Cr training

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  • 1. AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC TRAINING Exercise Physiology PEP 3510

2. I. ENERGY REQUIREMENTS Training for a particular sport orperformance goal must be based on its energy components. The amount of time spent in practice in order to meet the energy requirements varies according to sport demands. 3. Bobsledding Rock climbing Sailing ThrowingBody building Alpine skiing Gymnastics WrestlingBoxing Track cycling Rowing SprintingArchery Auto racing DivingFigure skating Football RugbyBasketball Ice hockey Soccer SwimmingBilliards Bowling Curling GolfBaseball Softball Tennis-dubs VolleyballNordic skiing Running Field hockey Tennis-singlesLowModerateHighDynamic NatureAnaerobic ATP-PCr GlycolysisAerobic Krebs Cycle ET Chain 4. Energy Requirements B CDEThe three energy systems often operate simultaneously during physical activity. Relative contribution of each system to total energy requirement differs markedly depending on exercise intensity & duration. Magnitude of energy from anaerobic sources depends on persons capacity and tolerance for lactic acid accumulation. As exercise intensity diminishes and duration extends beyond 4 minutes, energy more dependent on aerobic metabolism. 5. Three Systems of Energy 6. II. TRAINING PRINCIPLES Major objective in exercise training is to cause biological adaptations. S pecificity P rogression O verload R eversibility T rait 7. 1. Specificity of TrainingIn order for a training program to be beneficial, it must develop the specific physiological capabilities required to perform a given sport or activity. SAID: specific adaptation to imposed demand. 8. Types of Specificity a Metabolic b Mode of Exercise c Muscle Group d Movement Pattern 9. The predominant energy source depends upon (1) duration, and (2) intensity of exercise. M e ta b o lic S p e c ific ity A n a e r o b ic P ow er ( A la c ta c id O x y g e n D e b t)A n a e r o b ic E n d u ra n c e ( L a c ta c id O x y g e n D e b t)A e r o b ic P ow er ( O x id a tiv e M a x im u m )A e r o b ic E n d u ra n c e ( O x id a tiv e S te a d y -s ta te ) 10. Metabolic Specificity 11. 2. Progressive Overload Overload must be progressive to continue to prompt training adaptations. 12. 3. Overload Exercising at a level above normal brings biological adaptations that improve functional efficiency. In order to overload aerobic or anaerobic systems, training must be quantified. Quantity of Training: intensity & volume (frequency and duration). 13. Quantification of TrainingQuantity of Training VolumeQuality of Training Intensity 14. Intensity of Training Training intensity relates to how hard one exercises. Exercise intensity represents the most critical factor for successful training. 15. Volume of Training Training adaptations are best achieved when optimal amount of work in training sessions Optimal amount of work varies individually Training volume can be increased by either duration or frequency Improvement depends in part on kcals per session and work/week 16. 4. Reversibility Most metabolic and cardiorespiratory benefits gained through exercise training are lost within relatively short period of time after training is stopped. In one experiment, VO2 max, maximal stroke volume and cardiac output decreased roughly 1% per day during 20 days bed rest. 17. Detraining 18. Detraining 19. 5. Individual Traits Relative fitness level at beginning of training. Trainees respond differently to given exercise stimulus. 20. III. Adaptations to Anaerobic and Aerobic Training Training Effect: the chronic anatomic, morphologic, physiologic, and psychologic changes that result from repeated exposure to exercise. 21. A. Anaerobic Training Effect 1. Increased intramuscular levels of anaerobic substrates: ATP, CP, and Glycogen 2. Increased quantity and activity of key enzymes that control anaerobic phase of glycolysis 3. Increased capacity to generate high levels of blood lactate (and pain tolerance) o No research for improved buffering capacity. 22. Anaerobic Training Effect Heart Changes due to pressure overload. 1. Thickened septum 2. Thickening of posterior wall 3. Increased left ventricular mass with no change in left ventricular end diastolic volume (concentric hypertrophy) 23. B. Adaptations in the Aerobic System Metabolic Adaptations Cardiovascular Adaptations Pulmonary Adaptations Body Composition Adaptations Body Heat Transfer 24. Metabolic Adaptations Metabolic Machinery: mitochondrial size and number Enzymes: aerobic system enzymes Fat Metabolism: increased lipolysis Carbohydrate Metabolism: increased capacity to oxidize carbohydrate Muscle Fiber Type and Size: selective hypertrophy muscle fiber type. 25. Cardiovascular Adaptations Heart Size eccentric hypertrophyPlasma Volume Up to 20%Stroke Volume Increases 50-60%Heart Rate Cardiac OutputOxygen extraction Blood flow and distribution Increased capillarizationBlood Pressure Decrease 6 to 10 mm Hg with regular aerobic ex. 26. Pulmonary Adaptations Increased maximal exercise minute ventilation Increased ventilatory equivalent: V E/VO2 In general, tidal volume increases and breathing frequency decreases 27. Other Aerobic Changes Blood Lactate Concentration: extending level of exercise intensity before OBLA Body Composition: reduces body mass and body fat Body Heat Transfer: larger plasma volume and more responsive thermoregulatory mechanism. 