EC101: BASIC ELECTRONICS (3 -0-2:4) BASIC ELECTRONICS (3 -0-2:4) 1. Diode: ... To Study the V-I...

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Transcript of EC101: BASIC ELECTRONICS (3 -0-2:4) BASIC ELECTRONICS (3 -0-2:4) 1. Diode: ... To Study the V-I...

  • EC101: BASIC ELECTRONICS (3-0-2:4)

    1. Diode: Basic Diode Theory, Zener Diode, Photodiode, Light Emitting Diode, Varactor Diode, Schottky Diode, Half

    Wave Rectifier Circuit, Full Wave Rectifier Circuit and Bridge Rectifier Circuit, Filtering Circuits (C, L, L-C &

    filters), Voltage Multipliers.

    2. Transistor: Transistor Theory, Transistor Action, Transistor Symbols, Common Collector, Common Emitter and Common

    Base Configurations, Different Biasing Techniques, Concept of Transistor Amplifier.

    3. Digital Electronics: Boolean Algebra, Logic Gates, Combinational Circuits.

    4. Electronic Communication: Introduction to Radio Frequency Spectrum, Modulation, Need of Modulation, Different Types of Modulation,

    Basic Circuits and Blocks of Modulation and Demodulation, Transmitters and Receivers, Application of

    Modulation.

    5. Electronic Instruments: Cathode Ray Oscilloscope & Digital Storage Oscilloscope: Theory and Applications, Function Generator,

    Power Supply, Digital Multimeter.

    Suggested Practical:

    1. I-V characteristics of forward biased P-N junction Diode.

    2. Reverse characteristics of Zener Diode

    3. Zener Diode as a reference Diode.

    4. Half-wave rectifier using diode

    5. Full-wave rectifier using diode.

    6. Bridge rectifier.

    7. Truth Table verification of Logic Gates.

    8. Design of basic logic gates using NAND & NOR gates.

    9. Input & output characteristics of BJT in CB mode.

    10. Input & output characteristics of BJT in CE mode.

    Text Books:

    1. Basic Electronics, Chattopadhyay & Rakshit, New Age Publisher.

    References:

    1. Electronics Principles, Albert P. Malvino, Publisher: Tata McGraw-Hill 2. Electronics Devices, Thomas L. Floyd, Publisher: Pearson Education 3. Digital Principles & Applications, Albert P. Malvino, Publisher: Tata McGraw-Hill 4. Electronic Communication Systems, John Kennedy & William Devis, Publisher: Tata McGraw-Hill

  • NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

    MEGHALAYA

    Basic Electronics: Laboratory Manual 2015

  • CONTENTS

    Sl No Name of Experiment Page No

    1. To Study the V-I characteristics of Forward Biased PN junction diode. 1-3

    2. To Study the Reverse characteristics of Zener diode. 4-6

    3. To Study the working of a diode as half wave rectifier with and without filter. 7-9

    4. To Study the working of a diode as Bridge rectifier with and without filter. 10-12

    5. To Study the working of a diode as Bridge rectifier with and without filter. 13-15

    6. To study the input and output characteristic of BJT in CB configuration. 16-19

    7. To study the input and output characteristic of BJT in CE configuration. 20-23

    8. Realization of Basic Logic Gates. 24-26

    9. Realization of Basic Logic Gates using Universal Gates NAND and NOR. 27-28

  • EXPERIMENT NO-1 AIM: To Study the V-I character APPARATUS REQUIRED: SL No

    Name of Component/Equi

    1 Regulated DC power supp2 Digital Multimeter 3 PN Diode 4 Resistor 5 Breadboard 6 Connecting Wire THEORY:

    p-n junction diode Forw

    If a positive voltage is applied to

    flow (depending upon the magni

    Biased"

    At the p-n junction, the "built-in"

    When these two fields add, the re

    of the original "built-in" electric

    applied voltage is large enough, t

    occurs at about 0.6 volts forward

    the depletion region. Above 0.6 v

    flows virtually unimpeded.

    ristics of Forward Biased PN junction diode.

    ipment Specification/Range

    ply 0-30V,1A 15S IN4007 100 - -

    ward characteristic:

    o the p-type side and a negative voltage to the n-t

    tude of the applied voltage). This configuration

    " electric field and the applied electric field are i

    esultant field at the junction is smaller in magnit

    field. This results in a thinner, less resistive dep

    the depletion region's resistance becomes neglig

    d bias. From 0 to 0.6 volts, there is still considera

    volts, the depletion region's resistance is very sm

    Quantity

    1 2 1 1 1 As per requirements

    type side, current can

    is called "Forward

    in opposite directions.

    tude than the magnitude

    pletion region. If the

    gible. In silicon, this

    able resistance due to

    mall and current

  • Calculation for current limiting resistance:

    Where, V = Supply Voltage V, Imax =Maximum current rating for diode CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

    PROCEDURE: Forward Biased: 1. Make connections as per the circuit diagram. 2. Switch on the power supply. 3. Increase voltage from the power supply from 0V to 7V in step as shown in the observation table. 4. Measure voltage across diode and current through diode 5. Note down readings in the observation table. 6. Plot and draw the V-I characteristic of forward bias on the graph.

