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Transcript of Domain: Bacteria .Ακίνη ο, μη σπορογόνο, χωρίς έλρο,...

Domain: Bacteria

Phylum: Actinobacteria

Order: Actinomycetales

Family: Corynebacteriaceae

Genus: Corynebacterium

Species: C. diphtheriae

Corynebacterium diphtheriae bacteria, which had been stained

using the methylene blue technique

Pleomorphic gram-positive rods whose ends may be swollen,

producing a club shape

, , , Gram-

v k L

:

( )

( )

3 gravis intermedius mitis

V" forms

"Chinese letters" ( )

CO2

Loefflers serum slope creamy white colonies in 6-8 hrs

(24-48 )

:

, ,

:

: [Fe]

corynebacteria, C. ulcerans C. pseudotuberculosis ()

Mechanism of Action of Diphtheria Toxin: Inhibition of Protein Synthesis

2 : A ()

()

DP- D 2,

1

2

CORYNOBACTERIUM DIPTHERIAE

(, , ) :

2-5

, , , ,

, (, , , )

: ,

: ( , ), ()

5-10%, >20% 40 3-4 , (>50% )

, ( = , )

,

( ):

prostration, dyspnea, asphyxia, arhythmia, difficulties of speech, vision, swallowing, movement

:

,

( )

/

Streptococcal tonsillitis -

Oral thrush Candida albicans

Spirochete- Borrelia vincenti

Loeffler (2-8 )

Gram(+) L V

( )

: ( -

)

Loeffler: & 25%

Hoyle

o

Trinsdale L- H2S

API Coryne

15

Elek test

/

PCR tox

:

48

PLT

erythromycin orally or by injection (40 mg/kg/day; maximum, 2 gm/day) for 14 days, or procaine penicillin G daily, intramuscularly (300,000 units every 12 hours for those weighing 10 kg or less, and 600,000 units every 12 hours for those weighing more than 10 kg) for 14 days. Oral penicillin V 250 mg 4 times daily is given instead of injections to persons who can swallow.

1940:

, , , , , , , .

1990-6: ~ 50.000

1921 USA: 206,000 cases - 15,520 deaths

Starting in the 1920s, diphtheria rates dropped quickly due to the widespread use of vaccines.

2004 -2015: 2 cases.

the disease continues to cause illness globally.

2014: 7,321 cases of diphtheria were reported worldwide to the World Health Organization, but many more cases likely go unreported

2014: 38 cases of diphtheria were reported to TESSy, 35 of which were laboratory confirmed as due to C. diphtheriae or C. ulcerans.

Adults and elderly were the most affected.

The majority of the cases were not vaccinated or the vaccination status was reported as unknown.

Latvia was the only country in the EU to report indigenous cases.

DTaP, Tdap, DT, and Td Diphtheria toxoid, Tetanus toxoid, Pertussis vaccine

DTaP & DT: children younger than 7 years old

Tdap & Td: older children and adults.

Upper-case letters: full-strength doses of diphtheria (D) and tetanus (T) toxoids and pertussis (P) vaccine.

Lower-case d and p denote reduced doses of diphtheria and pertussis used in the adolescent and adult formulations.

The a in DTaP and Tdap stands for acellular: the pertussis component contains only parts of the pertussis bacteria instead of the whole cell.

Gram-, , ,

, 5 ,

Actinomyces,

Nocardia,

Actinomadura,

Propionibacterium

Bifidobacterium

Tropheryma whipplei

Domain: Bacteria

Phylum: Actinobacteria

Class: Actinobacteria

Order: Actinomycetales

Family: Actinomycetaceae

Genus: Actinomyces

Harz 1877

13 : 6

A. israelii, A. odontolyticus, A. georgiae, A. gerensceriae, A. naeslundii, A. viscocus

Actinomyces israelii

Gram ()

( )

7

()

Actinomyces

,

, , , ,

(100%),

,

,

- .

1. , ( ) 2. 3. 4.

-

, , .

,

> .

,

, , , ,

,

.

.

,

.

30min .

, ,

,

, ,

, ..

, (0,1-5mm), .

.

.

Gram: Gram .

, Brain-heart infusion

2-4 .

A. israelii: , ,

A. odontolyticus:

: Gram-(-)

:

.

-.

-.

: , , ,

Kingdom: Bacteria

Phylum: Actinobacteria

Class: Actinobacteria

Order: Actinomycetales

Suborder: Corynebacterineae

Family: Nocardiaceae

Genus: Nocardia

Trevisan 1889

Gram- , , .

( 1%)

(3-30 )

Nocardia asteroides ( )

N. farcinica,

N. brasiliensis,

N. pseudobrasiliensis,

N. otitidis caviarium,

N.nova,

N. transvalensis.

Nocardia asteroides (yellow colonies)

Gram- , ,

( 1%)

/ in vitro

. :

(

) .

( ) .

,

(, , )

.

1/3 .

, .

10%

: 500-1.000 /

.

N. brasiliensis ,

N. asteroides .

,

,

,

, BAL, ,

, ,

: . Gram- (

) .

Ziehl-Neelsen.

: Lowenstein-Jensen, brain-heart infusion , Sabouraud - - .

()

()

: - 3

( ), , , -

Actinomyces spp

350-370 C

Nocardia spp

Kingdom: Bacteria

Phylum: Actinobacteria

Class: Actinobacteria

Subclass: Actinobacteridae

Order: Actinomycetales

Family: Cellulomonadaceae

Genus: Tropheryma

Species: T. whipplei

Tropheryma whipplei in 2001

Whipple

, , , , .

, , ,

PCR

2

1