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Transcript of DC Machines

Government Engineering College
Kozhikode5
Electrical Machines Lab ManualAI09 308(P), ME09 307(P)
(Version 1.1.0  June 25, 2012)
Prepared by : Mohammed Sadik.P.K(2010 AEI batch)Ranjith A.R (2010 AEI batch)Nikhil Narayanan (2010 AEI batch)
Guided by : Smt. Sangeetha K (Associate Professor(EEE))

Type set in LATEX2, circuit designs and graphs in XCircuit.Platform : GNU/LinuxOther free softwares used: GNU Emacs, GNU Bash, Gedit, Vim . . . . . .
2011, 2012, Some Rights Reserved.
You may get a copy of this work from www.sadiq.tk.
This work is licensed under :Creative Commons AttributionShareAlike 2.5 India License.To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/bysa/2.5/in/or send a letter to Creative Commons, 444 Castro Street, Suite 900, Mountain View,California, 94041, USA.
Thanks to:
1. Smt. Sangeetha K(Associate Professor(EEE))2. Sri. Asokan (Assistant Professor(EEE))3. Dr. Reena P(Associate Professor(ECE))4. Najmudheen P.K (Cherumukku)5. Jazeel M (Kolappuram)6. Selil C.P(MES KuttippuramEC)7. Mansoor M (GECK2008 AEI batch)8. Sajith P.P (GECK2010 AEI batch)9. Misthah K.M (AWH KozhikodeEEE)
Our sinere thanks to everyone who have helped us for the perfetion of this
Manual, espeially our lassmates  2010 AEI bath.
http://www.sadiq.tkhttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/bysa/2.5/in/

CONTENTS
1. Load test on single phase transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Load test on 3 squirrel cage induction motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3. O.C.C of dc shunt generator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
4. Load test on dc shunt generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
5. Load test on dc series motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
6. Measurement of coupling coefficient of transformer coils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
7. O.C and S.C tests on single phase transformer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
8. Three phase power measurement by two wattmeter method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
9. Calibration of single phase energy meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
10. Resistance measurement using Wheatstones bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
11. Resistance measurement using Kelvins double bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
12. VI Characteristics of incandescent lamp and linear resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
13. Open circuit and short circuit test on three phase alternator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
14. No load and blocked rotor tests on 3 slip ring induction motor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64
3

CONNECTION DIAGRAM OF LOAD TEST
A A
V V
M
C
L
V P1
P2 S2
S1
Load
230V
1  50 HzAC
NL
10A
0150V
010A MI 150V,10A,upf 05A MI
0250VC
S
MI
N
P
120/240V 1KVATRANSFORMER
E
B
MI
Rated current on primary side =1000
120= . . . . . .
Rated current on secondary side =1000
240= . . . . . .
REGULATION AND EFFICIENCY CURVES
Reg
ulat
ion
(%)
Eff
icie
ncy
(%)
Output (watts)
Regulation
Efficiency
Experiment 1 4

Experiment 1
LOAD TEST ON SINGLE PHASE
TRANSFORMER
AIM
To conduct load test on the given single phase transformer at unity power factor and determine
the efficiency and regulation curve.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
1. Voltmeter 0250V MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
2. Voltmeter 0150V MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
3. Ammeter 010A MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
4. Ammeter 05A MI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 no.
5. Wattmeter 150V, 10A, upf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
6. Autotransformer(cont. variable) 0270V, 10A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
THEORY
Regulation of a transformer is defined as the drop in terminal voltage of a transformer expressed
as a percentage of the noload terminal voltage.
%Regulation =Vno load Von load
Vno load
When a purely resistive load is connected across the secondary, the transformer will be
working at unity power factor.
Terminal voltage, V = Induced emf [E2] I2r2 I2x2
Where r2 and x2 are the secondary winding resistance and leakage reactance respectively
and I2 is the secondary load current.
The efficiency of transformer is defined asOutput
Input 100.
As the load current increases the power output increases. The iron loss remains constant
from no load to full load. The copper loss increases as the square of the load current. Thus the
efficiency curve starts from zero, increases to a maximum value(When iron loss = Cu loss) and
thereafter starts decreasing.
5

OBSERVATION
Sl. V1 I1 W1 V2 I2 Output Efficiency RegulationNo. (volts) (Amp) (watts) (volts) (Amp) (watts) (%) (%)
V2 at no load = VNL = . . . . . .
Sample Calculation (set no . . . )
Primary Voltage (V1) = . . . . . . . . .
Primary Current (I1) = . . . . . . . . .
Wattmeter Reading (W1)= Input power = . . . . . . . . .
Secondary Voltage (V2) = . . . . . . . . .
Secondary Current (I2) = . . . . . . . . .
Output = I2V2 = . . . . . . . . .
Efficiency =Output power
Input power100= . . . . . . . . .
Regulation =VNL VL
VNL100 = . . . . . . . . .
6

PROCEDURE
Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram. The supply is switched on keeping
the autotransformer in the minimum position and at no load. Adjust the autotransformer to
get the rated voltage of the transformer. The readings of all the meters are noted down. The
secondary voltage at no load is also noted down. This value is VNL. A small load is added
on the secondary side and the meter readings are again noted. The experiment is repeated
for different values of load current till the current on the primary side equals the rated value.
The load is then reduced to zero, the autotransformer is brought back to the zero position and
the supply is switched off. The readings are then tabulated as shown and the regulation and
efficiency curves are plotted.
RESULT
Conducted load test on the given 1 transformer and plotted the regulation and efficiency
curves.
VIVA QUESTIONS
1. What do you understand by regulation of a transformer?
2. What are the other methods of testing transformers?
3. What is the disadvantage of testing a transformer using load test?
4. Is a high or low value of regulation preferred for a transformer? Give reasons.
5. What are the reasons for the drop in terminal voltage as the secondary current
is increased?
7

CONNECTION DIAGRAM
400V
3 
50
Hz
AC
10A
D.O.LSTARTER
0600VMI
010A MI 600V,10A,upf
C
M
V
L
IM
600V,10A,upf
10A
10A M
C V
L
V
AR
Y
B
B
Y
RS1 S2
MACHINE DETAILS
Voltage V  415 VCurrent I  7.5APower  5HPConnection  Speed(rpm)  1440Phase  3
Synchronous speed =120f
P
=120 50
4
= 1500 rpm
Experiment 2 8

Experiment 2
LOAD TEST ON 3 SQUIRREL CAGEINDUCTION MOTOR
AIM
To conduct load test on the given 3 squirrel cage induction motor and plot the performance
characteristics.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
1. Voltmeter 0600V MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
2. Ammeter 010A MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
3. Wattmeter 600V,10A, upf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 nos.
4. Tachometer To measure speed
THEORY
A squirrel cage induction motor essentially consists of a stator and a rotor. The stator is a
hollow cylindrical structure with slots on the inner periphery and carries a three phase winding.
The winding can be connected in star or delta and is connected across a 3 supply.
The rotor is also a cylindrical structure with slots on the outer periphery. The slots carry
thick Al or Cu bars. These bars are short circuited at both ends by means of end rings.
When a 3 supply is given to a 3 winding displaced by 120 in space, a magnetic field
of constant magnitude but rotating at synchronous speed is produced. This flux links with
the stationary rotor, thus inducing an emf in it. As the rotor circuit is closed, a current flows
through it. The direction of the induced current is such as to oppose the cause producing it.
The cause is the relative motion between the stator magnetic field and the rotor. So the rotor
starts rotating in the same direction as the stator magnetic field and tries to catch up with
it. But practically it is never able to do so. Because if it does so, there would be no relative
motion, no emf and hence no torque.
9

OBSERVATIONS
Sl. V I W1 W2 S1 S2 N T Output Input slip pf EfficiencyNo. (volts) (Amp) (watts) (watts) (Kg) (Kg) (rpm) (Nm) (watts) (watts) (%) (%)
10

