Effect of ï¢ -Carotene Supplementation on the Risk of Lung Cancer

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Effect of  -Carotene Supplementation on the Risk of Lung Cancer. ATBC (Finnland, 1994 >29 000 smokers) β -carotene (20 mg/day/5-8 years) Lung cancer 18% CARET (USA, 1996, 18 000 participants) 30 mg ß -carotene and 25,000 IU retinil- palmitate Lung cancer 28%. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Effect of ï¢ -Carotene Supplementation on the Risk of Lung Cancer

  • Retrospective studies: Dietary carotenoids and lung cancer risk

    Ziegler et al 1984, 1986CarotenoidsDecreased (significant)Samet et al, 1985CarotenoidsDecreased (significant)Byers et al, 1987CarotenoidsDecreased (significant)Pastorino et al, 1987CarotenoidsDecreased (significant)Marchand et al, 1989-carotin Decreased (significant)Prospective studies: Serum or plasma carotenoids and lung cancer risk

    Stahelin et al, 1984, 1990-carotene Lower (significant)Nomura et al, 1985-caroteneLower (significant)Menkes et al, 1986-carotene Lower (significant)Wald et al, 1988-caroteneLower (significant)Connett et al, 1989-caroteneLower (significant)

  • Effect of -Carotene Supplementation on the Risk of Lung CancerATBC (Finnland, 1994 >29 000 smokers) -carotene (20 mg/day/5-8 years) Lung cancer 18%

    CARET (USA, 1996, 18 000 participants) 30 mg -carotene and 25,000 IU retinil- palmitate Lung cancer 28%

  • Tea Consumption and Esophageal Cancer I.Green tea consumption statistically significantly decreased the risk of esophageal cancer (OR: 0.50; 95% CI = 0.30-0.830)

    (Gao YT, McLaughlin JK, Blot WJ, et al. Reduced risk of esophageal cancer associated with green tea consumption. J Natl Cancer Inst 1994;86:855-888.)

  • Tea Consumption and Esophageal Cancer II.Daily tea consumption (g tea leaves) in Northern Iranian regions:

    (Hormozdiari, 1975)

    High-risk regionLow-risk regionWinter5.23.0Spring-summer7.85.1Summer-autumn4.73.9

  • Regular Intake and Supplementation Level of -Carotenemg/day

    Diagram1

    2

    2

    30

    Sorozat 1

    Munka1

    Sorozat 1

    Men2

    Women2

    Supplement30

    A diagram adattartomnya a jobb als sarknl fogva mdosthat.

  • Calcium: Dietary Intake and Supplements mg/day

    Diagram1

    1250

    2000

    Sorozat 1

    Munka1

    Sorozat 1

    Diet1250

    Supplement2000

    A diagram adattartomnya a jobb als sarknl fogva mdosthat.

  • Factors Affecting the Antioxidant/Prooxidant Properties of -caroteneConcentrationPresence of certain prooxidant compoundsOxigene-concentrationPresence of other antioxidants

  • Temperature of Tea at Consumption in Different Regions of Iran(Ghadirian, 1987)

    Percent of people drinking tea at less than 55 CPercent of people drinking tea at more than 65 High-risk region (esophageal cancer)3%62%Low-risk region (esophageal cancer)72%19%

  • Factors Concerning Tea ConsumptionSort and quality of tea (green, oolong, black)

    Preparation method (water temperature, soaking time)Water quality (hardness, contaminants)Quality of dishes, contaminantsSweetening (sugar)Temperature at consumption

  • Lifetime Probability of Developing Cancer, by Site, Men, US, 1997-1999Source: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, 1973-1999, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, 2002.

    All sites1 in 2Prostate 1 in 6Lung & bronchus1 in 13Colon & rectum1 in 17Urinary bladder1 in 29Non-Hodgkin lymphoma1 in 47Melanoma1 in 57Leukemia1 in 69Oral cavity1 in 71Kidney1 in 72Stomach1 in 79

  • Lifetime Probability of Developing Cancer, by Site, Women, US, 1997-1999Source: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, 1973-1999, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, 2002.

    RiskAll sites1 in 3Breast1 in 8Lung & bronchus 1 in 17Colon & rectum1 in 18Uterine corpus1 in 37Non-Hodgkin lymphoma1 in 56Ovary1 in 58Pancreas1 in 80Melanoma 1 in 81Urinary bladder1 in 88Uterine cervix1 in 123

  • Cancer Survival*(%) by Site and Race,1992-1998*5-year relative survival rates based on follow up of patients through 1999. Source: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, 1973-1999, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, 2002.

    All Sites645311Breast (female)887315Colon & rectum635310Esophagus15 8 7Leukemia4738 9Non-Hodgkin lymphoma564610Oral cavity593524Prostate9893 5Urinary bladder826517Uterine cervix726012Uterine corpus866125White% Difference

  • Relative Survival* (%) during Three Time Periods by Cancer Site*5-year relative survival rates based on follow up of patients through 1999. Source: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, 1973-1999, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, 2002.1974-19761983-19851992-1998All sites505262Breast (female)757886Colon & rectum505762Leukemia344146Lung & bronchus121415Melanoma808589Non-Hodgkin lymphoma475455Ovary374153Pancreas334Prostate677597Urinary bladder737882

  • Cancer Death Rates*, by Race and Ethnicity, 1992-1999

  • Change in the US Death Rates* by Cause, 1950 & 2000* Age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.Source: US Mortality Volume 1950, National Vital Statistics Report, 2002, Vol. 50, No. 15.Heart DiseasesCerebrovascular DiseasesPneumonia/ InfluenzaCancer19502000Rate Per 100,000

  • Cardiovascular and cancer mortality in Hungary(1993-2003).

