EIDIKO MEROS PE 70

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Επιμορφωτικό υλικό για την επιμόρφωση των εκπαιδευτικών - Τεύχος 2: Κλάδοι ΠΕ60-70 ΕΑΙΤΥ - Τομέας Επιμόρφωσης και Κατάρτισης (ΤΕΚ) 1 ΕΠΕΑΕΚ ΙΙ, Άξονας Προτεραιότητας 2, Μέτρο 2.1 ΕΠΙΜΟΡΦΩΣΗ ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΤΙΚΩΝ ΣΤΗΝ ΧΡΗΣΗ ΚΑΙ ΑΞΙΟΠΟΙΗΣΗ ΤΩΝ ΤΠΕ ΣΤΗΝ ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΤΙΚΗ ΔΙΔΑΚΤΙΚΗ ΔΙΑΔΙΚΑΣΙΑ Επιμορφωτικό υλικό για την επιμόρφωση των εκπαιδευτικών στα Κέντρα Στήριξης Επιμόρφωσης Τεύχος 2: Κλάδοι ΠΕ60/70 Δεύτερη έκδοση (26.05.2008) Τομέας Επιμόρφωσης & Κατάρτισης Πάτρα, Μάιος 2008
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Το ειδικό μέρος του υλικού για τους ΠΕ 70

Transcript of EIDIKO MEROS PE 70

  • - 2: 60-70

    - ()

    1

    , 2, 2.1

    2: 60/70

    (26.05.2008)

    &

    , 2008

  • - 2: 60-70

    - ()

    2

    4

    ( , , 2.1, 2.1.1, 2.1.1 )

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    ,

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  • - 2: 60-70

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  • - 2: 60-70

    - ()

    4

    ........................................................................................................... 6 ............................................................................................................................. 6

    1.1. .............................................................................. 6

    1.2. .............................................................................................................................. 11

    1.3. (60/70) ......................................................... 21

    2 ......................................................................................................... 57 ................................................ 57

    2.1. ........................................................................................................... 57

    2.2. ................................................................................... 58

    2.3. ............................................................................ 60

    2.4. ........................................................................................... 62

    2.5. ........ 64

    2.6. ....................................................................................... 65

    2.7. - .................. 68

    2.8. (blogs) .............................................................................................. 70

    3 ......................................................................................................... 75 ................................................................. 75

    3.1. ........................................................................................................... 75

    3.2. : , , .................................. 79

    3.3. : , .............................................................................. 93

    4 ....................................................................................................... 131 ..................................................... 131

    4.1. ......................................................................................................... 131

    4.2. ........................................... 132

    ............................................................................................. 156 ....... 156

  • 5

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    ................................................................................................ 157 A. ....................................................... 157

    1. CENTENNIA ..................................................................... 157

    2. Revelation Natural Art ( ) ................................................................................................................ 162

    3. ( ) ............................................. 182

    4. (2 CD-Rs) , , & , ( )................................................................. 195

    5. ( ) ............................................ 195

    6. ModellingSpace ( ).................................. 196

    7. ( , & ) ............................................................... 214

    8. ................................................................................................... 222

    . ...................................................................... 232 1. ......................................................................... 232

    2. ................................................................................................ 245

    3. Google Earth & Google Maps ........................................................................ 260

    4. (TableTop ) ................................................. 285

    5. (Wikipedia) .......................................................... 302

    6. , , . ..... 313

    . ........................................................ 364 1. Hot Potatoes....................................................................................................... 364

    2. TuxPaint ............................................................................................................... 376

    3. TableTop ................................................................................... 380

    4. The Geometers Sketchpad ............................................................................ 396

    5. MicroWorldsPro .................................................................................................. 404

  • 6

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    6

    1.1.

    . 60 70, 78 . .

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  • 7

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    7

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    60/70 . , , , .

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    1.

  • 8

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    8

    ( (tutorials)), .

    2. , . .

    3. , , ( ) (authoring tools). , , , . , .