Thus an induction motor always runs at a speed slightly less than the synchronous speed.
The term slip is of importance in an induction motor and is defined as
%slip =Ns N
Ns 100
Where,
Ns  Synchronous speed =120 f
PN  rotor speed
f  frequency
P  No. of poles of the machine
An induction motor can never operate at s=0. It always operates between s=0 and s=1(starting).
The performance characteristics are plots of efficiency, torque, speed, slip, pf and line cur
rent versus output.
Current and torque increases with increase in output. The induction motor is essentially
a constant speed motor. However speed reduces gradually with increase in output and slip
increases gradually with increase in output. The pf is low at low loads and increases with
increase in output. The efficiency increases with increase in output, reaches a peak value and
then gradually drops with further increase in output.
PROCEDURE
The load on the motor is completely removed by loosening the brake drum. The motor is to
be always started and stopped at no load, The supply is switched on and the motor is started
using a Direct On Line Starter (DOL Starter).
The readings of the voltmeter, ammeter, wattmeters and spring balance are noted down.
The speed is measured using a tachometer. The load is then increased in steps, each time noting
down all the above readings. The experiment is repeated for different values of load currents
till the rated current of the machine is reached.
During the experiment, the machine may get heated up. It is cooled by pouring some water
into the brake drum.
11

Sample Calculation (set no . . . )
Voltage (V) = . . . . . . . . .
Current (I) = . . . . . . . . .
Wattmeter Reading 1 (W1) = . . . . . . . . .
Wattmeter Reading 2 (W2) = . . . . . . . . .
Spring balance Readings S1 = . . . . . . . . . S2 = . . . . . . . . .
Speed (N) = . . . . . . . . .
Torque (T) = (S1 S2)Rg = . . . . . . Where,R = Radius of brakedrum = . . . . . . . . .
g = 9.8 m/s2
Synchronous speed =120 f
P=
120 504
= 1500 rpm
slip(%) =(Ns N)
Ns 100 = . . . . . . . . .
Input power = (W1 +W2) = . . . . . . . . .
powerfactor(cos) =(W1 +W2)
3V I= . . . . . . . . .
Output power=2NT
60= . . . . . . . . .
Efficiency =Output
Input= . . . . . . . . .
Performance Characteristics
Efficiency
Output (watts)
Slip pf T N
Torque
Speedpf
Slip
(%)
(rpm
)
(Nm
)
(%)
12

At low loads,(when pf < 0.5) one of the wattmeters read negative, in such cases, the supply
is switched off and the connections to the M and L terminals of the wattmeter are interchanged.
The meter now reads positive, but it is to be recorded as negative.
The load on the machine is removed completely and the supply is switched off.
The readings are tabulated and the performance characteristics are plotted.
RESULT
Conducted load test on the given 3 squirrel cage induction motor and plotted the performance
characteristics.
VIVA QUESTIONS
1. How are the meter ratings selected for this experiment?
2. Why does one of the wattmeters read ve at starting?
3. What is slip in an induction motor?
4. What are the two types of 3 induction motors and what is the difference
between the two?
5. What is the value of slip at starting?
6. What are the advantages and disadvantages of squirrel cage induction motor?
7. What is the condition for maximum torque in an induction motor?
8. What are the different losses in an induction motor?
9. Give some applications of 3 squirrel cage induction motor?
10. Explain a typical Torqueslip characteristic.
11. What is the effect of increased rotor resistance on the performance of an in
duction machine?
13

CONNECTION DIAGRAM
220VDC
+

FL A
20A
Rh1
6002A
F1
F2
A1
A2
S
Rh2
02AMC
+

0300VMC

+ F2
F1
A1
A2
20A
3 POINT STARTER
V
A
GM
6002A
V+

030VMC
MACHINE DETAILSMOTOR GENERATOR
3.5 KW 3.5 KWSpeed  1500rpm Speed  1500rpm
volts  220V volts  220VAmps  18.6 A Amps  16 AWinding  shunt Winding  shunt
Field  220V,0.46A Field  220V,0.46A
OBSERVATION
Sl No. Field current Eo at rated speed Eo at 1000 rpm
To determine O.C.C at 1000 rpmWe have E N at same flux or field current
E1E2
=N1N2
E2 =(
N2N1
)
E1
Where,N2 is 1000 rpmN1 Rated speed = 1500 rpm
Experiment 3 14

Experiment 3
O.C.C OF DC SHUNT GENERATOR
AIM
To conduct no load test on the given d.c shunt generator and determine the following:
1. Open circuit characteristics at rated speed.
2. Predetermine the O.C.C at 1000 rpm.
3. The critical field resistance at rated speed.
4. The critical speed of the machine.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
1. Voltmeter MC (0300V) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
2. Voltmeter MC (030V). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 no.
3. Ammeter MC (02A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
4. Rheostat 600, 2A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 nos.
5. Tachometer
THEORY
The O.C.C is a curve showing the relationship between the no load emf generated and the shunt
field current (Eo and If ). Even when the field current is zero there is some residual magnetism
present in the poles. Hence there is a small voltage generated even at zero field current, which
is called the residual voltage. As the field current is increased, Eo also increases and the curve
traced is almost a straight line. As If is further increased the poles start getting saturated, the
straight line relation no longer holds good and the curve bends and becomes almost horizontal.
Critical resistance
It is that value of resistance in the field circuit at which the generator will just excite(or voltage
build up begins). If the resistance is higher, the machine will fail to build up voltage. It is given
by the slope of the tangent drawn to the linear portion of the magnetization curve from the
origin.
15

MEASUREMENT OF SHUNT FIELD RESISTANCE
220VDC
100,2.8A 02A MC
0250VMC
F1
F2
+

+ A
V
+

OBSERVATION
Sl No. V I Rf
16

Conditions for voltage build up in a d.c shunt generator
1. There should be some residual magnetism in the poles.
2. For the given direction of rotation, the shunt field coils should be properly
connected. That is, The coils should be so connected that the flux generated
by the field current aids the residual flux.
3. When excited at no load, the shunt field circuit resistance should be less than
the critical resistance.
Critical speed
It is that value of speed at which the given shunt field resistance represents the critical resistance.
It is determined as follows. For the same value of If determine E1 and E2 from the field
resistance lines. ThenE1E2
=N1Nc
Nc =(
E2E1
)
N1
Where,
Nc is the Critical speed
PROCEDURE
Connections are made as shown in the diagram. The motor field rheostat (Rh1) is kept in
minimum position, the generator field rheostat (Rh2) in maximum position and switch S is
kept open at starting. Supply is switched on. The starter handle is gradually moved to cut off
the starter resistance. The rheostat Rh1 is varied till the speed equals the rated speed of the
machine. With S open, the residual voltage is measured using the smaller range voltmeter.
Switch S is then closed. Rheostat Rh2 is then decreased in steps, each time noting down
the voltmeter and ammeter readings. The process is repeated till the voltage equals 120% of
the rated voltage of the machine. [If Eo does not increase, it means that the machine is not
building up voltage. The field terminals F1 and F2 are interchanged and the process is repeated]
Rheostat Rh2 and Rh1 are brought back to the original position and the supply is then switched
off.
17

OPEN CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS
Eo
E1
E2
residual
If1 If (A)
Critical Fieldresistance
lineO.C.C at rated
speed
O.C.C at 1000 rpm
Given shunt fieldresistance line
{voltage
(V)
Critical resistance at rated speed,
Rc =E1If1
= . . . . . . . . .
Critical speed of the Machine,
Nc =
(
E2E1
)
N1 = . . . . . . . . .
18

Measurement of field resistance
Connections are made as shown in the diagram 2. For different values of voltages determine
the current. The ratio gives the field resistance. The O.C.C and field resistance line is drawn
and the critical speed of the machine is determined.
RESULT
No load test was conducted on the given d.c shunt generator and the O.C.C was plotted.
Critical resistance at rated speed = . . . . . . . . .
Critical speed of the machine = . . . . . . . . .
VIVA QUESTIONS
1. What is the need for starter in a d.c motor?
2. How does a 3point starter function?
3. Why is Rh1 kept in minimum position at starting?
4. Why is Rh2 kept in maximum position at start up?
5. What is residual voltage? How is it measured?
6. What is critical resistance? How can it be determined?
7. What are the conditions necessary for voltage build up in a d.c shunt generator?
8. What is critical speed?
9. Explain the shape of the O.C.C.
19

LOAD TEST
+
 S1 S2
V
A
GM
L F A20A
F1
F2
Rh1600
2AA1
A2
Rh2
030
0VM
C
MC02A
+

+

6002A
F1
F2 Load
200VDC
20A
3 Point Starter
A1
A2
A020A MC
+ 
MACHINE DETAILS
MOTOR GENERATOR
3.5 KW 3.5 KWSpeed  1500rpm Speed  1500rpmvolts  220V volts  220VAmps  18.6 A Amps  16 A
Winding  shunt Winding  shunt
Measurement of Armature Resistance
A
V G20VDC
505A
+ 
A1
A2
05A MC
010VMC
+