28. VI. ANAEROBIC TRAINING Goals of Anaerobic Training B Training Methods C Prescription Content D Frequency and Duration 29. A. Goals of Anaerobic Training A n a e r o b ic T r a in in g G o a ls To E nhance M u s c le L a c ta te R em oval and L a c ta te U t i li z a ti o nTo E nhance A n a e r o b ic C a p a c ity o f M u s c le s 30. Anaerobic Training ATP-PCr System: All-out bursts for 5 to 10 sec. Recovery progresses rapidly (30 to 60 sec). Glycolytic System: Bouts of up to 1 min of intense, rhythmic repeated several times interspersed with 3-5 min recovery (lactate stacking). 31. B. Training Methods Acceleration Sprints: gradual increases from slow to moderate to full sprinting in 50-100 m segments followed by 50 m light activity. Sprint Training: Repeated sprints at maximal speed with complete recovery (5 minutes or more) between repeats. Only 3 to 6 bouts in a session. Interval Training: Repeated periods of work alternated with periods of relief. 32. C. Prescription Content Training Time: rate of work during the work interval (e.g. 200-m in 28 seconds) Repetitions: number of work intervals per set (e.g. six 200-m runs) Sets: a grouping of work and relief intervals (e.g. a set is six 200-m runs @ 28 sec, 1:24 rest interval) Work-relief Ratio: time ratio of work and relief (e.g., 1:2 means relief is twice work) Type of Relief: rest or light to mild exercise 33. Interval Training Relief Interval 1:3 (work: relief) for training immediate energy systems 1:2 for training glycolytic energy systems 1:1 or 1:1 for training aerobic energy systems 34. D. Frequency and Duration of Training The energy demands of high-intensity training on the glycolytic system rapidly depletes muscle glycogen Muscles can become chronically depleted of energy reserves 35. V. AEROBIC TRAINING A. Goals of Aerobic Training B. Factors Influencing Aerobic Response C. Guidelines D. Training Methods E. Determining Intensity F. Exercise During Pregnancy 36. A. Goals of Aerobic TrainingGoals of Aerobic Training Enhance Capacity Blood (VO2 Max) to DeliverEnhance Maximal Oxidative Capacity (QO2) Muscle's 37. B. Four Factors that Influence Aerobic Training Response Which is most critical for successful aerobic training? Initial fitness level Frequency of training Intensity of training Duration of training About 60 minutes of daily physical activity provides optimal health benefits. 38. C. Guidelines Start slowly: severe muscle discomfort & excessive cardiovascular strain offer no benefit Warm up: adjusts coronary blood flow & hemoglobin unloading Cool-down period: allow metabolism to regress to resting 39. D. Aerobic Training Methods Continuous, slow: Long-distance at a slow, steady pace Continuous, fast: Long-distance at a fast, steady pace Interval sprinting: Repeated periods of work interspersed with periods of relief Speed play (Fartlek): Alternating fast and slow running over varying, natural terrain 40. E. Determining Training Intensity 1Train at a percentage of max VO22Train at a percentage of max HR (adjust for swimming)3 4Train at a perceived exertion level Train at given work rate (speed) for each exercise interval 41. Maintaining Aerobic Fitness Studies reveal that if exercise intensity is maintained, the frequency and duration of training can be reduced considerably without decrements in aerobic performance 42. Aerobic Ex Rx for Fitness Mode: Rhythmic, Aerobic involving Large Muscle Groups Frequency: 3-5 x/week Intensity: 50 85% VO2 max, HRR; 6090% HR max (college age 50-55 % HRR or 70% HR max minimum and 85-90% HRR 90% HR max upper limit) Duration: 20 60 minutes 43. F. Exercise during Pregnancy During vigorous exercise, some blood diverted from uterus & could pose hazard to fetus Elevation in maternal core temperature could hinder heat dissipation from fetus 44. VI. TRAINING PHASES T r a in in g P h a se s o r S e asons O ff S easonP re S easonIn S eason 45. Illustrations McArdle, William D., Frank I. Katch, and Victor L. Katch. 2000. Essentials of Exercise Physiology 2nd ed. Image Collection. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Plowman, Sharon A. and Denise L. Smith. 1998. Digital Image Archive for Exercise Physiology. Allyn & Bacon.