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    ,

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    1.2.

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    . .

    , . .

    . , Bruner Vygotsky.

    Vygotsky, ( ) , , . , .

    , , . ( , ) (activity theory).

    , , ,

  • 13

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    , .

    . ( ) .

    . . , .

    1.2.1.

    , , , ( 1).

    ( ) . :

    , , ( ) CD - DVD . , ( )

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    ( Lego ).

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    , / (cognitive tools).

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  • 16

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    /

    CD-Rom DVD

    (, )

    1:

    1.2.2.

    (, , , , .), .

    , , , , ( , - ) (, , ).

  • 17

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    , (http://www.pi-schools.gr/lessons/computers/dimotiko/index.html):

    ( ) - , ,

    , , . , ( ), ( ) .

    , :

    1. ( (tutorials), ), ( , ) . ( ) , .

  • 18

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    . , , . , .

    2. , ( , ) . . . . .

    , , . , . , / (cognitive tools). .

    3. , , ( )

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    (authoring tools). , / , . , , , . , .

    , , , , , . , , , , ( ) ( ), . .

    , , , , (open-ended), .

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    ) ( 2).

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    , , .

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    1.3. (60/70)

    60-70 . , .

    , , (.. Encarta 2007 StarOffice 6.0). ,

  • 22

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    , .

    , (.. MicroworldsPro), (. , ). .

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    1.3.1. 60/70

    ( , Google Earth ModellingSpace).

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    (, , , , , ) .

    1. CENTENNIA, ( 2 )

    2. Revelation Natural Art, , ( 4 )

    3. , ( 4 )

    4. , , ' & ' (2 CD-ROMs), ( ) ( 6 )

    5. ( ) ( 2 )

    6. II ModellingSpace, ( 6 )

    7. ( , & ) ( 3 ) 8. ( )

    ( 6 )

    . ( ) 1. , ( 3 ) 2. , (

    6 ) 3. Google Earth & Google Maps,

    ( 3 ) 4. (TableTop ),

    ( 3 ) 5. ,

    ( 6 ) 6. (.. Wikipedia),

    ( 3 ) 7. ( )

    (

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    ), ( 3 )

    8. blogs ( 6 )

    . ( ) ( ).

    1. Hot Potatoes (

    )

    2. TuxPaint ( )

    3. Inspiration ( ) ( ) 4. ( ,

    ) TableTop ( ) 5. The Geometers Sketchpad ( ) 6. MicroWorldsPro ( ) 7. : (CD-ROM)

    ' & ' ( ) 8. : (CD-ROM)

    ' & ' ( ) 9. ( ) 10. :

    (CD-ROM) 21 .

    1.3.2. 60/70

    . , .

    ( )

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    . .

    , . . .

    1. (CD-ROM) ' & ' ( )

    2. (CD-ROM) & , ( )

    3. (CD-ROM) & , ( )

    4. (CD-ROM) ' & ' ( )

    5. (CD-ROM) & , ( )

    6. (CD-ROM) & , ( )

    7. (CD-ROM) & 8. : 21 ( & ) 9. (CD-ROM) ( &

    ) 10. ( ) 11. ( ) 12. ( ) 13. ( ) 14. + ( ) 15. (

    ) 16. , (Cell City) ( ) 17. & (

    )

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    26

    , . , . . , ,

    18. (SIEM) 19. ( ) 20. 21. 22. 23. Street adventure 24. ( ) 25. : (Polaris) 26. RAMKid ( ,

    )

    (, , ) . , , , .

    27. (CD-ROM) ' & ' , ( )

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    28. (CD-ROM) ' & ' , ( )

    29. The geometers sketchpad ( & ) 30. Cabri ( & ) 31. (Edmark Virtual Lab) ( , &

    ) 32. ( , & ) 33. ( , & ) 34. ( , &

    ) 35. CENTENNIA () 36. Revelation Natural Art ( , ,

    ) 37. ()

    (, , & ) (, , & ) 38. (, , & ) 39. (

    ) 40. (, , & )

    . . , .

