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Transcript of ECON 582: The Neoclassical Growth Model (Chapter 8, Acemoglu) · PDF fileECON 582: The...

  • ECON 582: The Neoclassical

    Growth Model (Chapter 8,

    Acemoglu)

    Instructor: Dmytro Hryshko

    1 / 25

  • Consider the neoclassical economy without populationgrowth and technological progress. The optimal growthproblem is then

    max[k(t),c(t)]t=0

    0

    exp(t)u(c(t))dt

    s.t.

    k(t) = f(k(t)) k(t) c(t),

    k(0) > 0, k(t) 0 for all t.The current-value Hamiltonian can be written as

    H(k, c, ) = u(c(t)) + (t) [f(k(t)) k(t) c(t)] ,

    with state variable k, control variable c, and current-valuecostate variable .

    2 / 25

  • Theorem 7.13 Suppose the problem of maximizing (7.60)subject to (7.61) and (7.62). Let H(t, x, y, ) be thecurrent-value Hamiltonian given by (7.64). Then except atpoints of discontinuity of y(t), the optimal control pair(y(t), x(t)) satisfies the following necessary conditions:

    Hy(t, x(t), y(t), (t)) = 0 for all t R+ (7.65)(t) (t) = Hx(t, x(t), y(t), (t)) for all t R+ (7.66)x(t) = H(t, x(t), y(t), (t)) for all t R+, x(0) = x0, lim

    tb(t)x(t) x1(7.67)

    limt

    [exp(t)(t)x(t)] = 0. (7.69)

    where (7.69) is the transversality condition.

    3 / 25

  • The economy consists of a set of identical households;population within each household grows at the rate n,L(0) = 1:

    L(t) = exp(nt).

    Labor supply is inelastic. Per-capita utility u(c(t));household utility at t is L(t)u(c(t)) = exp(nt)u(c(t)). Thenthe objective function of each household at time t = 0 canbe written as

    0

    exp(( n)t)u(c(t))dt (8.3)

    4 / 25

  • Assumption 3 (Neoclassical preferences): u(c(t)) isstrictly increasing, concave, and twice differentiable.

    Assumption 4 (Discounting): > n. (Ensures that, inthe model without growth, discounted utility is finite.)

    Assume the economy without technological progress;production function Y (t) = F (K(t), L(t)).

    y(t) Y (t)L(t)

    = F

    (K(t)

    L(t), 1

    ) f(k(t)).

    Competitive factor markets imply

    R(t) = f (k(t)) (8.5)

    w(t) = f(k(t)) k(t)f (k(t)). (8.6)

    5 / 25

  • Note thatY = F (K,L) = Lf( k

    =KL

    ).

    You can show (8.5) by differentiating Lf(k) with respect toK

    R =

    K[Lf(k)] = Lf (k)

    K

    [K

    L

    ]= f (k)

    and (8.6) by differentiating Lf(k) with respect to L:

    w =

    L[Lf(k)] = f(k) Lf (k)K

    L2= f(k) kf (k).

    6 / 25

  • The law of motion for the total household assets is

    A(t) = r(t)A(t) + w(t)L(t) c(t)L(t).

    Define per-capita assets as a(t) A(t)L(t)

    . Note that

    a(t) = A(t)L(t)A(t)L(t)L(t)2

    = A(t)L(t) a(t)n. Thus,

    a(t) = (r(t) n)a(t) + w(t) c(t). (8.8)

    Market-clearing implies

    a(t) = k(t). (8.9)

    The no-Ponzi condition:

    limt

    [a(t) exp

    ( t0

    (r(s) n)ds))]

    = 0. (8.16)

    7 / 25

  • Definition of equilibrium

    Definition 8.1A competitive equilibrium of the neoclassical growth modelconsists of paths of consumption, capital stock, wage rates,and rental rates of capital, [C(t), K(t), w(t), R(t)]t=0, suchthat:

    the representative household maximizes its utility giveninitial asset holdings (capital stock) K(0) > 0 andtaking the time path of factor prices [w(t), R(t)]t=0 asgiven;

    firms maximize profits taking the time path of factorprices as given; and

    factor prices are such that all markets clear.

    8 / 25

  • Household maximization

    The current-value Hamiltonian:

    H(t, a, c, ) = u(c(t)) + (t) [w(t) + (r(t) n)a(t) c(t)] .

    Applying Theorem 7.13,

    Hc = u(c(t)) (t) = 0 (8.17)

    Ha = (t)(r(t) n) = ( n)(t) (t) (8.18)limt

    [exp (( n)t)(t)a(t)] = 0. (8.19)

    9 / 25

  • (8.18) implies:

    (t)

    (t)= (r(t) ). (8.20)

    Differentiating (8.17) wrt t,

    u(c(t))c(t) = (t),

    and dividing by (t),[u(c(t))c(t)

    u(c(t))

    ] u(c(t))

    c(t)

    c(t)=(t)

    (t).