Sl Voltage, V Current, I Resistance, RNo. (volts) (Amperes) (ohms)
Armature Resistance Ra = . . . . . . . . .
Experiment 4 20

Experiment 4
LOAD TEST ON D.C SHUNT
GENERATOR
AIM
To conduct load test on the given D.C shunt generator and plot the external and internal
characteristics.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
1. Voltmeter MC (0300V) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
2. Voltmeter MC (010V). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 no.
3. Ammeter MC (02A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
4. Ammeter MC (05A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
5. Rheostat 600, 2A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 nos.
6. Tachometer
THEORY
Load characteristics of the machine can be broadly classified into:
1) External characteristics
2) Internal Characteristics
External Characteristics(V vs IL)
It is a curve showing the variation in terminal voltage of the generator as the load on the
generator is increased. The characteristics are as shown in the figure.
At no load, the terminal voltage of the generator is at its rated value. As the load current
is increased the terminal voltage drops. The drop in terminal voltage is due to the following
reasons:1. For a generator V = Eg IaRa, as the load current increases, Ia increases, IaRa drop
increases, thus decreasing the terminal voltage V.
2. As the load current increases, Ia increases, armature reaction effect also increases. Due
to demagnetizing effect of armature reaction, the induced emf Eg decreases, thereby
decreasing V.
3. Due to reasons (1) and (2), the terminal voltage decreases, which in turn reduces the field
current Ish, thereby decreasing Eg causing further decrease in V.
21

OBSERVATION  LOAD TEST
Sl V IL Ish Ia Egno. (volts) (A) (A) (A) (V )
Sample Calculation (set no . . . )
Terminal Voltage (V) = . . . . . . . . .V
Load Current (IL) = . . . . . . . . . A
Shunt Field Current (Ish) = . . . . . . . . . A
Armature Current (IA) = IL + Ish = . . . . . . . . . A
Generated emf (Eg) = V + IaRa = . . . . . . . . .
Internal and External Characteristics
V/Eg
Drop DueTo ArmatureResistance
Drop due to armatureReaction Effect
IL Ia (A)
Internal
ExternalCharacteristics
CharacteristicsEg vs Ia
V vs IL
/
(V)
22

Internal Characteristics [Eg vs Ia]
It is a plot of the internally generated emf (Eg) and armature current (Ia). It is a curve similarto the external characteristics and lies above it.
Eg = V + IaRa
& Ia = IL + Ish
PROCEDURE
Connections are made as shown in the diagram. rheostat Rh1 is kept in minimum position andRh2 in maximum position. Switch S2 is kept open. Supply is switched on and the motor isstarted using a 3point starter. The motor field rheostat Rh1 is varied till the speed equals therated speed of the motor. The generator field rheostat Rh2 is varied till the voltmeter reads therated voltage of the machine. Switch S2 is then closed. The load on the generator is increased.The readings of the voltmeter and ammeters are noted down. The experiment is repeated fordifferent values of load current till the rated current of the generator is reached. During theexperiment, the speed is to be maintained constant at the rated value.
The load is then switched off completely, the rheostats are brought back to the originalposition and the machine is switched off.
Measurement of Ra
Connections are made as shown in the diagram. Keeping the rheostat in the minimum outputvoltage position, supply is switched on. The rheostat is then varied in steps and the voltmeterand ammeter readings are noted. The ratio gives the armature resistance.
The readings are then tabulated as shown. The external and internal characteristics arethen plotted.
RESULT
Conducted load test on the given DC shunt generator and plotted the external and internalcharacteristics.
VIVA QUESTIONS
1. What is the need for starter with a d.c motor?2. How does a 3point starter function?3. Why is Rh1 kept in minimum position at starting?4. Why is Rh2 kept in maximum position at starting?5. Why does the terminal voltage of a generator decrease with increase in load?6. How are the meter ratings selected for this experiment?7. What are the different losses in a d.c generator?8. What is the condition for maximum efficiency in a d.c machine?9. What is armature reaction? How does it effect the functioning of the machine?
23

CONNECTION DIAGRAM
+

V
A
20A
F1 F2
L A
+

A1
A2
S1 S2
BRAKE DRUM
20A
2 Point Starter
0300V MC220V
DC
+ 
020A
Machine Details
HP  5Volts  230 VAmp  17 Aspeed  1500 rpm
Radius of brakedrum, R = . . . . . . . . .
OBSERVATIONS
Sl. V I S1 S2 Speed Torque Output Input EfficiencyNo. volts Amp. Kg Kg rpm N m watts watts (%)
Sample Calculation (set no. . . . )
Voltmeter reading (V ) = . . . . . . . . .
Current (I) = . . . . . . . . .
Spring balance readings, S1 = . . . . . . . . . S2 = . . . . . . . . .
Speed(N) = . . . . . . . . .
Torque(T ) = 9.8 (S1 S2)R = . . . . . . . . . Where R is the radiusof brake drum
Output power =2NT
60= . . . . . . . . .
Input power = V I = . . . . . . . . .
Efficiency =Output power
Input power= . . . . . . . . .
Experiment 5 24

Experiment 5
LOAD TEST ON DC SERIES MOTOR
AIM
To conduct load test on the given d.c series motor and plot the performance characteristics.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
1. Voltmeter (0250)V MC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
2. Ammeter (020)A MC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
3. Tachometer  to measure speed
THEORY
In a series motor, the field winding is connected in series with the armature winding. Thus the
same current flows through the field and armature windings.
Electrical characteristics(T vs Ia) : It shows the variation of torque with the armature
current.We have
T Ia where is the flux/pole IaIa (as Ia up to the point of magnetic saturation)
Thus
T I2aHowever after magnetic saturation remains almost constant, Hence T IaThus the curve is a parabola up to magnetic saturation and shows a linear variation after
the point.
Mechanical Characteristics(N1 vs T ): It shows the variation of speed with torque.
We have N Eb 1
as Eb is almost constant where Eb is back emf
In a series motor Ia
N 1Ia
That is, as Ia increases, Speed decreases.
The same pattern is followed in the N T characteristics. The curve traced is a rectangular
hyperbola.
A series motor should never be started at no load. At no load, Ia is very small, hence the
speed of the motor becomes dangerously high(as N 1Ia ).
25

Performance CharacteristicsT N
O
Torque
Efficiency
Speed
Output (watts)
(rpm
)(%
)(N
m)
Electrical Characteristics Mechanical Characteristics
T
Ia (A)
N
T (Nm)
(rpm)(Nm)
26

Performance characteristics shows the variation of speed, torque and efficiency with change
in output.
PROCEDURE
Connections are made as shown in the connection diagram. A small load is applied to the
motor by tightening the brake drum. The motor should never be started at no load. Supply is
switched on and the motor is started using a 2point starter. The voltage, current, speed and
spring balance readings are noted down. The experiment is repeated for different loads till the
rated current of the machine is reached.
During the experiment when the machine gets heated up, it is cooled by pouring water into
the brakedrum.
The load is then reduced till the current reaches a small value and the supply is switched
off.
RESULT
Load test was conducted on the given DC series motor and the performance, electrical and
mechanical characteristics are plotted.
VIVA QUESTIONS
1. What is the precaution to be taken when working with a d.c series motor?
2. What is the need for starter with a d.c motor?
3. How does a 2point starter function?
4. Explain the shape of the electrical and mechanical characteristics.
5. What is the condition for maximum efficiency in a d.c motor?
6. What are the different losses occurring in a d.c machine?
7. How are the meter ratings selected for this experiment?
8. Give some applications of d.c series motor.
27

CONNECTION DIAGRAM
FLUX AIDING
P
N
A
V1V2
V3
1A
NL
B
C
Aut
oT
rans
form
er
0500mAMI
0250VMI
015
0V
S2
S1P2
P1
230/115V, 3kVATransformer
230V
50Hz
1  AC
MI
0250VMI
E
V1 V2 + V3
FLUX OPPOSING
P
N
A
V1V2
V3
1A
NL
B
C
Aut
oT
rans
form
er
0500mA MI
0250VMI
015
0VS2
S1
P2
P1
230/115V, 3kVATransformer
230V
50Hz
1  AC
MI
0250VMI
E
V1 V2 V3
MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE OF COILS
V
A
020V
505A
010VMC
05A MC
P1
P2
S1
S2
+