    41. ( )

    42. ModellingSpace ( )

    43. Microworlds Pro ( Logo) 44. Tabletop jr ( ) 45. Inspire Data ( )

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    46. Robolab ( )

    ( ) . ().

    .

    47. Multimedia Builder ( ) 48. FrontPage ( ) 49. Hot Potatoes ( ) 50. (

    ) 51. Blogs (.. www.wordpress.com)

    , . : , , . (. KidPix).

    52. ( templates)

    53. Tuxpaint ( ) 54. KidPix Deluxe ( templates) 55. KidPad (

    ) 56. Drawing for Children

  • 29

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    ( ) .

    57. Kidspiration ( )

    58. Inspiration ( ) 59. CMaps Tools ( ) 60. MindmapperJr (

    ) 61. Time Liner (

    )

    , , , , ( ) (cognitive tool) . .

    62. 63. 64. 65. 66.

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    , , .

    67. Google Earth ( ) 68. Google Maps (

    ) 69. (

    ) 70. Celestia ( )

    ( ) .

    71. (.. Google, .) 72. (.. WikiPedia Encarta Kids) 73. (.. epyna, e-yliko,

    ) 74. WebQuests, Blogs, Wikis, Forums

    &

    (, , , , .). .

    75. (warcraft, age of empires, .) 76.

    a. Incredible machine b. Incredible Toons machine c. Zoonbinis d. Carmen SanDiego

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    1.3.3. 60-70

    /

    /

    1 ' & '

    , / SIEM

    www.pi-schools.gr

    2 ' & '

    , / SIEM

    www.pi-schools.gr

    3 &

    , / SIEM

    www.pi-schools.gr

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    4 &

    , / SIEM

    www.pi-schools.gr

    5 &

    /

    ,

    www.pi-schools.gr

    6 &

    /

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    www.pi-schools.gr

    7 &

    /

    ,

    www.pi-schools.gr

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    8 &

    , / SIEM

    www.pi-schools.gr

    9 : 21

    /

    , FINATEC A.E/

    http://edsoft.cti.gr/edsoft/logismika/21enplo.html

    10

    - , , . , , .

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    , Dorling Kindersley Limited-

    http://edsoft.cti.gr/edsoft/logismika/humanbody.html

    11 A

    , ,

    & Dorling Kindersley

    http://www2.e-yliko.gr/physearth.

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    . , , . , .

    Limited htm

    12

    , . (video, animation, , ),

    , ,

    /

    & Dorling Kindersley Limited

    http://edsoft.cti.gr/edsoft/logismika/mihanes.html

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    . , .

    13

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    http://www.ilsp.gr/logo.html

    14 -

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    INTELEARN & Group Multimedia Systems

    http://www.intelearn.gr/proionta.htm

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    .

    15 , (Cell City)

    E , . . , . To Cell City .

    & Anglia Multimedia

    http://edsoft.cti.gr/edsoft/logismika/cellcity.html

    16 &

    ,

    -

    &

    www.pi-schools.gr

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    ,

    , " "

    . ,

    ,

    .

    (http://zeus.pi-schools.gr/logismika1/gymnasio/g07/begin.htm)

    17

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    4 7

    SIEM http://www.siem.gr/html/edsoft/cd_taxidi.html

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    . , , .

    18

    : - - - - - .

    ( 3-6 )

    http://www.genadios.edu.gr

    19

    . . :

    ( 3-5 )

    Intelearn http://www.intelearn.gr/migi.htm

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    , , , (-, - ) , .

    20

    . .

    4-7

    INFO http:://www.infodomi.gr

    21 , - . , , video - clips .

    3-8

    MLS

    http://www.mls.gr

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    22 Street adventure

    . , , .

    6-12

    Tessera multimedia

    http://www.tessera.gr/street.php?newlang=ell

    23 cd-rom . ,

    4 12

    Polaris http://polarisekdoseis.gr/cdroms

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    . 3 cd-rom : " " " " " "

    24 :

    . .

