EMD Algorithm

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The analysis of the EmpiricalMode DecompositionMethodVesselin Vatchev, USCNovember 20, 2002The Empirical Mode Decomposition MethodFor a given real signal s(t) we look for a decomposition into simpler signals(modes)s(t) =Mj=1aj(t) cos j(t),where aj(t) is the amplitude and j(t) is thephase of the jth component. Each of the components has to have physical and mathematical meaning. Let s(t) be mono componentsignal, i.e. we can nd representation of theforms(t) = a(t) cos (t)that is both physically(
(t) 0) and mathematically meaningful. There are innitely manyways to construct such representations but itis often advantageous to write the signal incomplex formS(t) = s(t) +isi(t) = A(t) expi(t)and to take the actual signal to be the realpart of the complex signal. The imaginary partsi(t) of S(t) has to be chosen to achieve asensible physical and mathematical description.If we can x the imaginary parts we can thenunambiguously dene the amplitude and thephase byA(t) =
s2+s2i ; (t) = arctan ssi.How to dene the imaginary part? quadrature method analytic signal method  si(t) is the Hilberttransform of s(t).instantaneous frequency of s(t) is
(t)instantaneous bandwidth is a
(t)a(t).narrow band instead of monocomponent.The most popular example iss(t) = Acos (t).Some paradoxes exist. To avoid them, Huang,et al ( N.E. Huang, Z. Shen, and S.R. Long, Anew view of nonlinear water waves: the Hilbertspectrum, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 31 (1999),417457) have developed a method, termedthe Hilbert view, for studying nonstationaryand nonlinear data in nonlinear mechanics.Main tools Empirical Mode Decomposition Method (EMD) Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) Hilbert Transform.Main ideaFirst identify the appropriate time scales thatwill reveal the physical characteristics of thestudied system and then to decompose thefunction into modes intrinsic to the function.The EMD method was motivated from thesimple assumption that any data consists ofdierent simple intrinsic mode oscillations. the time between successive zerocrossings; the time between successive extrema; the time between successive curvature extrema.Intrinsic Mode Function (IMF)(a) The number of local extrema of andthe number of its zerocrossings must either be equal or dier at most by one.(b) At any time t, the mean value of theupper envelope (determined by the localmaxima) and the lower envelope (determined by the local minima) is zero.The instantaneous frequency obtained by applying the Hilbert transform to functions ofthe above type is very well localized in thetimefrequency domain and reveals importantcharacteristics of the signal. Figure 1 is reproduced from Huang et al and compares theHilbert, Wavelet and Fourier spectra for a frequency and amplitude modulated signals thatare IMFs. Figure 2 illustrates the EMD methodfor a physical signal of length of day.Comparison of SpectraHilbert, Wavelet, FourierEMF Decompositonfor Length of Day Data(Huang, et al)The EMD Method to decompose f as alinear combination of IMFs nSet n := 0 and f0 := f.Step 1. Set h0 := fn and k := 0.Step 2. Construct the Upper Envelope forhkIdentify all the local extrema, then t allthe local maxima by a cubic spline interpolant for use as the upper envelope U(t).Step 3. Construct the Lower Envelope forhkProceed in a similar way as Step 2, butreplacing the local maxima as knots, by thelocal minima.Step 4. SiftIdeally, the functions U and L should envelop the data between them, i.e., L(t) hk(t) U(t), for all t. Their mean is denoted by mk(t), and the kth component isdened ashk+1 := hk mk.If hk+1 is not an IMF,then increment k, return to Step 2 andrepeat the procedure (i.e., withhk+1 in place of hk).else dene the IMF n as hk+1 and theresidual fn+1 as fn n. If a convergence criteria is not met, increment n and return to Step 1.Convergence criteria typically consist of testing if the residual is eithersmaller than a predetermined valueor is a monotonic function)In view of the possible deciency of the envelopes and to make the algorithm more efcient Huang et al suggest that the stoppingcriterion on the inner loop be changed fromthe condition that the resulting function tobe an IMF to the single condition that thenumber of extrema equals to zerocrossingsalong with visual assessment of the iterates.f(t) =Nn=1n +rN+1where rN+1 = fN+1 is the residual.f(t) =