+ 
Experiment 6 28

Experiment 6
MEASUREMENT OF COUPLINGCOEFFICIENT OF TRANSFORMER
COILS
AIM
To determine the self inductance, mutual inductance and coupling coefficient of the given trans
former windings.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
1. Transformer 230/115V, 1KVA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
2. Voltmeter 0250V MI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 nos.
3. Voltmeter 0150V MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
4. Voltmeter 010V MC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
5. Ammeter 0500mA MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
6. Ammeter 05A MC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
7. Autotransformer 0270V, 10A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
PRINCIPLE
The property of a coil due to which it opposes any change of current through it is known as self
inductance. The coefficient of self induction(L) is defined as Weber turns per ampere in the coil.
L =N
I=
NNI0rA
Il=
N2
S(H)
Mutual inductance is the ability of one coil to produce an emf in a nearby coil by induction
when the current in the first coil changes. The coefficient of mutual inductance(M) is defined
as the Weber turns in one coil due to ampere current in the other coil.
M =N21I1
=N2N1I1I1S
=N1N2S
29

OBSERVATIONS
Measurement of impedance of coils
Condition V1(v) V2(v) V3(v) I(A) Z() L(H)
Flux aiding
Flux opposing
Measurement of resistance of coils
Sl. No. V (v) I(A) R()
1
2
3
Winding Resistance R = r1 + r2 = . . . . . . . . .
30

Consider two coupled coils A and B
L1 =N21S
L2 =N22S
Flux produced in A due to current I1 is 1 =N1I1S
Let a fraction k1 of this link with the second coil
ie, 2 = k11
Then
M =(k11N2)
I1=
(k1N1N2)
S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (1)
Flux produced in B due to current I2 is 2 =N2I2S
Suppose a fraction k2 of this links with A
ie, 1 = k22
M =(k22N1)
I2=
(k2N1N2)
S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (2)
from (1) and (2)
M2 =(k1k2N
21N
22 )
SS= k1k2
N21S
N22S
M2 = k1k2L1L2 or k =M
(L1L2)
where k =k1k2
The constant k is called the coefficient of coupling and may be defined as the ratio of mutual
inductance actually present between the two coils to the maximum possible value. If the flux
due to one coil completely links the other then k = 1. If the flux of one coil does not link the
other coil at all then k = 0.
31

CALCULATION
For coils connected in series with fluxes aiding each other
Total impedance of coils ZA =V1I
= . . . . . . . . .
Reactance of coils XA =
Z2A R2 = . . . . . . . . . Where, R = r1 + r2is the total resistance
Inductance LA =XA2f
= . . . . . . . . . of both windings
For coils connected in series with fluxes opposing
Total impedance of coils ZB =V1I
= . . . . . . . . .
Reactance of coils XB =
Z2B R2 = . . . . . . . . .
Inductance LB =XB2f
= . . . . . . . . .
When coils are connected with flux aiding each other
Total inductance, LA = L1 + L2 + 2M (1)
When coils are connected with flux opposing each other
Total inductance, LB = L1 + L2 2M (2)
subtracting (2) from (1), M =(LA LB)
4(
L1L2
)
=
(
N1N2
)2
=
(
240
120
)2
= 4
L1 = 4L2
Substituting in (1), LA = 5L2 + 2M or L2 =LA 2M
5= . . . . . . . . .
L1 = 4L2 = . . . . . . . . .
Coupling coefficient k =ML1L2
= . . . . . . . . .
32

PROCEDURE
Measurement of impedance of coils
Connections are made as shown in the first figure. Supply is switched on with autotransformer in
the minimum position. The autotransformer is adjusted to get the rated voltage in voltmeter1.
The corresponding readings in all meters are noted down. In this case the fluxes produced by
both the coils are additive in nature (ie, V1 = V2 + V3).
Next the connections of the second coil are reversed. The fluxes produced by the two coils
are now in subtractive polarity (ie, V1 = V2 V3). The autotransformer is adjusted so as to getthe same reading in V2 as with the additive polarity. This is done to maintain the same flux in
both the cases. The readings of all meters are noted down and tabulated as shown.
Measurement of resistance
Connections are made as in the third figure. For different values of voltages the readings of
both meters are noted down and tabulated.
RESULT
The coupling coefficient of the given transformer windings is . . . . . . . . . .
VIVA QUESTIONS
1. What is meant by coupling coefficient of a transformer? What are the limiting values?
2. Why is the voltage V2 maintained constant in the second case?
3. How are the meter ratings selected for this experiment?
33

CONNECTION DIAGRAM(OPEN CIRCUIT TEST)
P
N
A
V
2A
B
CNL E
0150VMI
M
C
L
V
l.v h.v
P
02A MI
120/240V, 1KVATransformer
150V, 2A, lpf
230V
50Hz1 
AC
OBSERVATION
Vo Io Wo
CONNECTION DIAGRAM(SHORT CIRCUIT TEST)
P
N
A
V
5A
B
CNL E
050VMI
M
C
L
V
l.vh.v
05A MI
120/240V, 1KVATransformer
75V, 5A, upf
230V1  50HzAC
Rated Current =Rated KV A
Rated V oltage on h.v side=
1000
240= . . . . . . . . .
OBSERVATIONVSC ISC WSC
Experiment 7 34

Experiment 7
O.C AND S.C TESTS ON SINGLE PHASE
TRANSFORMER
AIM
To conduct open circuit and short circuit tests on the given 120/240 V, 1KVA transformer and
predetermine the following:
1. Equivalent circuit as referred to l.v side
2. Equivalent circuit a referred to h.v side
3. Efficiency curve at 0.8 pf
4. Regulation curve at 1/2 Full load
INSTRUMENTS REQUIRED
1. Voltmeter 0150V MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
2. Voltmeter 050V MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
3. Ammeter 02.5A MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
4. Ammeter 05A MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
5. Wattmeter 150V, 2.5A, lpf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
6. Wattmeter 75V, 5A, upf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
7. Autotransformer 0270V, 10A
PRINCIPLE
Open Circuit test
This test is usually conducted on the l.v side of the transformer. It is conducted to determine
the core loss(iron loss or no load loss). The low voltage side of the transformer is supplied at
rated voltage with the h.v side left open. The current, voltage and power on the input side is
noted. Since the noload primary current is small(210% of the rated current) the copper losses
in the primary winding can be neglected and the power loss read by the wattmeter is the core
loss of the transformer. Since the flux linking with the core is constant at all loads, the core
loss remains same for all loads. The parameters R0 and X0 (the shunt branch) are determined
using this test.
35

From O.C test (l.v side) :
V0 = . . . . . . . . . I0 = . . . . . . . . . W0 = . . . . . . . . .
W0 = V0I0 cos0 cos0 =W0V0I0
= . . . . . . . . .
sin0 = . . . . . . . . .Iw = I0 cos0 = . . . . . . . . .I = I0 sin0 = . . . . . . . . .
Core loss component resistance as referred to l.v side R0 =V0Iw
= . . . . . . . . .
Magnetising reactance as referred to l.v side X0 =V0I
= . . . . . . . . .
The parameters R0 and X0 as referred to the h.v side areR0 = R0 k2 = . . . . . . . . .X 0 = X0 k2 = . . . . . . . . . where k =
N2N1
=E2E1
=240
120
From S.C test (h.v side) :
VSC = . . . . . . . . . ISC = . . . . . . . . . WSC = . . . . . . . . .
Total eqvt. wdg. resistance as referred to h.v side R02 =WSCISC
= . . . . . . . . .
Total eqvt. impedance as referred to to h.v side Z02 =VSCISC
= . . . . . . . . .
Total eqvt. leakage reactance referred to h.v side X02 =
Z202 R202 =
The parameters R02 , Z02 , and X02 as referred to l.v side areR01 = R02 K2 = . . . . . . . . .X01 = X02 K2 = . . . . . . . . .Z01 = Z02 K2 = . . . . . . . . .
EQUIVALENT CIRCUITas referred to l.v side as referred to h.v side
120V 240VR0
X0
R01 X01
Z'L
I1 I'2I0
=
= =
=ZL
R'0 X'0
R02 X02
I1 I'2I0
=
= =
=
36