    ( ),

    Polaris http://polarisekdoseis.gr

    25 RAMKid

    www.dolnet.gr

    26 ' & '

    .

    ,

    ' & '

    www.pi-schools.gr

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    27 The geometers sketchpad

    .

    & Key Curriculum Press

    http://www.dynamicgeometry.com/

    28 Cabri

    .

    & Laboratoire de Structures Discretes et de Didactique de lIMAG

    http://www.cabri.com

    29

    , .

    & Edmark Virtual Lab

    http://www.synapseadaptive.com/

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    .

    30 , .

    , ,

    &

    http://www2.e-yliko.gr/physGaia.htm

    31 , .

    & : 1. : 2. E56, : -

    http://edsoft.cti.gr/edsoft/logismika/taxinomoume.html

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    , , , .

    .

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    & - http://edsoft.cti.gr/edsoft/logismika/xelonokosmos.html

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    & www.greek-language.gr

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    , . .

    www.greek-language.gr

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    35

    , . ( ) .

    ,

    - http://www.ilsp.gr/logonostisi.html

    36

    - , .

    , , , ,

    11-17

    ,

    http://www.ecedu.upatras.gr/modelscreator/

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    , .

    37 ModellingSpace

    - , . , .

    , , , ,

    &

    http://www.modellingspace.net

    38 Microworlds MicroWorlds Pro Logo Computer http://edsoft.cti.gr/

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    Pro .

    ,

    Systems Inc edsoft/logismika/microworldspro.html

    39 Tabletop jr , , . H - .

    (, , -, )

    &

    TERC http://edsoft.cti.gr/edsoft/logismika/tabletop.html

    40 Inspire Data & Inspiration www.inspiration.co

  • 48

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    m

    41 RoboLal

    .

    , ,

    ,

    Lego www.lego.com/data

    42 Multimedia Builder

    To Multimedia Builder .

    http://mmb.mediachance.com/index.html

    43 FrontPage

    FrontPage Web, Web .

    Microsoft http://office.microsoft.com

    44 Hot Potatoes , , , .

    /

    Half-Baked Software Inc

    http://hotpot.uvic.ca/

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    45

    , .

    3

    Disney Interactive

    http://disney.com/

    46 Tuxpaint . , .

    3 12

    Softpedia

    http://www.tuxpaint.org/

    open source

    47 KidPix .

    The Learning Company & Edmark

    http://www.kidpix.com

    48 KidPad (, ).

    Human-Computer Interaction Lab (University of Maryland)

    http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/kiddesign/kidpad.shtml

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    49 Drawing for Children

    .

    Mark Overmars

    http://www.cs.uu.nl/people/markov/kids/draw.html

    50 Kidspiration , . , , , , .

    4 8

    Inspiration Software, Inc

    http://www.kidspiration.com/

    51 Inspiration ,

    Inspiration Software, Inc

    http://www.inspiration.com/

  • 51

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    51

    , , , .

    52 MindmapperJr , .

    SimTech http://www.mindmapper.com/

    53 Time Liner

    & Tom Snyder Productions

    http://www.tomsnyder.com/

    54

    , , , , , .

    55

    Microsoft Power

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    Point Lotus Freelance Graphics . , , .

    56

    , , .

    57

    . ,

  • 53

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    .

    58

    .

    ,

    59 Google Earth , .

    http://earth.google.com/

    60 Google Maps , .

    http://maps.google.com/

    61

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    62 Celestia . .

    ,

    & http://www.shatters.net/celestia

    63

    (servers), .

    Yahoo: http://www.yahoo.com

    Google: http://www.google.com

    Altavista: http://www.altavista.com

    64 (.. WikiPedia Encarta Kids)

    , . online

    http://encarta.msn.com

    http://wikipedia.org

  • 55

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    .

    65 (.. e-yliko, )

    , , .

    -

    www.e-yliko.gr

    www.epyna.gr

    www.greek-language.gr

    www.komvos.edu.gr

    66 WebQuests, Blogs, Wikis, Forums

    .

