Department of Electronics Advanced Information Storage 13 Atsufumi Hirohata 16:00 14/November/2013...

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Transcript of Department of Electronics Advanced Information Storage 13 Atsufumi Hirohata 16:00 14/November/2013...

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Department of Electronics Advanced Information Storage 13 Atsufumi Hirohata 16:00 14/November/2013 Thursday (V 120) Slide 2 Quick Review over the Last Lecture DRAM : Data stored in a capacitor. Electric charge needs to be refreshed. DRAM requires large power consumption. Read-out operation of 1C1T : 1 V + V = 2 V 2 V = 1 V + V 3.6 V ON 1-data : 1 V V = 0 V 0 V = 1 V V 3.6 V ON 0-data : * http://www.wikipedia.org/; * http://users.cis.fiu.edu/~prabakar/cda4101/Common/notes/lecture09.html Refresh operation of 1C1T : Slide 3 13 Static Random Access Memory Volatile memory developmement 6T-SRAM architecture Read / write operation 1T-SRAM Various ROMs Slide 4 Memory Types * http://www.semiconductorjapan.net/serial/lesson/12.html Rewritable Read only Read majority (Writable) Volatile Non-volatile Dynamic Static DRAM SRAM MRAM FeRAM PRAM PROM Mask ROM Flash EPROM Slide 5 Manchester Automatic Digital Machine In 1949, Frederic C. Williams and Tom Kilburn developed Manchester Mark 1 : * http://www.computer50.org/mark1/; ** http://www.wikipedia.org/ One of the earliest stored-programme computers Slide 6 Williams-Kilburn Tube Cathode-ray tube to store data : * http://www.wikipedia.org/ Utilise a minor change of electron charges at a fluorescent screen when an electron hit it. Slide 7 Delay Line Memory In 1947, John P. Eckart invented a mercury delay line memory : * http://www.wikipedia.org/ Utilise an ultrasonic wave generated by a transducer to store a data. Slide 8 Selectron Tube In 1953, Jan A. Rajchman (RCA) invented a selectron tube : * http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Jan_Rajchman; ** http://www.wikipedia.org/ An array of cathode-ray tubes is used to store data electrostatically. Slide 9 Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) * http://www.wikipedia.org/ Static random access memory (SRAM) : No need to dynamically refresh data. Even so, the data is lost once the power is off. Flip flop is used to store data. Low power consumption Slide 10 6T-SRAM Read Operation A standard SRAM cell : * http://allthingsvlsi.wordpress.com/tag/6t-sram-operation/ Slide 11 6T-SRAM Write Operation Write operation : * http://allthingsvlsi.wordpress.com/tag/6t-sram-operation/ Slide 12 1T-SRAM Pseudo SRAM developed by MoSys : * http://www.wikipedia.org/; < 1/3 area < 1/2 power consumption Easy to be embeded Simple interface Similar to SRAM performance Lower latency as compared with DRAM High fidelity (< 1 FIT / Mbit, FIT : failure in time of 10 9 hours) By comparing with the conventional 6T-SRAM, ** http://www.mosys.com/high-density-memory.php Slide 13 Advantages of 1T-SRAM Comparison between 1T-SRAM, embedded SRAM (eSRAM) and 6T-SRAM : * http://media.corporate-ir.net/media_files/nsd/mosy/presentations/corp_pres_1103/sld012.htm Slide 14 Mask ROM Read-only memory made by a photo-mask : * http://www.smspower.org/Development/MaskROMs Cheap Simple structure Ideal for integration Initial mask fabrication cost Lead time for mask fabrication No design change without mask replacement Slide 15 Programmable ROM (PROM) PROM bipolar cell : * http://www.electronics.dit.ie/staff/tscarff/memory/rom.htm Slide 16 PROM Architecture PROM architecture : * http://www.electronics.dit.ie/staff/tscarff/memory/rom.htm Slide 17 Erasable PROM UV-light can erase stored data : * http://www.electronics.dit.ie/staff/tscarff/memory/rom.htm * http://www.wikipedia.org/; Slide 18 Electrically EPROM (EEPROM) In 1978, George Perlegos (Intel) developed electrical erasing mechanism : * http://www.answers.com/topic/eeprom Similar to flash memory Individual bits are erasable. Rewritable by simply writing a new data Rewritability > 100k times Small capacity (~ a few 10 bytes) More complicated architecture as compared with flash memory Higher cost for fabrication as compared with flash memory Slide 19 EEPROM Usages EEPROM is used in various applications : * http://www.sanyosemi.com/en/memory/topics/serial-eeprom.php Slide 20 Connections between the Components Connections between CPU, in/outputs and storages : * http://testbench.in/introduction_to_pci_express.html;