Short Circuit test
The short circuit test is conducted to determine the full load copper loss and the equivalent
resistance and leakage reactance referred to the winding in which the test is conducted. The test
is conducted on the h.v side with the l.v side short circuited by a thick conductor. A low voltage
just enough to circulate the rated current of the transformer is supplied to the transformer. The
voltage supplied is usually only 510% of the normal supply voltage and so the flux linking with
the core is small. Thus core losses can be neglected and the wattmeter reading gives the full
load Cu loss of the transformer.
PROCEDURE
Open Circuit test
Connections are made as shown in the connection diagram 1. The h.v side is left open. The
supply is switched on with the autotransformer in the minimum position. The autotransformer is
gradually varied till the voltmeter reads the rated voltage of the primary side of the transformer.
The corresponding ammeter and wattmeter readings are noted down and tabulated as shown.
Short Circuit test
Connections are made as shown in the diagram 2. The l.v side is short circuited. Supply is
switched on with the autotransformer in the minimum position. The autotransformer is grad
ually varied till the ammeter reads the rated current of the transformer on the h.v side.
(
Rated current =Rated volt Amperes of transformer
Rated voltage on h.v side
)
37

Calculation of efficiency :
Efficiency of the transformer at any load and p.f is given by
=Power Output
Power Input=
x F.L(V A) cosx F.L(V A) cos+Wi + x2WCu
Where,Wi  is the core lossWCu  full load Cu lossx  is the fraction of full load
x Output Wi x2WCu Input Efficiency
1/4
1/2
3/4
1
Sample Calculation(set no. . . . )
x = . . . . . . . . . F.L(V A) = . . . . . . . . .
p.f cos = . . . . . . . . .
Power output = x F.L(V A) cos = . . . . . . . . .Power input = Power Output + Wi + x
2WCu = . . . . . . . . .
Efficiency =Power Output
Power Input= . . . . . . . . .
Efficiency curve
FLO/P1/21/4 3/4
FL FL FL
38

The corresponding voltmeter and wattmeter readings are noted down and tabulated as
shown. Using the readings obtained from the two tests, the equivalent circuit as referred to the
l.v side and h.v side are drawn. The efficiency at various fractions of full load are calculated
and tabulated. The efficiency curve is then plotted.
Regulation of the transformer (which gives the variation of the secondary terminal voltage
from no load to full load expressed as a percentage of the secondary terminal voltage with the
primary voltage held constant) is then calculated using the approximate formula at various
power factors and half the full load, Regulation curve is then plotted.
39

Calculation of Regulation
Regulation at any load and p.f is given by
% Reg =I2R02 cos I2X02 sin
Eo2+ for lagging
 for leading
Where I2 is the current at any load and= xI2FL
Wherex Fraction of full loadI2FL full load current on secondary sideE02 rated voltage on secondary side
lagging upf leading 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0
Sample calculation . . . . . .(for one lead and one lag case)
Regulation Curve
%Reg
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0
(upf)
p.f(lead) (lag)
%Reg
p.f
40

RESULT
O.C and S.C tests were conducted on the given 1 transformer and predetermined the regula
tion and efficiency curves.
VIVA QUESTIONS
1. How are the meter ratings selected for O.C and S.C tests?
2. Why is the O.C test conducted on the l.v side of the transformer and S.C test
on h.v side?
3. What are the losses measured in an O.C test?
4. What are the losses measured in an S.C test?
5. What is the condition for maximum efficiency in a transformer?
6. What is meant by regulation of a transformer?
7. Is a high or low value of regulation preferred? Why?
8. How can the parameters on one side of the transformer be transferred to the
other side?
41

CONNECTION DIAGRAM
400V
3 
50
Hz
AC
5A
5A
5A
R
Y
B
N
E2
E3
A
V 0600V
M
C
L05A MI 600V, 5A, upf
600V, 5A, upf
M
C V
L
3Inductive
Load010A
50, 5A
50, 5A
50, 5A
E1
B1
C1
C2
B2
B3
C3NL
PHASOR DIAGRAM
30
30
IB
IR
IY
VY
VB
VBY
VRY
VR
Experiment 8 42

Experiment 8
THREE PHASE POWERMEASUREMENT BY TWOWATTMETER METHOD
AIM
To measure the power factor and power consumed by a 3 RL load using two wattmeter
method.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
1. Voltmeter (0600V) MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
2. Ammeter (05A) MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
3. Wattmeter 600V, 5A, upf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 nos.
4. Rheostat 50, 5A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 nos.
5. 3 Inductive load (010A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
6. 3 Autotransformer (0415V, 10A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
PRINCIPLE
In two wattmeter method the current coils of two watt meters are connected in two phases and
the potential coils between the corresponding phase and the third phase. It can be proved that
the sum of the wattmeter readings gives the total power.
From the phasor diagram
Reading of Wattmeter 1, W1 = VRY IR cos(30 + )
Reading of Wattmeter 2, W2 = VBY IB cos(30 )W1 +W2= VRY IR(cos 30 cos sin 30 sin) + VBY IB(cos 30 cos+ sin 30 sin)
= VRY IR cos 30 cos+ VBY IB(cos 30 cos)
Assuming balanced load
VRY = VBY = VBR = VL
& IR = IB = IY = IL
Where VL and IL are the line values of voltage and current.
= VLIL cos 30 cos+ VLIL cos 30 cos
= 2VLIL
(32
)
cos
=3VLIL cos
43

OBSERVATIONS
Sl.Case
voltage CurrentWattmeter
PowerPhase Power
reading angle factorNo. V(V ) I(A) W1 W2 P(W ) cos
1 W1 and W2 read +ve
2W1 reads +ve, W2 readszero
3W1 reads +ve, W2 readsve
Sample Calculation (set no . . . )
Voltage V = . . . . . . . . .
Current I = . . . . . . . . .
Wattmeter reading W1 = . . . . . . . . .
Wattmeter reading W2 = . . . . . . . . .
Total power P = W1 +W2 = . . . . . . . . .
Phase angle = tan1
[3(W1 W2)W1 +W2
]
= . . . . . . . . .
Power factor = cos = . . . . . . . . .
44

For leading pf (When the load is capacitive)W1 = VLIL cos(30 )W2 = VLIL cos(30 + ) = Power in a 3 circuitW1 +W2 = VLIL cos(30 ) + VLIL cos(30 + )
= [2 cos 30 cos]VLIL=3 cosVLIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (1)
W1 W2 = VLIL cos(30 ) VLIL cos(30 + )= [2 sin 30 sin]VLIL= sinVLIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (2)
From (1) and (2)
tan =(W1 W2)/VLIL
(W1 +W2)/3VLIL
=3(W1 W2)(W1 +W2)
When pf is unity, = 0 and W1 = W2.When 1.0 > pf > 0.5, 0 < < 60 and both W1 and W2 read positive.When pf = 0.5 , = 60 and W1 = 0, hence W2 alone reads the total power.When 0.5 > pf > 0, 60 < < 90, W1 reads negative and W2 positive
PROCEDURE
Connections are done as shown in the figure. The resistance is kept in the maximum positionand the inductive load is set to minimum. The supply is switched on with the autotransformerin the minimum position.
The autotransformer is adjusted to get rated voltage in the voltmeter. The load is purelyresistive, the power factor is nearly unity and both wattmeters read positive. Readings are takencorresponding to this condition. The inductive load is then increased till one of the wattmeterbecomes zero. This corresponds to a pf of 0.5. Again all readings are noted. On furtherincreasing the inductive load one of the wattmeters starts deflecting in the negative direction.This indicates that the power factor of the circuit is less that 0.5. The supply is now switchedoff and the pressure coil or current coil (ie, C & V or M & L) connections of the wattmeterreading negative is interchanged. Supply is switched on and the readings corresponding tothis condition are noted. The reading of the wattmeter whose terminals are interchanged is berecorded as negative. The power factor and power are calculated using the formula given.
RESULT
Power consumed by a 3 RL load is measured using two wattmeter method.
VIVA QUESTIONS
1. What is the expression for power in a 3 circuit?2. Derive the expression for power factor in terms of the wattmeter readings.3. What are the other methods of measuring 3 power.4. What does a zero reading in one of the wattmeters signify?
45