    -

    67

    www.cti.gr/

    68 Revelation Natural Art

    -

    69 The Jolly Post Office

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    2

    2.1.

    . , , . . , , . .

    : 9

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    , , , , .

    .

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  • 58

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    .

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    (, ).

    .

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    2.2. (1 1) , .

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  • 59

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    59

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    (.. Microsoft Word OpenOffice Writer) , , . , , .

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  • 60

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    60

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    2.3. (1 ) , (, , , ). ( , , .).

    (.. Microsoft PowerPoint OpenOffice Impress) , , , , . , , ( ) ( ) ( ). , . , . ,

  • 61

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  • 62

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    ( , , ) .

    2.4. (1 ) , ( ) . ( ), ( ).

    (spreadsheets) , , , . . Microsoft Excel OpenOffice Calc.

    . , . . .

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    63

    : , , , , .

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  • 64

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  • 65

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    (Databases) , , , . .

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  • 66

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  • 67

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    . ( ).

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    . ( ) .

    TableTop & TableTop Junior (http://www.terc.edu/work/190.html)

    (http://etl.ppp.uoa.gr/_content/download/index_download.htm).

    , , . - .

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    Tabletop . , , , . , , Boole . , .

    , Tabletop . , . , .

    ( TableTop), , InspireDataTM (http://www.inspiration.com/productinfo/inspiredata/index.cfm).

    2.7. - (1 )

    . .

    (search engines)

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    - ()

    69

    (, ) . , , . , . , , , ( URL) . , , .

    , , (Boolean). , , . , .

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    , , , .

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  • 70

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    70

    http://www.google.gr/

    http://search.yahoo.com/

    http://www.metacrawler.com/ ( )

    (portals)

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    : . ( (, , .), . www.in.gr. . , .. www.e-yliko.gr, www.sch.gr.

    , , , .

    , , ( ) .

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    2.8. (blogs) (1 )

  • 71

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    - ()

    71

    (blogs), .

    (blogs) . , ( www.wordpress.com www.blogger.com/start) (, , ) . .

    . , .

    , , , , ( , ) . , - (Stahl, 2006). ( ) .

    http://www.tpe.gr/ ( )

    http://www.technorati.com/ ( )

    2.9.

    1

  • 72

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    - ()

    72

    ( )

    2

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    3

    .

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    .

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  • 73

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    - ()

    73

    3 ) . ) (, , , ). ) .

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  • 74

    - 2: 60-70

    - ()

    74

    ) . ) . ) , . ) .

    2.11.

    , . (2006). , , : GUTENBERG.

    , . (2004). , : .

    , . (2001). , : .

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    , . (2000). , - . : .

    , . (2006). , : .

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  • - 2: 60-70

    - ()

    75

    3

    3.1. 60-70 . , . ,

    ) , (.. & , ), (.. ) (.. ), (.. ) .

    ) , , ( & , ), (.. , ), , (CENTENNIA), (.. TuxPaint), , (Hot Potatoes), (), (.. Revelation Natural Art), (.. ModelingSpace Inspiration)

  • 76

    - 2: 60-70

    - ()

    76

    (.. GoogleEarth), (.. ) (.. ).

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  • 77

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    77

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    CENTENIA Revelation Natural Art ' & ', ' & ' Google Earth & Maps /

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  • 78

    - 2: 60-70

    - ()

    78

    CENTENIA Revelation Natural Art ', ', ' & ' Google Earth & Maps X /

    ( ) 3

    (Hot

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    3 .

  • 79

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    - ()

    79

    - (TuxPaint) (MicroWorldsPro) X X X

    3.2. : , , (3 )

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    ( 3 )

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    21

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  • 80

    - 2: 60-70

    - ()

    80

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    , . , . . , ,

    ( Computer Assisted Instruction - CAI) , . , , . , . ( ).

    (tutorials) (drill and practice) .