Nn=1An(t) exp(i
n(t) dt)
.The residue rN is left on purpose, for it is eithera monotonic function or a constant. Here nis the instantaneous frequency dened as dndtwhere n := arctan(Hn/n)Analysis and commentsThe rst step is to choose a time scale whichis inherent in the function f(t) and has physicalmeaning. the set of inection points; the set of zeros of the function (f(t) cos kt).The second step is to extract some special(with respect to the already chosen time scale)functions, which in the EMD case are calledIMFs. The denition of an IMF, althoughsomewhat vague, has two parts (a) the number of the extrema equals the number of thezeros and (b) the upper and lower envelopesshould have the same absolute value.If we restrict to the larger class of functionswhich just satisfy condition (a), then we areable to provide a characterization in terms ofsolutions of selfadjoint ODEs.Properties of the solutions of a selfadjointODEs.An ODE is called selfadjoint if can be writtenin the formddx
Pdudx
+Qu = 0, (1)for x (a, b) (a and b nite or innite), whereP > 0 and Q is continuous. These equationarise in vibration problems of continuum mechanics. The solutions are harmonic standingwaves and it is commonly assumed that anywave motion can be resolved into simple harmonic waves (which can be proved mathematically).I.(Max and Min) If Q > 0, then any solution of(1) has exactly one maximum or minimum between successive zeros. (This is the importantcondition for IMFs.)II.(The Prufer substitution) Let Pu
= r(x) cos (x),u(x) = r(x) sin(x), then (1) is equivalent to alinear system of rst order ODEs:ddx= Q(x) sin2 + 1P(x)cos2()drdx= 12
1P(x) Q(x)
r sin2.If Q(x) is positive, then the instantaneous frequency dened through the Prufer substitutionis always a positive number. If we want to posesome conditions on the envelopes (on the amplitude r in the above substitution), then theywill aect only the second equation.Relation between the selfadjoint ODEsand IMFsTheorem. Let f be a given C2[a, b], (a, b R) and all of the zeros of f and f
be simplezeros. Then the following three conditions areequivalent:(i) The number of the zeros of f and the number of the extrema of f on [a, b] dier at mostby 1;(ii) There exist positive, continuously dierentiable functions P and Q s.t. f is a solution ofthe self adjoint ODE(P(t)f
(t))
+Q(t)f(t) = 0;(iii) There exists a C2[a, b] function g s.t.f(t) = 1Q(t)g
(t), g(t) = P(t)f
(t)for some positive, continuously dierentiablefunctions P and Q.Idea of the Proof:(ii) > (i) Follows from the properties of theselfadjoint ODEs.(i) > (ii) # of zeros = # of extrema = M.Then consider the interpolation tableT =
{tj, f(tj), 0}Mj=1, {zj, aj, 0}Mj=1
,tj are the extremal points,zj are the zeros (t1 < z1 < t2 < z2 < . . .),and aj are arbitrary positive numbers.Hermite interpolant E(f, t)a for T s.t.(a) The only extrema of E(f, t)a are at thepoints tj, zj for j = 1, 2, . . . , M;(b) The only points in common of the functions E(f, t)a and f(t) are tj, j = 1, 2, . . . , M.In general, any piecewise function E(f, t)a madeby pieces j(t) that satisfy the conditions(y1) = v1, (y2) = v2
(y1) =
(y2) = 0, 
(t) > 0 for t (y1, y2)will work. (Meyers wavelets.)By choosing aj(j = 1, . . . , M) we can insurethat E(f, t)a satises (b) as well.We haveg(t) := f(t)E(f, t)a= sin(t)for some function (t) s.t. (tj) = 2kj+12 and(zj) = lj for some integers kj and lj.Moreover we can adjust the ajs so that (t) isC1function and