CONNECTION DIAGRAM
230V1  50Hz
AC
P
N
A
V
5A
B
CNL E
0250VMI
M
C
L
V
05A MI 250V, 5A, upfP.C
C.C
P1P2
N1
N2
Energy
K=240V, 5A
Meter
LAMPLOAD
ERROR CURVE
Line Current
% E
rror
Experiment 9 46

Experiment 9
CALIBRATION OF SINGLE PHASE
ENERGY METER
AIM
To calibrate the given 1 energy meter at unity power factor by direct loading.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
1. Energy meter 240V, 5A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
2. Wattmeter 250V, 5A, upf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
3. Ammeter (05A) MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
4. Voltmeter (0250V) MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
5. 1 Autotransformer (0270V, 13A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
6. Stop watch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
7. Connecting wires
8. Lamp load
PRINCIPLE
An energy meter is an instrument used to measure electrical energy. It keeps a record of the
total energy consumed in a circuit during a particular period. It is an integrating type of
instrument. It essentially consists of two electromagnets called the shunt magnet and series
magnet. A coil having a large number of turns of fine wire is fitted on the shunt magnet called
the pressure coil and is connected across the supply mains. The series electromagnet is wound
with a few turns of heavy gauge wire called the current coil and is connected in series with the
load. An aluminium disc is mounted on a vertical spindle and is free to rotate between the two
magnets. The reaction between the magnetic fields setup by the two electromagnets and eddy
currents set up a driving torque in the disc and the disc starts rotating. The average torque
thus produced is proportional to the true power of the circuit.
47

OBSERVATIONS(direct loading)
Sl. no. V(v) I(A) W(w) T(s) T.R(kwh) I.R(kwh) % Error
Sample Calculation(set no. . . . )
Energy meter constant k = . . . . . . . . .
Voltmeter reading (V ) = . . . . . . . . .
Ammeter reading (I) = . . . . . . . . .
Time for 5 rev. of energy meter disc (t) = . . . . . . . . .
Indicated energy for 1 revolution of energy meter disc =1
k= . . . . . . . . .
Indicated energy for 5 revolution of energy meter disc (IR) =5
k= . . . . . . . . .
Wattmeter reading (W ) = . . . . . . . . .
True energy for t seconds (TR) = W t = . . . . . . . . .% Error =
I.R T.RT.R
100 = . . . . . . . . .
48

Calibration involves comparing the energy measured by an energy meter with a standard
instrument. The standard chosen here is a wattmeter. Since the wattmeter measures only the
power, it has to be multiplied with time to get the energy reading. The readings are then
compared to find the error in the energy meter.
Calibration can be done either by direct loading or phantom loading. In direct loading both
the current and pressure coils are fed from the same supply at rated voltage. Energy meters of
high rating when tested by direct loading would involve large amount of power. Such meters
are thus tested using phantom loading, wherein the pressure coil is supplied from rated supply
and current coil circuit from a separate low voltage supply.
PROCEDURE
Connections are made as shown in the connection diagram. The supply is switched on, keeping
the autotransformer in the minimum position. The autotransformer is then varied to get the
rated voltage. The lamp load is then switched on and the ammeter adjusted for a small value
of current. The corresponding readings of voltmeter, ammeter and wattmeter are noted down.
The time for five revolutions of the energy meter disc is also noted. The experiment is repeated
in steps adding loads till the rated current of the energy meter is reached. The true energy and
indicated energy is evaluated and the error found out. The error curves are then plotted as
shown.
RESULT
The given energy meter is calibrated by direct loading at upf and the error curve plotted.
VIVA QUESTIONS
1. What is meant by calibration of the energy meter?
2. What is the standard used for calibration of energy meter?
3. How does an induction type energy meter work?
4. What is the disadvantage of direct loading method?
5. How are the meters selected for this experiment?
49

WHEATSTONES BRIDGE
P Q
SR
GI1
I2
PORTABLE FORM OF WHEATSTONES BRIDGE
1
.1
.01
.001
10
100 1000
RATIO
GALVO
1
2
3
4
5 6
7
8
9
10 1
4
5 6
7
8
9
10
2
3
1
4
5 6
7
8
9
10
2
3
1
4
5 6
7
8
9
10
2
3
x10
x1000 x100
x1
EXT.BATT.
SERIESARM
EXT
INT
CONTROLSENSITIVITYMIN MAX
B G X
GALV
030V
10V
50,5
G
V
EXT
INTBG
M1000
M100
M10
R1 R2
Experiment 10 50

Experiment 10
RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT USING
WHEATSTONES BRIDGE
AIM
(a) To measure the resistance of given voltmeter (030V) using Wheatstones bridge.
(b) To draw the circuit for extending the range of the given voltmeter (030V) to read up
to 300V.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
1. Wheatstones bridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 no.
2. Voltmeter (030V) MC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
3. Galvanometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
4. Rheostat 50, 5A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 no.
5. D.C source (030V) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
PRINCIPLE
This is the best and most common method of measuring medium resistance (from 1  0.1
M). The general circuit arrangement is shown in the figure. P and Q are two known and
fixed resistances. S is a known variable resistance and R is the unknown resistance. When the
bridge is balanced, no current flows through the galvanometer, then
I1 P = I2 R
I1 Q = I2 S, ie,(
P
Q
)
=
(
R
S
)
or R =
(
P
Q
)
S
The unknown resistance can then be determined.
In the portable form of the Wheatstones bridge the ratio(P/Q) can be set to values of 1,
10, 100, 1000. The standard resistance S can be adjusted using decade dials of x1, x10, x100
and x1000. R can be found out using the above formula.
51

OBSERVATIONS
Sl. Unknown P
Q
S1 S2 S3 S1 S = S1 + S2X
Mean
no. resistance 1000 100 10 1 +S3 + S4 X
Voltmeter
(0 30V )
Resistance of the given voltmeter is . . . . . . . . .
EXTENSION OF INSTRUMENT RANGE
V
300V
030V
VV
RS RV
VT
Let Rv be the resistance of the voltmeter.
Rs be the resistance to be connected in series.
Vv be the range of the given voltmeter.
VT be the range to which the extension is to be made.
The value of the resistance to be connected in series to extend the range is
Rs =
[(
VTVv
)
1]
Rv = (m 1)Rv
where m =VTVv
, is the multiplying factor.
52

PROCEDURE
The given voltmeter(unknown resistance) is connected to the terminal marked R1 and R2 on thebridge. The toggle switches are adjusted for external battery and galvanometer. An externalbattery is connected to terminals BB through a rheostat. A galvanometer is connected to theterminals marked Galvo. on the bridge. The P/Q ratio (range selector) is suitably selected.The resistance S is varied by varying the four decade resistances (one at a time starting fromthe highest range) till null deflection is observed in the galvanometer, when the B and Gkeys are pressed. Adjustments are made till null deflection is obtained, The reading of theRange selector and the four dials of the variable resistance S are noted. The readings aretabulated as shown. The experiment is repeated for different values of range selector(P/Q ratio).
Extension of range of meter: First the resistance of the given voltmeter Rv is measuredusing Wheatstones bridge. To extend the range of given voltmeter a resistance Rs is connectedin series with voltmeter as shown in the figure.
Since they are in series, current is the same through voltmeter and series resistance.
I =VvRv
=(VT Vv)
Rs
Rs = (VT Vv)RvVv
=
[(
VTVv
)
1]
Rv = (m 1)Rv
where m is the multiplying factor =VTVv
.
RESULT
1) Resistance of given volt meter is . . . . . . 2) Resistance to be connected in series to extend its range to 300V is . . . . . .
VIVA QUESTIONS
1. What is the range of resistances that can be measured using a wheatstonesbridge?
2. Why cant a wheatstones bridge be used for measurement of small value ofresistance?
3. How can a low range voltmeter be used for measurement of high voltages?
53

QP
p q
SR
R1 E
r
G
KELVINS DOUBLE BRIDGE
FINALINITIAL
PRESS KEYCURRENT SWITCH
DCSOURCE
GALV.
02.
5A
10V 45,5
+C1
+P1
C2
P2
X.00002/DIV
G
A
FOR.OFF
REV.
x1x10
x100
x.1
x.01
1 0 10
9
8
765
4
3
2
100
10 0
10
20
Experiment 11 54

