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  • Electronics I - Introduc0on

    talarico@gonzaga.edu 1

    Chapter 1

  • Electronics vs. Microelectronics •  Discrete Circuits vs. Integrated Circuits

    talarico@gonzaga.edu 2

    •  Limit the component count to achieve a small board area

    •  Available resistors are in the range 1Ω-10MΩ

    •  Available capacitors are in range 1pF-10mF

    •  All resistors are within 1-10% of their nominal value

    •  The u0lity of discrete transistors is limited. Usually prefer opamps over discrete transistors. Some0me use BJTs if opamps can’t do the job. Use MOSFET primarily as switches

    •  Avoid using resistors and inductors, use as many MOSFET transistors as needed to realize the best circuit implementa0on

    •  Available capacitors are in range 1fF-100pF

    •  The cri0cal parameters in transistors can be made to match within 1%, but vary by more than 30% for different fabrica0on runs

    •  Capacitors of similar size can match to within 0.1%, but vary by more than 10% for different fabrica0on runs

    Source: B. Murmann, Stanford

  • Circuits are Everywhere

    talarico@gonzaga.edu 3 Source: B. Murmann, Stanford

  • In the beginning was …

    talarico@gonzaga.edu 4 Source: B. Murmann, Stanford

  • Moore’s Law

    talarico@gonzaga.edu 5

    In 1965, Gordon Moore’s predicted exponen0al growth in the number of transistor per integrated circuits

  • … and the predic0on was right

    talarico@gonzaga.edu 6 •  No other technology has grown so fast so long

    Transistors have become: •  smaller •  faster •  consume less power •  cheaper to


    source: wikipedia

  • Transistors Cost

    talarico@gonzaga.edu 7

  • Everybody can afford a lot of transistors

    talarico@gonzaga.edu 8

  • Social Impact

    talarico@gonzaga.edu 9

  • Applica0ons driving the market

    talarico@gonzaga.edu 10

  • IoT Trend: more connected things than people

    talarico@gonzaga.edu 11

  • State of the Art Semiconductor Fab

    talarico@gonzaga.edu 12

    Source: B. Murmann, Stanford

  • 45 nm CMOS Technology (Intel)

    talarico@gonzaga.edu 13

    source: Steve Cowden The Oregonian July 2007

  • State of the Art Microprocessor

    talarico@gonzaga.edu 14

  • Hearing Aid with Wireless Receiver

    talarico@gonzaga.edu 15

  • Analog and Digital Signals

    •  Analog = signals that occurs in nature are con0nuous in 0me and con0nuous in amplitude

    •  Digital (abstrac0on) = signal can take only a finite number of values and can changes only at fixed points in 0me

    talarico@gonzaga.edu 16

  • Analog and Digital Signals

    talarico@gonzaga.edu 17

    The digital signal (red) is the sampled and rounded representa0on of the grey analog signal

    S/H Q Analog World

    Digital World

    Source: wikipedia

  • Analog & vs. Digital

    •  Analog Circuits Advantages – Require fewer devices – Beker to deal with low signal amplitudes – Beker to deal with high frequencies

    •  Digital Circuits Advantages – Beker immunity to noise – More “adaptable” (e.g. microprocessors) – Design can be done at more abstract level – Beker economic (easier to implement as ICs)

    talarico@gonzaga.edu 18

  • Mixed Signal System

    talarico@gonzaga.edu 19

    Digital Processing



    Signal Conditioning

    Signal Conditioning

    Analog Media and


    Sensors, Actuators, Antennas, Storage Media, ...

    Mixed-Signal Integrated Circuit

    Source: B. Murmann, Stanford

    signal condi0oning = signal scaling (amplifica0on or akenua0on) and shining

  • Managing Complexity: Levels of Abstrac0on

    talarico@gonzaga.edu 20

    Analog Digital

    S/H Q Analog World

    Digital World

    Source: B. Murmann, Stanford

  • Common Analog Blocks

    •  Power supplies •  Amplifiers •  Filters •  Signal generators (oscillators) •  Wave-shaping circuits •  Converters (ADC and DAC)

    talarico@gonzaga.edu 21

  • Circuit designers must be broad

    talarico@gonzaga.edu 22

    Source: B. Murmann, Stanford

  • Course Topics •  Physics of Semiconductors •  Diode models and applica0on circuits •  Basics of Amplifiers •  Circuit Simula0on •  Transistors (BJTs and MOSTs) •  Biasing of Transistors •  Single stage Amplifiers (atoms of analog design) •  Mul0 stage Amplifiers •  Current Sources and Mirrors •  Frequency Response of Amplifiers •  Op amp based feedback circuits

    talarico@gonzaga.edu 23

  • Prerequisites •  Lumped vs. distributed circuits •  Kirchhoff’s Rules •  Independent and dependent sources •  Superposi0on principle •  Thevenin and Norton equivalents •  Cons0tu0ve equa0ons of R, L and C •  Sinusoids and complex exponen0als •  LTI systems and their proper0es •  Fourier transform and Laplace transform •  Frequency and 0me-domain response of LTI systems •  First and second order linear circuits (transient and steady

    state response)

    talarico@gonzaga.edu 24