  • 81

    - 2: 60-70

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    81

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  • 82

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    82

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  • 83

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    - ()

    83

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    , ( ) ( ) . (interactive electronic books).

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  • 84

    - 2: 60-70

    - ()

    84

    +, (), 1998. . . : , , , ( , ..).

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  • 85

    - 2: 60-70

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    85

    2: +

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  • 86

    - 2: 60-70

    - ()

    86

    ), , .

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  • 87

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    - ()

    87

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    VideoVideo

    (Animation)

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  • 88

    - 2: 60-70

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    88

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  • 89

    - 2: 60-70

    - ()

    89

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  • 90

    - 2: 60-70

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    90

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  • 91

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    91

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  • 92

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    - ()

    92

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  • 93

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    - ()

    93

    3.3. : , (12 ) , , .

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    , , . , , . , :

    1. CENTENNIA 2. Revelation Natural Art 3. , , ' & ' (2 CD-

    ROMs), ( ) 4. II ModellingSpace 5. 6. () 7. Google Earth & Google Maps 8. ( .)

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    , : 1. Hot Potatoes 2. TuxPaint 3. Inspiration 4. TableTop 5. The Geometers Sketchpad 6. MicroWorldsPro

    -

  • 94

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    - ()

    94

    , , . , , : . , , .

    , . , , .

    , , , , Piaget. , : .

    (discovery learning) , . . , . , , .

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  • 95

    - 2: 60-70

    - ()

    95

    ().

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    , , . , ( ), . , , : , (facilitator) .

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  • 96

    - 2: 60-70

    - ()

    96

    ,

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  • 97

    - 2: 60-70

    - ()

    97

    . , , , , . .

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  • 98

    - 2: 60-70

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    98

    5: ,

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  • 99

    - 2: 60-70

    - ()

    99

    , . . , , , .

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  • 100

    - 2: 60-70

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    100

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  • 101

    - 2: 60-70

    - ()

    101

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  • 102

    - 2: 60-70

    - ()

    102

    6: ( , )

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  • 103

    - 2: 60-70

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    103

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  • 104

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    - ()

    104

    .

    ( ) , . . , .

    http://books.google.com/.

    , http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/ ( , , .) . .

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    7: (http://el.wikipedia.org)

    . .

  • 105

    - 2: 60-70

    - ()

    105

    (.. ), .

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    x.html)

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    , , . (virtual environment). .

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  • 106

    - 2: 60-70

    - ()

    106

    . , ( , , .) . , , , .

    . (Desktop Virtual Reality Systems). (PC) (3D ).

    . (Virtual Reality Immersive Systems). , . , , ( / , .), .

    . (Projection Virtual Reality Systems). 3D , - (video-walls) . CAVE .

    . (Simulation Virtual Reality Systems), .

    , , , . , , .

    , , , , :

  • 107

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    107

    .

    , .

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    .

    .

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    . , . . , (, , , ), ( ) (, ) ( , ).

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  • 108

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    - ()

    108

    .

    Google Earth ( 9), (http://earth.google.com/). . . . Google Earth Google Maps (http://maps.google.com/), . .

    CENTENNIA, , ( http://www.clockwk.com/centennia.html), 1000 .. .

    9: Google Earth ( 1029 Km).

    http://maps.google.com/ ()

  • 109

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    - ()

    109

    http://www.google.com/educators/p_earth.html ( Google Earth )

    http://www.google.com/sky/ ( )

    . . , .

    . , , . .

    ( ) . (concept map) (semantic network). .

    , , . , ( 10), (semantic networks) (mind maps), : (concepts), (links) (instances):

    , . , (label).

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  • 110

    - 2: 60-70

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    110

    , .

    .

    . , . :

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    , ,

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    Inspiration (http://www.inspiration.com/). , Kidspiration (http://www.inspiration.com/productinfo/kidspiration/index.cfm) MindMapper Junior (http://www.mindmapperusa.com/MMJr.htm).

    CMapTools (http://cmap.ihmc.us/), .