(t) > 0 on the whole interval(a, b).Let r(t) := E(f, t)a be an envelope for f withproperties (a)(b), and
(t) > 0. Then thefunctionh(t) := r(t) cos (t)has zeros at the points tj, j = 1, 2, . . . , M, andno other zeros on [a, b].The only zeros of h
(t) on [a, b] are the pointszj, j = 1, 2, . . . , M.By observing the changes of the signs of thefunctions f, f
, h, and h
, we can prove thatP(t) := h(t)f
(t), Q(t) := h
(t)f(t)are well dened, strictly positive(f(t1) > 0)C1[a, b] functions.Comparing the relations h
(t) = (P(t)f
(t))
and h
(t) = Q(t)f(t) we get(P(t)f
(t))
+Q(t)f(t) = 0.(iii) > (ii) from the previous case.(ii) > (iii) from the Prufer substitutionPf
= r(t) cos (t), f = r(t) sin(t).Remark 1. The function g from (iii) also satises a selfadjoint ODE, namely( 1Q(t)g
(t))
+ 1P(t)g(t) = 0.Remark 2. The coecients P and Q canbe represented by the amplitude r(t) and thephase (t) in the following way1P=
+ r
rtg, Q =
r
rctg.Moreover if f(t1) > 0, then1P Q,and we have equality i r
(t) = 0 on [a, b].The functions E(f, t)a considered in the theorem are a class of envelopes for f throughits extrema. The choice of particular envelope(amplitude) r(t) depends on the interpolationmethod and the vector a.If we introduce some optimal condition L()we could specify only one function from thatclass and call it the envelope for f through theextrema.Example: LetSL(E) := mina (
E
(f, t)a2dt)1/2be the optimal functional. Then the envelope that minimizes SL(E) should be very closeto the natural cubic spline trough the points(tj, f(tj)), j = 1, 2, . . . , M.Observation. The practical realization of theEMD method of Huang et al uses cubic splinesas upper (U(t)) and lower (L(t)) envelopes.The nodes of these two splines interlace and donot have points in common so U(t) = L(t) =at2+ bt + c. Then we have complete characterization of the IMFs.Theorem. If f is an IMF (so the upper andlower spline envelopes have same absolute value),then the amplitude is a constant.Theorem. The amplitude is a constant forthe associated selfadjoint ODE if and only ifQ(t) = 1/P(t).However, constant amplitude signals are usually not regarded as an acceptable class of functions for IMFs. If we drop (b), we will have areasonable (from practical point of view) definition but, at the next stage, unrecoverablemathematical ambiguity in determining the modulus and phase will be introduced. In any case,the denition of IMF must include condition (a).Denition.A twice dierentiable function f isan IMF if it is a solution of the selfadjointODE of the type(Pf
)
+Qf = 0,for some P(t) > 0, Q(t) > 0 for t [a, b]and . . .To overcome the envelope restriction, we caneither modify the construction of the envelopesor, instead of requiring U(t) = L(t) for all t,we can require U(t) L(t) , for some prescribed > 0.A condition for symmetry could be found byconsidering the bandwidth r
(t)r(t).Current problems.?1. The main problem is how the properties ofthe envelopes are related to the Hilbert transform of a given function.?2. In many problems an amplitude and aphase are dened through the Prufer substitution. The two rst order linear equationsdene the instantaneous frequency and the instantaneous bandwidth in terms of the coefcients. What is the physical background ofthat approach and how it is related to theHilbert transform??3. What is the exact criteria for envelopethrough the extrema? What are upper andlower envelopes??4. Substituting property (b) from Huang et alby some property that is not that restrictive?Does the Prufer method provide an appropriate substitution??5. To continue studying the sifting step andto consider appropriate modications (e.g. cubic spline through the inection points, f
+Qf = 0).?6. To dene a class for which the Greedyalgorithms will produce meaningful representation and to nd the order of convergenceof the EMD method in appropriate approximations spaces.