Dr. Josh Flohr - Evaluating Maternal Vitamin D Supplementation on Sow and Subsequent Pig Performance
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Transcript of Dr. Josh Flohr - Evaluating Maternal Vitamin D Supplementation on Sow and Subsequent Pig Performance
J. R. FlohrLeman Conference 2016
Absorption and Metabolism Ingested or endogenously
produced vitamin D is converted to 25(OH)D in the liver by 25-hydroxylase enzyme.
25(OH)D has a 10 d to 3 wkhalf-life in circulation.
25(OH)D is hydroxylated at 1st carbon by 1-hydroxylase to the biologically active form 1,25(OH)2D.
Vitamin D3 vs. 25OHD3 as a form of the vitamin for livestock nutrition
A synthetically produced 25OHD3 product is available internationally for animal feeding and domestically for poultry nutrition.
Efficiency of absorption, requires one less metabolic step, is not the fat stored form.
1 IU = 0.025 g of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3)Based on IU equivalency, 2,000 IU or 50 g of vitamin D3 = 2,000
IU or 50 g of 25OHD3
Research examining D3 and 25OHD3 in swine
Date Serum 25OHD3 Performance criteria Bone status Muscle fiber
Lauridsen et al. 2010 N/A
Witschi et al. 2011 N/A
Coffey et al.Hines et al. 2012 N/A
Weber et al. 2014 N/A
The variability in experimental designs, and response criteria make it difficult to interpret
Research Questions If 25OHD3 (2,000 IU/kg) supplementation
increases vitamin status of the sow, does this cause improved performance.
Can increasing vitamin D3 supplementation elicit the same response? (form vs. status comparison)
What level of vitamin D3 is needed to elicit a similar serum 25OHD3 response as supplementing 2,000 IU of 25OHD3 itself?
If supplemental vitamin D influences fetal muscle development, can it lead to postnatal growth alterations?
January and February 2014
Measure the serum 25OHD3 response from feeding titrated concentrations of dietary vitamin D3 to the gestating sow.
Use results to develop a prediction equation to estimate the concentration of vitamin D3needed to achieve serum 25OHD3 similar to feeding 2,000 IU of 25OHD3.
Materials and Methods A total of 56 gestating sows (PIC 1050) from 2 consecutive
breeding groups were used. On d 35 post insemination, sows were randomly assigned to
1 of 7 dietary vitamin D3 treatments (200, 800, 1,600, 3,200, 6,400, 12,800, 25,600 IU of vitamin D3/kg of the complete diet).
Sows were fed 2.5 kg of the gestation diet at 0800 everyday. On d 0 and 30, blood was collected via jugular venipuncture. Serum was analyzed for serum 25OHD3. Results were analyzed using the PROC MIXED procedure of
SAS (SAS Institute, Cary, NC) with sow as the experimental unit.
Effects of vitamin D3 on gestating sow serum 25OHD3
46 44 46 48 4437 36
200 800 1,600 3,200 6,400 12,800 25,600
Dietary vitamin D3, IU/kg of the complete diet
SEM = 6.6Treatment day interaction, P < 0.001*Quadratic vitamin D3, P < 0.001
Prediction equation for serum 25OHD3 after supplementing titrated vitamin D3 in gestating sows
0 8,000 16,000 24,000 32,000 40,000 48,000 56,000 64,000
Dietary vitamin D3, IU/d
Serum 25OHD3, ng/mL = 35.1746 + (0.002353 dietary vitamin D3, IU/d) (0.0000000156 dietary vitamin D3, IU/d2)
R2 = 0.852
Conclusions Increasing supplementation of dietary vitamin D3
increased serum 25OHD3 in the gestating sow in a quadratic manner.
Results from Weber et al. (2014) found that sows supplemented 2,000 IU of 25OHD3 had serum concentrations between 50 and 90 ng/mL.
In order to ensure a serum response we chose to supplement vitamin D3 at 9,600 IU/kg or 24,000 IU/d in gestation which would result in a predicted serum 25OHD3 response of 80 ng/mL during the gestation period.
April to December 2014
Materials and Methods A total of 112 sows (PIC 1050) and their litters from 4 consecutive
farrowing groups were used. After breeding, sows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary
vitamin D treatments receiving: low (800 IU/kg), medium (2,000 IU/kg), or high (9,600 IU/kg) concentrations of vitamin D3, or 2,000 IU/kg of 25OHD3 .
Dietary treatments were fed throughout gestation and lactation. Sows were fed 2.5 kg of the gestation diet at 0800 everyday. Sows were bled on d 0 and 100 of gestation, with 24 h after
farrowing and at weaning to determine 25OHD3. Sow BW and BF were measured to calculate BW gain and loss and
BF loss. Lactation ADFI was determined by measuring feed disappearance.
Sow serum 25OHD3
d 0 d 100 Farrowing Weaning
SEM = 3.5Maternal day interaction, P < 0.001
Vit. D3, IU/kg
a = vitamin D3 linear, P < 0.001b = 2,000 IU vitamin D3 vs. 25OHD3, P < 0.001c = 9,600 IU vitamin D3 vs. 25OHD3, P < 0.005
Pre-weaned pig serum 25OHD3
Vitamin D3, IU/kg8002,0009,600
w = vitamin D3 linear, P < 0.001x = vitamin D3 quadratic, P = 0.033 y = 2,000 IU vitamin D3 vs. 25OHD3, P < 0.001z = 9,600 IU vitamin D3 vs. 25OHD3, P < 0.001
Conclusions Maternal vitamin D regimen altered serum
25OHD3 concentrations in the sow and pre-weaned pig.
The differences in serum 25OHD3 of pigs at weaning suggests that milk vitamin D transfer is more dependent on the level of the vitamin supplemented maternally rather than the form.
Maternal vitamin D regimen did not impact maternal performance, neonatal bone ash percentage, neonatal muscle fiber numbers, or pre-weaned pig growth.
September 2014 to May 2015
To determine whether maternal vitamin D and nursery vitamin D regimens influence post-weaning growth performance.
Materials and Methods
A total of 448 pigs from two weaning groups were used in a split-plot design to evaluate maternal and nursery vitamin D regimens.
At weaning, pigs were penned based on their maternal treatment and pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 nursery vitamin D treatments (2,000 IU of vitamin D3/kg or 2,000 IU of 25OHD3/kg of the diet).
Pigs received the same vitamin D treatment in three consecutive nursery dietary phases fed from weaning until 35-d post-weaning.
Growth PerformanceMaternal Vitamin D Probability, P