Department of Electronics Advanced Information Storage 13 Atsufumi Hirohata 16:00 14/November/2013...

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Transcript of Department of Electronics Advanced Information Storage 13 Atsufumi Hirohata 16:00 14/November/2013...

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Department of Electronics Advanced Information Storage 13 Atsufumi Hirohata 16:00 14/November/2013 Thursday (V 120) Slide 2 Quick Review over the Last Lecture DRAM : Data stored in a capacitor. Electric charge needs to be refreshed. DRAM requires large power consumption. Read-out operation of 1C1T : 1 V + V = 2 V 2 V = 1 V + V 3.6 V ON 1-data : 1 V V = 0 V 0 V = 1 V V 3.6 V ON 0-data : *; * Refresh operation of 1C1T : Slide 3 13 Static Random Access Memory Volatile memory developmement 6T-SRAM architecture Read / write operation 1T-SRAM Various ROMs Slide 4 Memory Types * Rewritable Read only Read majority (Writable) Volatile Non-volatile Dynamic Static DRAM SRAM MRAM FeRAM PRAM PROM Mask ROM Flash EPROM Slide 5 Manchester Automatic Digital Machine In 1949, Frederic C. Williams and Tom Kilburn developed Manchester Mark 1 : *; ** One of the earliest stored-programme computers Slide 6 Williams-Kilburn Tube Cathode-ray tube to store data : * Utilise a minor change of electron charges at a fluorescent screen when an electron hit it. Slide 7 Delay Line Memory In 1947, John P. Eckart invented a mercury delay line memory : * Utilise an ultrasonic wave generated by a transducer to store a data. Slide 8 Selectron Tube In 1953, Jan A. Rajchman (RCA) invented a selectron tube : *; ** An array of cathode-ray tubes is used to store data electrostatically. Slide 9 Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) * Static random access memory (SRAM) : No need to dynamically refresh data. Even so, the data is lost once the power is off. Flip flop is used to store data. Low power consumption Slide 10 6T-SRAM Read Operation A standard SRAM cell : * Slide 11 6T-SRAM Write Operation Write operation : * Slide 12 1T-SRAM Pseudo SRAM developed by MoSys : *; < 1/3 area < 1/2 power consumption Easy to be embeded Simple interface Similar to SRAM performance Lower latency as compared with DRAM High fidelity (< 1 FIT / Mbit, FIT : failure in time of 10 9 hours) By comparing with the conventional 6T-SRAM, ** Slide 13 Advantages of 1T-SRAM Comparison between 1T-SRAM, embedded SRAM (eSRAM) and 6T-SRAM : * Slide 14 Mask ROM Read-only memory made by a photo-mask : * Cheap Simple structure Ideal for integration Initial mask fabrication cost Lead time for mask fabrication No design change without mask replacement Slide 15 Programmable ROM (PROM) PROM bipolar cell : * Slide 16 PROM Architecture PROM architecture : * Slide 17 Erasable PROM UV-light can erase stored data : * *; Slide 18 Electrically EPROM (EEPROM) In 1978, George Perlegos (Intel) developed electrical erasing mechanism : * Similar to flash memory Individual bits are erasable. Rewritable by simply writing a new data Rewritability > 100k times Small capacity (~ a few 10 bytes) More complicated architecture as compared with flash memory Higher cost for fabrication as compared with flash memory Slide 19 EEPROM Usages EEPROM is used in various applications : * Slide 20 Connections between the Components Connections between CPU, in/outputs and storages : *;