Digital Image Processing

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Digital Image Processing

Transcript of Digital Image Processing

  • & - ..

  • :

    , .

    .

  • :

    ()

    /

  • .

  • (picture element, pixel, pel)

    I(j,k) k=0,1,2.K-1 j=0,1,2.J-1 (k,j)

    J

    JxK

  • (.. Corel Draw, PaintBrush, Autocad, 3D studio

    (.. , (scanners))

    Circle (x,y,r)222 ryx =+VectorsRaster

  • Red, Green, Blue (RGB)

    Luminance, Hue, Saturation (YIQ, NTSC)

    Luminance, Component Blue, Component Red (YCbCr)

    Hue, Saturation, Value (HSV)

    Cyan, Magenta, Yellow (CMY, CMYK)

    Hue, Saturation, Intensity

  • Red, Green, Blue (RGB)

  • Luminance, Hue, Saturation (YIQ, NTSC)

    NTSC YIQ

  • Hue, Saturation, Value (HSV)

    Hue

    Saturation

    Value

  • Hue, Saturation, (HS)

    Hue

    Saturation

    Intensity ,

    [ ]

    ++

    =

    ++=

    ++=

    )RG)(BR()GR(

    )BR()GR(21

    cosH

    )]B,G,R[min(BGR

    31S

    )BGR(31I

    2

    1

  • Hue, Saturation, (HS)

  • Cyan, Magenta, Yellow (CMY, CMYK)

    =

    BGR

    111

    MYC

  • (binary images) I(k,j){0,1}

    (gray level images)I(k,j)=0,1,...255

    E (color images): , (RGB).I(k.j)=(IR(k,j), IG(k,j), IB(k,j))IR(k,j), IG(k,j), IB(k,j){0,1,2,...,255}

  • . C , bits : C=2B B=log2C bit (bit depth) . J JKB bits. .

    J K B bits bytes

    100 100 1 10000 1250 100 100 8 80000 10000 RGB 100 100 24 240000 30000

  • AKJE =

    J

    K

    Jpixels/mm2 dpi ( dots per inch : )

    K

  • =

    ==

    1J

    0j

    1K

    0kjkIN

    N

    Ijj

    ,N

    Ikk

    1J

    0j

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    0kjk

    1J

    0j

    1K

    0kjk

    =

    =

    =

    =

    =

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  • ;

  • , Randon

  • (Run Length encoding, RLE)

    1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0

    0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1

    1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0

    (0,3),(7,2)(5,2),(9,2)(0,5),(7,3)

    (0,2),(8,9)(5,6),(9,10)(0,4),(7,9)

    3,4,2,20,5,2,2,25,2,3,1

    (), (connected components)

    (connected component)

    (not connected component)

  • (chain coding)

    0

    765

    4

    3 2 1

    (2,2)0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 7, 6, 6, 6, 6, 7, 6, 4, 3, 5, 4, 4, 4, 4, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1.

    (signature)

  • Linear ( Gaussian)

    Median ( )

    Adaptive ( Wiener)

  • g H(g) h(g)10 3 0.12550 4 0.167

    100 6 0.250250 11 0.458

    1.000

    250 250 100 100

    250 50 100 10

    250 50 100 10

    250 100 250 100

    250 250 250 250

    10 250 50 50

    1h(g)

    (g)

    )g(H)g(h

    1)g(H

    255

    0g

    255

    0g

    g)j,k(I

    =

    =

    =

    =

    =

    =

    0

    2

    4

    6

    8

    10

    12

    0 50 100 150 200 250 300

  • =

    =g

    iihgP

    0)()(

    I(k,j) = [(G-1)P(I(k,j)]

    P(g) = P(g-1)+ h(g).

    10 10 14 14 14

    14 14 25 25 25

    25 26 27 27 27

    g H(g) h(g) P(g) g

    10 2 2/15 2/15 255*2/15 = 34

    14 5 5/15 7/15 255*7/15 = 119

    25 4 4/15 11/15 255*11/15 = 187

    26 1 1/15 12/15 255*12/15 = 204

    27 3 3/15 15/15 255*15/15 = 255

    0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

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    8

    3

    5

    5

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    6

    9

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    6

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    0

    3

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    7

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  • 1

  • 2

  • .

    .

    .

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  • - (Otsu)

    1)(1

    0=

    =

    G

    ggh

    ==

    1

    01 )(

    T

    gghp

    1

    1

    01

    )(

    p

    gghT

    g==

    =

    =1

    2 )(G

    Tgghp

    2

    1

    2

    )(

    p

    gghG

    Tg==

    p1+p2=1.

    =

    =1

    0)(

    G

    gggh

    21= =1

    0

    22 )()(G

    gghg =p11+p22

    )()(1)()(1

    0

    21

    11

    1

    0

    21

    21 ghgpp

    ghggg =

    ===

    =

    =1

    22

    2

    22 )()(

    1 G

    Tgghg

    p 2222112 ppw +=

    22121

    222

    211

    2 )()()( =+= ppppb

    2

    2

    w

    b

    =

    2

    2

    222

    22

    2

    11

    b

    bw

    bw

    b

    =+

    +=

    +=+

    1

    2112

    1)(

    pp

    b = ))((max 2 Tt bT = t=107

  • - (Kapur)

    =

    ==1T

    0g1

    1

    h(g),h(g)(g)

    log(h(g)) h(g)1)log( )h(g)log(

    h(g))(E1-T

    0g11

    1

    1T

    0g 11

    =

    = ==T

    log(h(g)) h(g)1

    1)1log(

    1 , h(g)log

    h(g)

    255

    Tg11

    122

    255

    Tg 22

    =

    =

    =

    ==

    ))((max TEtT

    =

    t=111

  • 1 17 33 49 65 81 97 113 129 145 161 177 193 209 225 241

    l

    h(l )

    I x y

    G f x y TG T f x y T

    G J T J f x y

    ( , )

    ( ) ( , ) ( )( ) ( ) ( , ) ( )

    ( ) ( ) ( , )

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