EG I`j`dG f`L `fj e dh , ISdG `dG

    . YCG

    dGh G EG LJ dGh HjEG fL dCG CG bGdGhYj e jd d fCG N CG j g eh ..bGG Mh HdG MEGh

    . kW h kN h , kYT , EGh , dEG

  • SEG Qe fEG N

    ..ee j b jdG Ld ee - AdG H j c - fCG N j b fjdG IdG J Y jj dP gh IFGdH SMEG GdCj

    . G M j e dGREGh dGh dG eedG YGdG e kGNBG , iQCG a fCGh cd G M g Ga : H eCG

    . VH UN jJ Uf e kGNBG , jd

    21 hW S cCG eCG gRCG eG T cCG eG ia -5..JcHh G MQh dG ,dG jRh dG Y Y QcdG dG

    : HhIQGOEG Y je , dG gGHEG O QcdG dG e SG G Y Aaf , dG dH YdG G CH dG YEGh ad edG

    : j JOSjOMCG eh . SEG F`T e Qcd `d`H `G CG Y AdG JG -1Y dGh cG GhQ e , dP AdG `Y YG dG jdG jdGG N Sh Y G U dG CG - Y G VQ - FY IdG

    . JOh e HdG dG Ghj jM fCH Oj a , fEd dH - VG hCG - G eCGh -2jM `eh . dH Y A`dG e G M QKBG OQh EGh , HICGd MCG dP E`a J ) jMh (Ad ee Ld S G )

    . G ASG dJ ( J ) eh ( dG EG MCGh

    T Y dCG ) j`M `eh . kGj kT bG : CG ( J h TCG ) jGhQ ah.(a SG e) jMh (NGh dG

    ,137 U ,1 , Q`WhCG `f ) cdG eEG L jOMCG g cP bh`b `cPh - g`fSCG Y G dG H - dH `Y Mh (140

    . J S h dEG Lj N G d : Qe `eEG (gH eh 183U , 14 , OhGO HCG S T OG Y) c MU bh, Ic LhCG e ihQ ICGG N jMh - G AL e cP CG H -bh : b K .aY c H MG j Th , de V ch

    Ld G CG G Y LCG dGh ( dG) dG Y HG

    1996HcCG/S - `g1417 hCG iOL OY , gRCG 21

  • SEG Qe fEG N

    T O dG MG d 3, 2U ihdG ) c ALh -3dCe jhG VGSG e LN bh : db (fCG N) :G`Yka ( dG dG) Y kdO j CG j e a d fCG Y GYh ,HdG AdG H dEG Uh dG dG gh (dG OLdG) Y

    .J S h dEG Lj N d : dH Y

    : (33U , 1 , dG a ) Hc HS S dG a bh -4. T e j V ICGG H eCG jOMCG

    kH (AdG Qc eL Y ) aY dG MG a ch -5VNh -:a AL 1242U 1952 d 24 G gRCG G Ya jh , dG M d YdG dG a j Ve ICGG. VG Y j dG dG Gg `Xh d AYCG F`XH dGM QKBG gCG ,YLG VG QKBG d YLG dG a jhe fCGh , SM dG Gg CG ij AYCG FXh Yh . S QKBG hCGAY Hh . IdG j cfEGh b CGh , dG Y EG YdhGJ dG OdG GQG QfG S VG CG ij LGbdG H a , JT e bCG JT j hdG C ,e ehjQCG GPEG ) : da hjjh . LdG e AG IaGe J fCG CN T dGAdG a , IQG OGGh aCGh G SG aBG Y AdGK .....( kW LdG jh , W d ICGG N gh , HSCG Y, SCH e AdG e J e Y a , dP c K GPEa : a b e c e e GPEGh . e dG Gg j CG a NG eh

    .SCH a G OHh cc eSEG OdG

    dCe KGh eGdG AdG H AGQBG VSG CG H Gf dGh -6dG `dG UdG OLd , Qcd `d`H LGh hCG `S fCG (`G)

    . dP Y

    . f`N Y H j U YT f Lj a , Ad dH eCG hJh VJ CG TJh NBG EG L e e fG IOY fCG GQCG dGh

    . G W S h dG ac HhdG e fCG ,dEG Yj YT f Lj h IOY fCG Y dOCG eh

  • SEG Qe fEG N

    jOdG : hdG g eh . AdG N cJ b , AdH INGdG , eSEGah OQCG Th jQSh GdGh dG hO dch G hO eh

    . dG....Gh fJh FGGh dh

    AWCG EG gOe fEG N dCe UdG dG CG iQCG Ea , dc GO ehdP Z Gdb EGh . dP cdG gCG fC gcJ QV FGLEG : Gdb EadG g AGLE ffdG GAGLEG ac J CG e dG IQGRh aJ dG ffEG eGdGh dGh dG a aj jH fEd dH

    . adG Hh . jdG KfCG Id

    VjdG eL - eSEG SGQdG PSCG dG d H QcdG-6dG Uh dG BGdG e YdG dOCG H kKe kH dGQcdG iLCG

    -:22JBG CGdG EG a fG d YdG G M jdG jdGU G SQ Y T a j fC , Id kYT ke G Gg j Sh Y G U G SQh. dG QGVCGh QNCG e ah ,Sh Y GjdG Gg c e c jG Ggh QGV h QV fCG Y U a Qje Ggh... S h kLGh h kHe d fEG N CG Gg e f .GU - G SQ Y jM gY a j fC AdG e dG dEG gP

    -Sh Y G

    QcdG N YdG G , dG d H QcdG 22

    dJ N e dG d S dG dG , fEGh

    ,SG d bEG G dG dG e jdG

    .14U ,1995

  • SEG Qe fEG N

    fEG N SQ QfG f VJ jNHdGh jaCG hdG a

  • SEG Qe fEG N

  • SEG Qe fEG N

  • SEG Qe fEG N

  • Ye eeeCGh dd edG G

    IgdG OG fQc 25253349 cJ

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