  • OBSERVATION TABLE: Forward Biased: SL.NO Supply Voltage V (Volt)

    1 0 2 0.1 3 0.2 4 0.3 5 0.4 6 0.5 7 0.6 8 0.7 9 0.8

    10 0.9 11 1.0 12 1.5 13 2.0 14 2.5 15 3.0 16 3.5

    17 4.0 18 4.5 19 5.0 20 5.5 21 6.0 22 6.5 23 7.0

    Expected Graph: CONCLUSION/RESULT: (Wriyou have solved them.)

    Diode Voltage Vd (Volts) Diode Cu

    ite your remarks or any difficulties faced during

    rrent Id (mA)

    the experiment and how

  • EXPERIMENT NO-2 AIM: To Study the Reverse char APPARATUS REQUIRED: SL No

    Name of Component/Equi

    1 Regulated power supply 2 Digital Multimeter 3 Zener diode 4 Resistor 5 Breadboard 6 Connecting Wire THEORY: Zener diodes are desi

    varying the doping level, it is pos

    to200V

    A p-n junction diode normally do

    increased, at a particular voltage

    High current through the diode c

    is series with it. Once the diode i

    terminal whatever may be the cu

    Zener diode is a P-N junction dio

    in voltage regulators.

    racteristics of Zener diode.

    ipment Specification/Range Qu

    0-30V,1A 1 15S 2 BZX83-C5V6 1 1K 1 - 1 - As

    igned to operate in the breakdown region withou

    ssible to produce Zener diodes with breakdown

    oes not conduct when reversed biased. But if the

    it starts conducting heavily. This voltage is call

    an permanently damage it. To avoid high curren

    is starts conducting, it maintains almost constant

    rrent through it. That is, it has very low dynamic

    ode, specially made to work in the breakdown re

    uantity

    s per the requirements

    ut damage. By the

    voltage form 2V

    e reverse bias is

    ed breakdown voltage.

    nt, we connect a resistor

    t voltage across its

    c resistance. Hence a

    egion. It is mainly used

  • Calculation for current limiting resistance:

    Where, V = Supply Voltage V, Imax =Maximum current rating for Zener diode CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

    PROCEDURE: Reverse Biased: 1. Make connections as per the circuit diagram.

    2. Switch on the power supply.

    3. Increase voltage from the power supply from 0V to 24 V in step as shown in the observation table.

    4. Measure voltage across diode and current through diode

    5. Note down readings in the observation table.

    6. Plot and draw the reverse biased characteristic on the graph.

  • OBSERVATION TABLE: Reverse Biased: SL.NO Supply Voltage V (Volts

    1 0 2 1 3 2 4 3 5 4 6 5 7 6 8 7 9 8

    10 9 11 10 12 11 13 12 14 13 15 14 16 15

    17 16 18 17 19 18 20 19 21 20 22 21 23 22 24 23 25 24 Expected GRAPH:

    CONCLUSION/RESULT: (Wriyou have solved them.)

    s) Diode Voltage Vz (Volts) D

    ite your remarks or any difficulties faced during

    Diode Current Iz (mA)

    the experiment and how

  • EXPERIMENT NO-3 AIM: To Study the working of a diode as half wave rectifier with and without filter. APPARATUS REQUIRED: SL No

    Name of Component/Equipment Specification/Range Quantity

    1 Transformer 12-0-12V, 500mA 1 2 Digital Multimeter 15S 1 3 PN diode IN4007 1 4 Resistor 1K 1 5 Capacitor 100uF 1 6 Breadboard - 1 7 Connecting Wire - As per requirements THEORY: A diode is a unidirectional conducting device, It conducts only when it anode is at higher

    voltage w r t its cathode in a half wave rectifier circuit, during positive half cycle of the input, the diode

    get forward biased and it conducts. Currents flows through the load resistor RL and voltage is developed

    across it. During the negative half cycle of the input, the diode gets reversed biased. Now no current

    (except the leakage current which is very small) flows. The voltage across the load resistance during this

    period of input cycle is zero. Thus a pure ac signal is converted into a unidirectional signal. It can be

    shown that