Experiment 11
RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT USING
KELVINS DOUBLE BRIDGE
AIM
a) To measure the resistance of the given ammeter(02.5A) using Kelvins double bridge.
b) To draw the circuit for extension of range of the meter to read up to 25A.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
1. Kelvins Double Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
2. D.C source (030V) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
3. Ammeter (02.5A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
4. Galvanometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
5. Rheostat 45,5A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 no.
PRINCIPLE
This method is the best available for precise measurement of low resistances(less than 1). In
the figure R is the low resistance to be measured and S is a standard variable resistance of the
same order of magnitude, P,Q, p and q are four noninductive resistances, one pair of which are
variable. These are connected to form two sets of ratio arms, which are used for range selection.
The ratio Q/P is kept same as q/p ratio along with S being varied till null deflection of the
galvanometer is obtained.
ThenR
S=
Q
P=
q
por R =
Q
P S
55

OBSERVATIONS
Sl. Unknownremarks
Range S1 S2 104 S = S1 + S2 X meanNo. resistance multiplier m m m m
1Ammeter direct
+leads reverse
2Leads direct
alone reverse
Resistance of ammeter + leads = . . . . . . . . .
Resistance of leads alone = . . . . . . . . .
Resistance of ammeter alone = . . . . . . . . .
Resistance of the given ammeter (02.5A) = . . . . . . . . .
Extension of range of ammeter
To extend the range of ammeter a resistance is connected in shunt as shown
RSH
ARAIM
IT=25A 2.5A
Let RA be the resistance of the ammeter
RSH the resistance to be connected in shunt
IM the range of the given ammeter
IT the range to which the extension is to be made
The value of resistance to be connected in shunt to extend the range of the given ammeter
to (025A)
= RSH =(IM RA)(IT IM )
=RA
(
ITIM 1
) =RA
m 1
where m is the multiplying factor =ITIM
56

PROCEDURE
Connections are made as shown in the figure. Choose a suitable range multiplier . Set the
current switch in forward position. Press the galvanometer initial key first and adjust main
dial and slide wire to get null deflection in the galvanometer. Then press the galvanometer
final key and check whether the galvanometer reads null deflection. If not, adjust the dial
readings to get null deflection. The readings of the main dial and slide wire are noted down.
The current switch is then put to the reverse position. This reverses the direction of current
in circuit. The main dial and slide wire are adjusted to get null deflection and the readings are
noted again. The mean of the two is taken as the correct value. This is done to eliminate errors
due to thermal effect. The ammeter is then disconnected and the resistance of the connecting
leads alone is measured using the same method. The experiment is repeated with different
values of range multiplier. The readings are tabulated as shown.
Resistance of ammeter = (Resistance of ammeter + leads)  (Resistance of leads alone)
Extension of range
To extend the range of ammeter a resistance is connected in shunt as shown. Since both are
in parallel, voltage across both is the same.
IM RA = ISH RSH
RSH =
(
IMISH
)
RA =(IM RA)(IT IM )
=RA
(
ITIM 1
) =RA
m 1
where m is the multiplying factor =ITIM
RESULT
1) Resistance of given ammeter( 0 2.5A) = . . . . . . 2) Resistance to be connected in shunt to extend its range to (0 25A) = . . . . . .
VIVA QUESTIONS
1. How does a Kelvins double bridge differ from a wheatstones bridge?
2. What is the range of resistances that can be measured using a Kelvins double
bridge?
3. How can a low range ammeter be used for measurement of larger values of
currents?
57

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR LINEAR RESISTANCE
220VDC
2AA
V 0250V
01A
+
1.2A1000
1.7A300
2A

+ +

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR INCANDESCENT LAMP
220VDC
2AA
V 0250V
01A
+
1.7A300
2A

+ 
LAMP
+

OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION
Linear Resistance Incandescent lampSl. Voltage Current Resistance Voltage Currentno. V I R=V/I V A
VI CHARACTERISTICS
I
VLinear
ResistanceIncandescent
Lamp
Experiment 12 58

Experiment 12
VI CHARACTERISTICS OFINCANDESCENT LAMP AND LINEAR
RESISTANCE
AIM
To determine the VI Characteristics of linear resistance and incandescent lamp.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
Rheostat  300, 1.7A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.Voltmeter  0300V MC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.Ammeter  02A MC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.Incandescent lamp  240V, 100W . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.Rheostat  1000, 1.2A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
PRINCIPLE
The resistance of a material is practically a constant at constant temperature, so for the linearresistance, according to ohms law the current flowing through the circuit is directly proportionalto the voltage applied.
ie, I VV = IR
where,V is voltage applied, I the current and R the resistance.
Here R is a constant therefore we get a linear relationship between voltage and current. Butin the case of incandescent lamp, large amount of heat is produced so there is a considerablechange in the resistance thus as the voltage increases we get a non linear relationship betweenvoltage and current.
PROCEDURE
The connections are made as per the circuit diagram. The linear resistance is connected inthe circuit first. Keeping the potential divider in the minimum output voltage positions, thesupply is switched on. The rheostat(300, 1.7A) is adjusted to get different voltages till therated voltage is reached and corresponding current readings are noted down.
The experiment is repeated by connecting incandescent lamp in place of the rheostat. TheVI characteristics of linear resistance and incandescent lamp are plotted.
RESULT
VI characteristic of linear resistance and incandescent lamp are plotted.
59

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM  OCC & SCC
+

V
A
M
L F A15A
F1
F2
Rh1300
1.7AA1
A2
0300V
010A
220VDC
15A
A
+

2A
2A
Rh2
1000 1.2A
F1 F2
B
Y
R
02A
R
YB
MI
MI
N
S1
S2
+ 
MC
S3
GS
D.C motor alternator
V 230V V 415VI17A I5A
H.P 3.5 KV A3.5rpm1500 rpm1500
Conn.Star
MEASUREMENT OF ARMATURE RESISTANCE
20VDC
5AA
V010V
05A
+5A50
5A

+ 
R
N
MC
MC
+

OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS
O.C TESTIfVOC
S.C TESTIaIf
Measurement of RaV I Ra
Experiment 13 60

Experiment 13
OPEN CIRCUIT AND SHORT CIRCUITTEST ON A THREE PHASE
ALTERNATOR
AIM
To conduct open circuit and short circuit tests on a three phase alternator and predeterminethe regulation curve by emf method at half load and full load.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
Voltmeter  0300V, MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no. 010V, PMMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
Ammeter  010A, MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no. 02A, PMMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no. 05A, PMMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
Rheostat  300, 1.7A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no. 1000, 1.2A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no. 50, 5A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
PRINCIPLE
As the load on the alternator is varied the terminal voltage also varies. This is due to1. Voltage drop due to armature resistance IR.2. Voltage drop due to armature reactance IXL.3. Voltage due to armature reaction effect.The voltage regulation of a synchronous generator is defined as the rise in voltage at the
terminals when the load is reduced from full load rated value to zero, speed and field currentremaining constant
%Reg =E V
V 100
Where E  Generated emfV  Terminal voltage
For small machines the regulation may be found by direct loading. For large machines thevoltage regulation is predetermined by using indirect methods like emf method, mmf method,Potier and ASA methods All these methods require open circuit characteristics and short circuitcharacteristics.
The open circuit characteristics [also called open circuit saturation curve or magnetizationcurve] is a plot of no load terminal voltage versus field excitation with the machine running atrated speed. Under these conditions the induced voltage is directly proportional to the flux.The shape of curve is therefore a typical BH curve or magnetization curve. The short circuitcharacteristics is a plot between armature current and field excitation with a symmetrical shortcircuit applied across the terminals. Under these conditions current in the armature winding
61

