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EECS 117Lecture 3: Transmission Line Junctions / Time

Harmonic Excitation

Prof. Niknejad

University of California, Berkeley

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 3 p. 1/23

Transmission Line Menagerie

striplinemicrostripline coplanar

rectangular

waveguide

coaxialtwo wires

T-Lines come in many shapes and sizes

Coaxial usually 75 or 50 (cable TV, Internet)

Microstrip lines are common on printed circuit boards(PCB) and integrated circuit (ICs)

Coplanar also common on PCB and ICs

Twisted pairs is almost a T-line, ubiquitous forphones/Ethernet

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 3 p. 2/23

Waveguides and Transmission Lines

The transmission lines weve been considering havebeen propagating the TEM mode or TransverseElectro-Magnetic. Later well see that they can alsopropagation other modes

Waveguides cannot propagate TEM but propagationTM (Transverse Magnetic) and TE (Transverse Electric)

In general, any set of more than one losslessconductors with uniform cross-section can transmitTEM waves. Low loss conductors are commonlyapproximated as lossless.

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 3 p. 3/23

Cascade of T-Lines (I)

Z01 Z02

z = 0

i1 i2

v1 v2

Consider the junction between two transmission linesZ01 and Z02At the interface z = 0, the boundary conditions are thatthe voltage/current has to be continuous

v+1

+ v1

= v+2

(v+1 v

1)/Z01 = v

+

2/Z02

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 3 p. 4/23

Cascade of T-Lines (II)

Solve these equations in terms of v+1

The reflection coefficient has the same form (easy toremember)

=v1

v+1

=Z02 Z01Z01 + Z02

The second line looks like a load impedance of valueZ02

Z01 Z02

z = 0

i1

+v1

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 3 p. 5/23

Transmission Coefficient

The wave launched on the new transmission line at theinterface is given by

v+2

= v+1

+ v1

= v+1

(1 + ) = v+1

This transmitted wave has a coefficient

= 1 + =2Z02

Z01 + Z02

Note the incoming wave carries a power

Pin =|v+

1|2

2Z01

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 3 p. 6/23

Conservation of Energy

The reflected and transmitted waves likewise carry apower of

Pref =|v

1|2

2Z01= ||2 |v

+

1|2

2Z01Ptran =

|v+2|2

2Z02= | |2 |v

+

1|2

2Z02

By conservation of energy, it follows that

Pin = Pref + Ptran

1

Z022 +

1

Z012 =

1

Z01

You can verify that this relation holds!

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 3 p. 7/23

Bounce Diagram

Consider the bouncediagram for the follow-ing arrangement

Z01 Z02

Rs

RL

`1 `2

Ti

me

Space

td

2td

3td

4td

5td

6td

v+1

1v+1

L1v+

1

L12v+

1

sL12v+1

jv+

1

jsv+

1

s2jv

+

1

`1 `1 + `2

td1

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 3 p. 8/23

Junction of Parallel T-Lines

Z01Z

02

z = 0

Z03

Again invoke voltage/current continuity at the interface

v+1

+ v1

= v+2

= v+3

v+1 v

1

Z01=

v+2

Z02+

v+3

Z02

But v+2

= v+3

, so the interface just looks like the case oftwo transmission lines Z01 and a new line with char.impedance Z01||Z02.

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 3 p. 9/23

Reactive Terminations (I)

Rs

Vs

`

Z0, td L

Lets analyze the problem intuitively first

When a pulse first sees the inductance at the load, itlooks like an open so 0 = +1

As time progresses, the inductor looks more and morelike a short! So = 1

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 3 p. 10/23

Reactive Terminations (II)

So intuitively we might expect the reflection coefficientto look like this:

1 2 3 4 5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1

t/

The graph starts at +1 and ends at 1. In between wellsee that it goes through exponential decay (1st orderODE)

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 3 p. 11/23

Reactive Terminations (III)

Do equations confirm our intuition?

vL = Ldi

dt= L

d

dt

(

v+

Z0 v

Z0

)

And the voltage at the load is given by v+ + v

v +L

Z0

dv

dt=

L

Z0

dv+

dt v+

The right hand side is known, its the incomingwaveform

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 3 p. 12/23

Solution for Reactive Term

For the step response, the derivative term on the RHSis zero at the load

v+ =Z0

Z0 + RsVs

So we have a simpler case dv+

dt = 0

We must solve the following equation

v +L

Z0

dv

dt= v+

For simplicity, assume at t = 0 the wave v+ arrives atload

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 3 p. 13/23

Laplace Domain Solution I

In the Laplace domain

V (s) +sL

Z0V (s) L

Z0v(0) = v+/s

Solve for reflection V (s)