    (www.ecedu.upatras.gr/modelscreator) ModellingSpace.

  • 111

    - 2: 60-70

    - ()

    111

    10: Inspiration.

    H (simulation) , . ( , , , ) . . . .

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  • 112

    - 2: 60-70

    - ()

    112

    , ( ). , .

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  • 113

    - 2: 60-70

    - ()

    113

    ) , .

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    . , :

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  • 114

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    114

    ( ) ( ),

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  • 115

    - 2: 60-70

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    115

    ( )

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  • 116

    - 2: 60-70

    - ()

    116

    , , , . , . , .

    : , , . , . ( ), ( , ) ( ) : (qualitative), (semi-quantitative) (quantitative).

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  • 117

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    - ()

    117

    .

    ) ( ): .

    ( ModellingSpace), :

    , , ,

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    & ModellingSpace

  • 118

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    118

    ModellingSpace , , . , , . , (Dimitracoloulou et al., 1999, Komis et al., 2001). Modellingspace : , , .

    11: ModellingSpace

    11 (, 1, , 2, ) ,

  • 119

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    119

    . :

    . ;

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    (, , , ) (, , ) : , , , .

    , , ( ) ( ) . ( 1, 1).

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  • 120

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    - ()

    120

    (Computer Based Laboratories) ( )

    . , . , .

    (data logging) ( )

    , , , , , , . , , , .

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  • 121

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    - ()

    121

    . . . , , , / . , , , , .

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  • 122

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    - ()

    122

    .

    , , , . , Cabri Geometers SketchPad.

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    ( Logo) ( MicroWorlds Pro)

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  • 123

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    - ()

    123

    ) .

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  • 124

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    124

    , :

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    3.4.

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    (.. Google Earth Google Maps)

    6

    (.. CENTENNIA)

    7

    (.. ModellingSpace)

  • 125

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    - ()

    125

    8

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  • 126

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    126

    2 :

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  • 127

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    127

    ) ( ) . , .. CD-ROM, , , .

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  • 128

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    128

    ) .

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  • 129

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    - ()

    129

    ) (cognitive tools) (mind tools)

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  • 130

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    - ()

    130

    ) , .

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    3.6.

    , . (2006). , , : GUTENBERG.

    , . (2004). , : .

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    , ., & , . (2002). . : .

    , . (2000). , - . : .

    , . (2006). , : .

    , . & , . (2003). , . : .

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    , . () (2004). . : .

    . (2006). , : .

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  • - 2: 60-70

    - ()

    131

    4

    4.1. 4 , , . , . . , , : , , , , . , , : , , , -

    4 (competence) , , , , .

  • 132

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    132

    , , . . ( ), . , - . ( , ), ( , , , ) ( ). . , .

    : 54

    4.2.

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  • 133

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    133

    4.2.1.

    .

    () ( - - ) ( ), ( ), , ( ) , ( ). , , , , , , , , , , , , . .

  • 134

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    134

    4.2.2.

    .

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    . .

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  • 135

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    135

    . . .

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  • 136

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    136

    . : . ( ) ( ). , ( ) ( ) .

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  • 137

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    137

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  • 138

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    138

    : . .

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  • 139

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    139

    . .

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  • 140

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    140

    4.2.2.5

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  • 141

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    141

    , .

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    , , ( & 2004). , ( .. 2000, & 2004). , 42, , (Demetriadis et al. 2003).

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  • 142

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    142

    4. .

    , , , , , .

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  • 143

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    143

    4.2.3.2.

    , , . , . , , , : , .

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  • 144

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    144

    , (, , , , , ..). , , .

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  • 145

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    - ()

    145

    4.2.4. , .

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  • 146

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    146

    , ;

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  • 147

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    147

    3. :

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  • 148

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    - ()

    148

    .

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    21 , , ,

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  • 149

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    149

    :

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  • 150

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    150

    3. ( , )

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  • 151

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    151

    4.3.3.

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    , , , , , , , .

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  • 152

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    152

    ,

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  • 153

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