    CardiovascularCancer(% of total mortality)1993200319932003MaleFemaleMaleFemaleMaleFemaleMaleFemale46,2857,5245,4756,5422,6320,5327,2222,79

  • Cancer deaths in Hungary (per 100.000)

    MenWomenType of cancer1993200319932003Lung115,60121,632,3244,2Colorectal45,3857,840,7043,5Mouth, lip24,3242,5Not among the 6 most significant causesNot among the 6 most significant causesProstate25,1327,2------Stomach32,3524,620,8716,0Liver, gallbladder17.0718,121,7517,4Pancreasxx12,9216,4Breast (female)------43,0943,4

  • Cancer is a worldwide health issue

  • MALESSiteHighLowRatioPopulationRatePopulationRateH/LTongueBermuda: Black16.3China, Qidong U.S., Los Angeles: Filipino The Gambia0.281.5StomachJapan, Yamagata93.3India, Ahmedabad2.144.4ColonU.S., Hawaii: Japanese37.2The Gambia0.753.1RectumCzech., Boh.& Morav.22.9The Gambia0.732.7LiverThailand, Khon Kaen China, Qidong90.0Netherlands, Maastricht0.8112.5PancreasU.S., California- Alameda: Black13.7The Gambia0.434.3LarynxSpain, Basque Country20.4China, Qidong0.1204.0Bronchus, LungNew Zealand: Maori119.1The Gambia1.0119.1Melanoma of SkinAustralian Capital Territory28.9Kuwait: Kuwaitis Thailand, Khon Kaen0.1289.0ProstateU.S., Atlanta: Black102.0China, Qidong0.8127.5TestisSwitzerland, Zurich8.8The Gambia0.244.0BladderItaly, Trieste34.0U.S., Los Angeles: Filipino The Gambia India, Madras1.818.9Kidney, etc.Italy, Trieste15.5Algeria, Stif0.277.5All SitesAustralia, Tasmania493.8The Gambia59.18.4

  • FEMALESSiteHighLowRatioPopulationRatePopulationRateH/LMouthIndia, Bangalore9.6Japan, Yamagata Spain, Tarragona Poland, Warsaw Rural Algeria, Stif0.196.0EsophagusIndia, Bangalore8.8U.S., Los Angeles: Japanese0.188.0StomachJapan, Yamagata42.9India, Ahmedabad The Gambia1.528.6ColonBermuda: Black34.4Algeria, Stif0.938.2RectumIsrael: Born in Europe, America16.1The Gambia 0.626.8LiverThailand, Khon Kaen38.3Canada, Prince Edward Island0.1383.0Bronchus, LungNew Zealand: Maori62.2India, Madras1.444.4Melanoma of SkinAustralian Capital Territory25.3China, Qidong Kuwait: Non-Kuwaitis Algeria, Stif0.1253.0BreastU.S., California-Bay Area: White104.2The Gambia 3.430.6All SitesCanada, British Columbia345.4The Gambia39.68.7

  • All sites 359.2253.01.4

    Larynx 5.8 2.42.4

    Prostate 72.8 31.22.3

    Stomach 14.2 6.32.3

    Myeloma 9.2 4.52.0 Oral cavity and pharynx 8.3 4.22.0Esophagus 12.9 7.21.8Liver 9.2 5.91.6

    Lung & bronchus 109.1 79.71.4

    Pancreas 16.2 12.01.4

    Small intestine 0.7 0.51.4

    Colon & rectum 34.4 25.81.3Cancer Sites in Which African-American Death Rates* Exceed White Death Rates* for Men, US, 1995-1999*Per 100,000, age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.Source: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, 1973-1999, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, 2002.

    African AmericanWhiteRatio of African American/White

  • Cancer Sites in Which African-American Death Rates* Exceed White Death Rates for Women, US, 1995-1999*Per 100,000, age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.Source: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, 1973-1999, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, 2002.

    All sites203.5169.81.2Stomach6.83.02.3Myeloma6.83.02.3Uterine cervix6.22.82.2Esophagus3.51.72.1Larynx0.90.51.8Uterine corpus, NOS6.93.91.8Soft tissue, including heart1.91.31.5Colon & rectum25.418.01.4Pancreas13.09.01.4Liver & intrahepatic bile duct3.92.81.4Breast37.128.21.3Urinary bladder3.12.31.3African-AmericanWhite Ratio of African American/White

  • Different locations have different rates of cancer.Why does China have a 50x higher rate of liver cancer than Canada?Why does US have a 20x higher colon cancer rate than India?

    Epidemiological studies of human cancerCan't do highly controlled studies as for animals.Immigrant studies--track cancer incidence among individuals that have immigrated to country.

    Japanese women in Japan Japanese immigrants to US Rates of cancer: Rates of cancer: After one orStomach cancer high, two generations, develop breast cancer low cancer patterns like other US women

  • Daganat Nem Nigria USA 1960-69 FeketkFehrekVastagbl frfiak 34 349 294 Vgbl frfiak 34 159 217Mj frfiak 272 67 39Hasnylmirigy frfiak 55 200 126 Gge frfiak 37 236 141Td frfiak 27 1,546