Regulation curve O.C.C and S.C.C of3 alternator
%Reg
0.8 0.8 0.6 0.4
(upf)
0.2 0
(lag)p.f
0.2 0.4 0.6p.f
(lead)
0
(full load)
(half load)
%Reg
S.C testO.C testI a
(
A)
VO
C (
V)
If (A)
Line voltage VL = . . . . . . . . .
VPH =VL3= . . . . . . . . .
Ra(dc) = . . . . . . . . .Effective value Ra = 1.6Ra(dc) = . . . . . . . . .From graph Zs = VOC/ISC = . . . . . . . . .
Xs =
Z2s R2a = . . . . . . . . .
Sample Calculation
Eo ={
(V cos+ IRa)2 + (V sin IXS)2
}1/2
ve for leading+ve for lagging
% regulation =Eo V
V 100
lagging leading 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 upf 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0
Reg.(FL)
Reg.(HL)
62

wholly depends on the internal impedance consisting of synchronous reactance Xsand the winding resistance Ra.
Now Ra being small compared to Xs the pf under short circuit condition is zero powerfactor lagging and therefore the armature reaction mmf is almost wholly demagnetizing.
The short circuit characteristics is a straight line. From O.C.C & S.C.C the synchronousimpedance is evaluated as follows.
For any value of excitation or field current If , if VOC is the open circuit voltage & ISC is theshort circuit current, then synchronous impedance Zs=VOC/ISC . The value of Zs is calculatedfor the unsaturated region. For the computation of regulation, it is convenient to take Zs atsuch a value of excitation which give rise to Vph[normal voltage per phase]on open circuit. Thearmature resistance is measured using ammetervoltmeter method. Under working conditionsthe effective value of Ra is increased due to skin effect and temperature effect. The effectivevalue of Ra is generally taken as 1.6 times the d.c value.Synchronous reactance per phase Xs =
Z2a R2a per phase.
Eo =
(V cos+ IRa)2 (V sin IXs)2
where +ve sign for lagging power factor and ve for leading. Now percentage regulation foreach case is computed as
% Regulation =Eo V
V 100
PROCEDURE
O.C test
Connections are made as shown in the connection diagram. Switches S3 and S2 are kept in theopen position. The motor field rheostat Rh1 is kept in minimum position and the alternatorfield rheostat Rh2 in the maximum position. Supply is switched on by closing switch S1. Thedc motor is started using the 3point starter. The motor field rheostat Rh1 is varied till thespeed becomes equal to the rated speed. Switch S2 is closed. Rh2 is varied in steps and the fieldcurrent and voltmeter reading are noted down. The experiment is repeated for different valuesof field current till the voltmeter reading shows 120% of the rated voltage of the alternator.Rheostat Rh2 is brought back to the maximum resistance position.
S.C test
Switch S3 is closed and rheostat Rh2 is varied till the ammeter reading in the alternator (A2)reads the rated current of the machine. The corresponding value of field current is noted down.
Armature resistance is found by voltmeterammeter method.The regulation is then determined at various power factors for half and full loads and the
regulation curve is plotted.
RESULT
The open circuit and short circuit test was conducted on the given 3 alternator and theregulation curves for half load & full load are plotted.
63

CONNECTION DIAGRAM  NO LOAD TEST
400V
3 
50
Hz
AC
10A
10A
10A
R
Y
B
E2
E3
A
V 0500V
M
C
L05A
600V,5A,lpf
600V,5A,lpf
M
C V
L
E1
B1
C1
C2
B2
B3
C3
STATOR
R
Y BR3
R2
R1
ROTOR
V
BLOCKED ROTOR TEST
400V
3 
50
Hz
AC
10A
10A
10A
R
Y
B
E2
E3
A
V 0250V
M
C
L010A 250V,10A,upf
250V,10A,upf
M
C V
L
E1
B1
C1
C2
B2
B3
C3
STATOR
R
Y BR3 R2
R1
ROTOR
BLOCKEDROTOR
S1 S2
V
Machine Details
Voltage  415VCurrent  7.5Aspeed  1440rpmPhase 3H.P  5.0
Experiment 14 64

Experiment 14
NO LOAD AND BLOCKED ROTORTESTS ON 3 PHASE SLIP RING
INDUCTION MOTOR
AIM
To perform no load and blocked rotor test on a three phase slip ring induction motor and
determine the equivalent circuit.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
Voltmeter  (0500V) MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
 (0250V) MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
 (030V) PMMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
Ammeter  (05A) MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
 (010A) MI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
 (010A)PMMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
Wattmeter  500V, 5A, lpf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 nos.
 250V, 10A, upf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 nos.
Rheostat  9, 8.5A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 no.
Autotransformer
PRINCIPLE
Slip ring motors are always started with full line voltage applied across the stator terminals. The
value of starting current is adjusted by introducing a variable resistance in the rotor circuit.The
controlling resistance is in the form of resistances connected in star. The resistance is gradually
cut out of the rotor circuit as the motor gathers speed.
65

OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS
No load test:
V0(V ) I0(A) W1 W2 W0=W1 +W2
Blocked rotor test:
VSC(V ) ISC(A) W1(w) W2(w) WSC=W1 +W2
MEASUREMENT OF STATOR RESISTANCE
220VDC
5AA
V020V
05A
+5A50
5A

+ R
BY
+
For finding stator resistance, Rs :
No. V (V ) I(A) Rs
R
R
R
R(meas)
R(meas) =R 2R3R
=2
3R
Rs/ph(dc) =2
3R(meas)
Rs/ph(ac) = 1.62
3R(meas) = . . . . . . . . .
66

By introducing the rotor resistance, the rotor current is reduced at starting and the starting
torque is increased the latter due to improvement in power factor.
No load test:
If the motor is run at rated voltage and frequency without any mechanical load, it will draw
power necessary to supply the no load losses. The no load current will have two components.
The active component and the magnetizing component, the former being very small as the no
load losses are small. The power factor at no load is therefore very low. The no load power
factor is always less than 0.5 and hence at no load one of the wattmeter at input side reads
negative.
The no load input W0 to the stator consists of
1. Small stator copper loss
2. Core losses
3. The loss due to friction and windage.
The rotor copper loss can be neglected, since slip is small at no load.
Blocked rotor test :
The stator is supplied with a low voltage of rated frequency just sufficient to circulate rated
current through the stator with the rotor blocked and short circuited. The power input, current
and the voltage applied are noted down.
The power input during the blocked rotor test is wholly consumed in the stator and rotor
copper losses. The core loss is low because the applied voltage is only a small percentage of the
normal voltage. Again since the rotor is at stand still the mechanical losses are absent. Hence
the blocked rotor input can be taken as approximately equal to the copper losses.
67

From no load test:
V0 = . . . . . . . . . I0 = . . . . . . . . . W0 = . . . . . . . . .V0/ph = V0 = . . . . . . . . .
Line current(IL) = I0 = . . . . . . . . .
phase current(I0/ph) =IL3
= . . . . . . . . .
Power consumed = W0 = . . . . . . . . .
cos0 =W03V0I0
= . . . . . . . . .
0 = . . . . . . . . .sin0 = . . . . . . . . .
R0/ph =V0/ph
I0/ph cos0= . . . . . . . . .
X0/ph =V0/ph
I0/ph sin0= . . . . . . . . .
From blocked rotor test:
VSC = . . . . . . . . . ISC = . . . . . . . . . WSC = . . . . . . . . .VSC/ph = VSC = . . . . . . . . .
WSC/ph =WSC3
= . . . . . . . . .
ISC/ph =ISC3
= . . . . . . . . .
(Total winding resistance as
referred to the stator side)
R01 =WSC/ph
I2SC/ph= . . . . . . . . .
Z01 =VSC/ph
ISC/ph= . . . . . . . . .
(Total leakage reactance as re
ferred to the stator side)
X01 =
Z201 R201 = . . . . . . . . .
(Rotor resistance as referred
to the stater side)
R2 = R01 RS(eff) = . . . . . . . . .
(Electrical equivalent of the
mechanical load)
RL = R2
[
1 ss
]
R0 X0
R01 X01
=
= =
=V/ph= RL
68

PROCEDURE
No load test:
Connections are made as shown in the diagram for no load test. Brake drum is made free torotate by loosening the belt. The autotransformer is placed in zero position. Then the supplyis switched on and the auto transformer is adjusted to supply the rated voltage to the machine.The handle of the starter is rotated to cut out the rotor resistance. Readings of the wattmeters,voltmeter and ammeter are noted and tabulated.
Blocked rotor test:
Connections are made as shown. The rotor is blocked by tightening the belt on the brakedrum. The auto transformer is set to the zero voltage position. Then the three phase supplyis switched on. By adjusting the autotransformer, the ammeter reading is made equal to ratedcurrent of the machine. Readings of the two wattmeters, voltmeter and the ammeter are notedand tabulated.
Measurement of stator resistance:
Connections are done for the stator resistance measurements. It is measured using the voltmeter
ammeter method. The measured value is2
3Rph as the machine is connected. Thus Rph =
1.5Rmeas. Rs(eff) is taken as 1.6 times Rph to account for skin effect and heating effect.
RESULT
No load and blocked rotor tests were conducted on the given three phase slip ring inductionmotor and the equivalent circuit parameters were determined.
69