Ecosystem investigation Group 3 Biotic Factors
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.Organisms on Land
B.Organisms in or near water
.Biotic Factors on LandTree LayerShrub LayerField Layer ( herbs )Ground layer ( moss, lichen, fungi )FaunaTree Layer We have witnessed many tree species. The most characteristic are:
Platanus Orientalis Oriental PlaneSalix alba WillowPinus halepensis Aleppo PineCypressus sempervirens CypressCercis Siliquastrum Judas TreeOlea oleaster wild olive tree
Platanus Orientalis, or theOriental plane, is a large, deciduoustreeof thefamily Platanaceae, known for its longevity and spreading crown
Pinus halepensis, commonly known as theAleppo Pine, is apinenative to theMediterranean region
Cercis siliquastrum, commonly known asJudas Tree, is a smalltree fromSouthern EuropeandWestern Asiawhich is noted for its prolific display of deep-pink flowers in spring.
Shrub LayerWe have witnessed the following species:Nerium oleander oleanderQuercus coccifera Kermes oakErica arborea heathCistus incanus cistusPaliurus spina-christi Christs thornJuniperus oxycedrus juniperRubus idaeus Raspberry Rosa canina Wild Rose Vitex agnus-castus Vitex
Cistus incanus10Rosa canina(commonly known as thedog rose) is a variable scramblingrosespecies native toEurope, northwestAfricaand westernAsia.
Nerium oleanderis an evergreen shrub in thefamilyApocynacea, toxic in all its partsIt is most commonly known asoleander.Rubus idaeus(Red Raspberry) is a red-fruited species ofRubusnative toEurope and northernAsiaand commonly cultivated in other temperate regions.
Vitex agnus-castus, also calledVitex is a native of theMediterranean region. It is one of the few temperate-zone species ofVitex, which is on the whole a genus of tropical and sub-tropicalflowering plants.Herb speciesThistleis the common name of a group offlowering plantscharacterised byleaveswith sharp prickles on the margins, mostly in the familyAsteraceae. Prickles often occur all over the plant on surfaces such as those of the stem and flat parts of leaves.
Urtica sp.Nettlesconstitute between 24 and 39 species of flowering plants of the genusUrticain the familyUrticaceae
Anemone blandaGrecian Windflower is atuberousperennialvalued for itsdaisy-likespring-bloomingflowers, native to southeasternEurope,Turkey,Lebanon andSyria.
Herbs Anagalis arvensis
Anemone coronariaOrnithogallum sp.
Alkanna tinctoriaAristolochia rotunda
Myosotis sp.Forget me notCampanula sp.Crupina crupinastrum
Muscari neglectumOrobanche spOphrys sphegodesNigela arvensis
Helleborus cyclophyllusHypecum imberbeReseda albaRomulea bulbocodiumRuscus aculeatus
Papaver sp.Stellaria mediaPotentilla sp.Arum italicumGround Layer In wet and shady place we have noticed mosses forming big cushions on rocks or tree trunks. Of the course there was plenty and fungi lichens.
Fauna Mammals Unfortunatelly we have not witnessed any mammals, but we have seen their feeding signs. The pine cone on the photo indicates the presence of squirrel, Sciurus vulgaris
Elaphe quatuorlineataTestudo sp.
Lacerta viridisAmphibiansTheEuropean tree frogis the common name ofHyla arborea. The original name of this frog wasRana arborea
TheCommon Frog,Rana temporariaalso known as theEuropean Common Frogoris found throughout much of Europe
Mantises is an order ofinsectsthat containsapproximately 2,200 speciesin 15 families[
Beesare flyinginsectsand are known for their role inpollinationand for producinghoney
TheRed Admiral(Vanessa atalanta) is a well-known colourfulbutterfly, found intemperateEuropeColeopterais an order ofinsectscommonly calledbeetles
Coccinellidaeis afamilyofbeetles, known variously asladybirds orladybugsArachnidsWolf spidersare members of thefamilyLycosidae, from theAncient Greekword "" meaning "wolf"