V (s) =v(0)L/Z01 + sL/Z0

v+

s(1 + sL/Z0)

Break this into basic terms using partial fractionexpansion

1s(1 + sL/Z0)

=1

1 + sL/Z0+

L/Z01 + sL/Z0

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 3 p. 14/23

Laplace Domain Solution (II)

Invert the equations to get back to time domain t > 0

v(t) = (v(0) + v+)et/ v+

Note that v(0) = v+ since initially the inductor is anopen

So the reflection coefficient is

(t) = 2et/ 1

The reflection coefficient decays with time constantL/Z0

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 3 p. 15/23

Time Harmonic Steady-State

Compared with general transient case, sinusoidal caseis very easy t jSinusoidal steady state has many importantapplications for RF/microwave circuits

At high frequency, T-lines are like interconnect fordistances on the order of

Shorted or open T-lines are good resonators

T-lines are useful for impedance matching

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 3 p. 16/23

Why Sinusoidal Steady-State?

Typical RF system modulates a sinusoidal carrier(either frequency or phase)

If the modulation bandwidth is much smaller than thecarrier, the system looks like its excited by a puresinusoid

Cell phones are a good example. The carrier frequencyis about 1 GHz and the voice digital modulation is about200 kHz(GSM) or 1.25 MHz(CDMA), less than a 0.1% ofthe bandwidth/carrier

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 3 p. 17/23

Generalized Distributed Circuit Model

Z Z Z Z Z

Y Y Y Y Y

Z : impedance per unit length (e.g. Z = jL + R)

Y : admittance per unit length (e.g. Y = jC + G)

A lossy T-line might have the following form (but wellanalyze the general case)

L

C

R

G

L

C

R

G

L

C

R

G

L

C

R

G

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 3 p. 18/23

Time Harmonic Telegraphers Equations

Applying KCL and KVL to a infinitesimal section

v(z + z) v(z) = Z zi(z)

i(z + z) i(z) = Y zv(z)Taking the limit as before (z 0)

dv

dz= Zi(z)

di

dz= Y v(z)

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 3 p. 19/23

Sin. Steady-State (SSS) Voltage/Current

Taking derivatives (notice z is the only variable) wearrive at

d2v

dz2= Z di

dz= Y Zv(z) = 2v(z)

d2i

dz2= Y dv

dz= Y Zi(z) = 2i(z)

Where the propagation constant is a complex function

= + j =

(R + jL)(G + jC )

The general solution to D2G 2G = 0 is ez

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 3 p. 20/23

Lossless Line for SSS

The voltage and current are related (just as before, butnow easier to derive)

v(z) = V +ez + V ez

i(z) =V +

Z0ez V

Z0ez

Where Z0 =

Z

Y is the characteristic impedance of the

line (function of frequency with loss)

For a lossless line we discussed before, Z = jL andY = jC

Propagation constant is imaginary

=

jLjC = j

LC University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 3 p. 21/23

Back to Time-Domain

Recall that the real voltages and currents are the < and= parts of

v(z, t) = ezejt = ejtz

Thus the voltage/current waveforms are sinusoidal inspace and time

Sinusoidal source voltage is transmitted unaltered ontoT-line (with delay)

If there is loss, then has a real part , and the wavedecays or grows on the T-line

ez = ezejz

The first term represents amplitude response of theT-line

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 3 p. 22/23

Passive T-Line/Wave Speed

For a passive line, we expect the amplitude to decaydue to loss on the line

The speed of the wave is derived as before. In order tofollow a constant point on the wavefront, you have tomove with velocity

d

dt(t z = constant)

Or, v = dzdt = =

1

LC

University of California, Berkeley EECS 117 Lecture 3 p. 23/23

Transmission Line MenagerieWaveguides and Transmission LinesCascade of T-Lines (I)Cascade of T-Lines (II)Transmission CoefficientConservation of EnergyBounce DiagramJunction of Parallel T-LinesReactive Terminations (I)Reactive Terminations (II)Reactive Terminations (III)Solution for Reactive TermLaplace Domain Solution ILaplace Domain Solution (II)Time Harmonic Steady-State Why Sinusoidal Steady-State?Generalized Distributed Circuit ModelTime Harmonic Telegrapher's EquationsSin. Steady-State (SSS)Voltage/Current Lossless Line for SSSBack to Time-Domain Passive T-Line/Wave Speed