    Using (8.20),c(t)

    c(t)=

    1

    u(c(t))(r(t) ). (8.22)

    10 / 25

  • From (8.22), consumption grows if the discount rate isbelow the rate of return on assets; the speed of growth isrelated to the elasticity of marginal utility of consumption.(8.20) implies

    (t) = (0) exp

    ( t0

    (r(s) )ds)

    = u(c(0)) exp

    ( t0

    (r(s) )ds). (8.24)

    The transversality condition (8.19) can be expressed as

    limt

    exp (( n)t) = t0 (n)ds

    a(t)u(c(0)) exp

    ( t0

    (r(s) )ds) = 0

    limt

    [a(t) exp

    ( t0

    (r(s) n)ds)]

    = 0. (8.25)

    11 / 25

  • Thus, the transversality condition implies the no-Ponzicondition (8.16). Since in equilibrium a(t) = k(t), it can bewritten as

    limt

    [k(t) exp

    ( t0

    (r(s) n)ds)]

    = 0. (8.26)

    Thus, the discounted market value of capital in the very farfuture should equal zero.

    Any pair (k(t), c(t)) that satisfies (8.22) and (8.25)corresponds to a competitive equilibrium.Since r(t) = R(t) , (8.22) implies

    c(t)

    c(t)=

    1

    u(c(t))(f (k(t)) ). (8.28)

    12 / 25

  • Steady-state equilibrium

    Requires that c(t) = 0. From (8.28),

    f (k) = + . (8.35)

    (8.35) corresponds to the modified golden rule. Togetherwith Assumption 4 this implies

    r = f (k) = > n. (8.36)

    SS consumption is

    c = f(k) (n+ )k.

    13 / 25

  • Redefine the production function as f(k) = Af(k), where Ais a shift parameter. Additional comparative statics resultsare

    k(A, , n, )

    < 0,

    c(A, , n, )

    < 0,

    k(A, , n, )

    n= 0,

    c(A, , n, )

    n< 0.

    A lower discount rate implies greater patience and thusgreater savings. In the model with no technologicalprogress, the savings rate in SS is

    s =(n+ )k

    f(k). (8.38)

    14 / 25

  • New results relative to the Solow model

    Comparative statics with respect to (replacescomparative statics wrt exogenously given s in theSolow model)

    SS values k and c do not depend on theinstantaneous utility function u() as the SS isdetermined by the modified golden rule

    The form of u() affects transitional dynamics but notthe SS

    k is not affected by n (depends on the wayintertemporal discounting is introduced)

    15 / 25

  • Proposition 8.4

    In the neoclassical growth model with no technologicalprogress, with Assumptions 14, there exists a uniqueequilibrium path starting from any k(0) > 0 and convergingmonotonically to the unique steady-state (k, c) with k

    given by (8.35). This equilibrium path is identical to theunique optimal growth path.

    16 / 25

  • Transitional dynamics in the neoclassical growth

    modelIntroduction to Modern Economic Growth

    c(t)

    kgold0k(t)

    k(0)

    c(0)

    c(0)

    c(t)=0

    k(t)=0

    k*

    c(0)

    c*

    k

    Figure 8.1. Transitional dynamics in the baseline neoclassicalgrowth model.

    Therefore, the correct notion of stability in models with state and control variables

    is one in which the dimension of the stable curve (manifold) is the same as that of

    the state variables, requiring the control variables jump on to this curve.

    Fortunately, the economic forces are such that the correct notion of stability is

    guaranteed and indeed there will be a one-dimensional manifold of stable solutions

    tending to the unique steady state. There are two ways of seeing this. The first one

    simply involves studying the above system diagrammatically. This is done in Figure

    8.1.

    The vertical line is the locus of points where c = 0. The reason why the c = 0

    locus is just a vertical line is that in view of the consumer Euler equation (8.25), only

    the unique level of k given by (8.21) can keep per capita consumption constant.

    The inverse U-shaped curve is the locus of points where k = 0 in (8.24). The

    intersection of these two loci defined the steady state. The shape of the k = 0 locus

    388

    Source: Acemoglu. Introduction to Modern Economic Growth.17 / 25

  • Technological change and the canonical

    neoclassical model

    The production function takes the form

    Y (t) = F (K(t), A(t)L(t)),

    A(t) = A(0) exp(gt). Kaldor facts: constant capital-outputratio, constant growth in output and constant capital sharein income. Since K(t) =

    R(t)K(t)Y (t)

    , this implies that R(t)

    and therefore r(t) should be constant.

    For consumption to grow at a constant rate, u(c(t)) shouldbe constant as well.

    18 / 25

  • Balanced growth in the neoclassical model requires thatasymptotically all technological change is purelylabor-augmenting and the elasticity of intertemporalsubstitution tends to a constant u.

    19 / 25

  • It can be shown that the intertemporal elasticity ofsubstitution is the inverse of the elasticity of marginalutility.

    The Arrow-Pratt coefficient of relative risk aversion for atwice differentiable concave utility function u(c) is definedas

    < = u(c)c

    u(c).

    The Constant Relative Risk Aversion utility function(CRRA) satisfies the property that < is constant:

    u(c) =c1 1

    1 if 6= 1, 0

    = log c if = 1.

    20 / 25

  • The Euler equation of the representative household is

    c(t)

    c(t)=

    1

    (r(t) ) . (8.50)

    Consumption per capita will be growing; define

    c(t) =C(t)

    A(t)L(t)=

    c(t)

    A(t),

    which is constant along the BGP. Then,

    dc(t)/dt

    c(t)=

    1

    (r(t) g) .

    21 / 25

  • The law of motion of k(t) = K(t)A(t)L(t)

    :

    k(t) = f(k(t)) c(t) (n+ g + )k(t). (8.51)

    The transversality condition:

    limt

    [k(t) exp