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COSMIC RAY PHYSICS WITH AMS. Joseph Burger MIT On behalf of the AMS-02 collaboration EPS2003 Aachen Particle Astrophysics July 17, 2003. Cosmic Rays: p, D, He, C,…,e + ,e - , γ Direct Search for Cosmic Antimatter Other Searches: Strangelets,… - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • COSMIC RAY PHYSICSWITH AMSJoseph Burger MITOn behalf of the AMS-02 collaboration

    EPS2003 AachenParticle AstrophysicsJuly 17,

  • Cosmic Rays: p, D, He, C,,e+,e-,Direct Search for Cosmic AntimatterOther Searches: Strangelets,Dark matter search in morning session talk by Mariusz Sapinski

  • Cosmic Ray FluxAMS-02 is a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer which will extend high statistics measurements of cosmic ray properties to high rigidities.

  • AMS-023 years on ISS starting 2005-2006

  • Precursor Flight on STS91, June 2-12, 199810 days technical checkout also brought physics results and six publications:

    "Search for Antihelium in Cosmic Rays", M. Aguilar et al., Phys. Lett. B461 ( 2 Sep 1999) 387-396

    "Protons in Near Earth Orbit", M. Aguilar et al., Phys. Lett. B472 (26 Jan 2000) 215-226

    "Leptons in Near Earth Orbit", M. Aguilar et al., Phys. Lett. B484 (27 Jun 2000) 10-22

    "Cosmic Protons", M. Aguilar et al., Phys. Lett. B490 (28 Sep 2000) 27-35

    "Helium in Near Earth Orbit", M. Aguilar et al., Phys. Lett. B494 (30 Nov 2000) 193-202

    "The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) on the International Space Station, Part I, Results from the test flight on the Space Shuttle", M. Aguilar et al., Physics Reports, vol. 366/6 (Aug.2002), pp.331-404. on e, p, antiprotons, D, He, antihelium,

  • AMS-02TRD (Transition Radiation Detector)Separates e from p, p < 10-2-10-3 from 10-300 GeV

    ToF (Upper Time of Flight)Velocity measurement, dE/dX, fast trigger

    Star Tracker (pointing to

  • Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) Highly relativistic charged particle generates photons at the boundary between media (r1 r2) Emission probability small (10-2) 20 layers Photons detected in ~5300 straw tubes Good photon identification: gas with high atomic number Z Xe:CO2 80:20TRD Beam Test

  • Time of Flight CountersUpper and lower each two layers of crossed scintillatorsTime-of flight to ~140psec for and directiondE/dx measures Z (E/E ~10% for MIPs)

  • Superconducting Magnet2500 liters superfluid He planned to last 3 years without refillField ~1T measurement of rigidity to a few TV

  • Silicon TrackerEight layers of double sided Si detectors~10m in bending direction, ~30m orthogonalMeasures rigidity up to a few TVMeasures dE/dx for determining Z

  • Ring Imaging Cherenkov Counter (RICH)Accurate Velocity Measurements via OpeningAngle of erenkov Cone / ~ 0.1% Isotopic Separation.|Q| measurementsAdditional Particle Identification capability

  • Electromagnetic Calorimeter16 X0 of lead/scintillating fiber sandwichesCrossed layers for 3D sampling by 384 4-pixel PMTsE/E ~ (120.4)%/E+(2.80.1)% (E in GeV)

    Distinguishes between hadrons and e, by shower shapeProtons suppressed by 10-3-10-4 from 10 to 300 GeVTogether with TRD ~10-6Photon detector with angular resolution ~1

  • Nuclei in SpaceThe distribution of nuclei in cosmic rays is similar to the distribution in the solar system with some exceptions.Li (except 7Li), Be and B were not produced in the primordial nucleosynthesis, nor made in stars,but by spallation reactions involving p and colliding with C,N,O in supernovas.Measure cosmic ray confinement time in galaxy and mean density of interstellar matter.

  • AMS-02 Expected Performance1 year 10Be/9Be ratio measurementAmong all -radioactive secondary nuclei in cosmic rays, 10Be is the lightest isotope having a half-life comparable with the confinement time of cosmic rays in the galaxy (~2x106 yr). AMS-02 will be able to separate 10Be from stable 9Be in the range 0.15
  • AMS-02 Expected Performance6 months B/C ratio measurementIn 3 years AMS-02 will collect 105 C and 104 B with energies above 100 GeV/n,measuring the ratio of boron to its primary carbon up to 1 TeV/n

  • AMS-02 Expected Performance1 day 3He/4He ratio measurementAMS-02 can distinguish 3He from 4He in the range 0.1
  • Search for AntimatterAMS-01 10 day precursor flight

  • Search for AntimatterAMS-01 10 day precursor flight

  • Search for AntimatterAMS-02 sensitivity in 3 years

  • Search for AntimatterAMS-02 sensitivity in 3 years

  • Dark Matter Search: AMS-02 e+ FluxStructure in spectrum from SUSY neutralinos 0Examples for m 336 GeV and 130.3 GeV

  • AMS-02 Antiproton FluxAMS-02 will measure the antiproton spectrum with a few percent energy resolution up to hundreds of GeV

  • Other Exotic Matter: StrangeletsHeavy Particle with Low ChargeStable mixtures of u,d,s quarks with many different quarks in lowest energy stateSignature is anomalous Z/A (Z~0.3A2/3)(nuclei Z/A=0.33-0.67) AMS sensitive to ~10
  • AMS-02 Sensitivity to StrangeletsShaded region from rough estimate of strangelet creation and absorption in galaxy(Chikanian et al.)

  • Search for doubly charged anomalously heavy nuclei with AMS-01More than 4x106 He events collected during 10 day STS91 flightSearched for anomalously heavy nuclei (Z/A ~ mproton/Rigidity)Tight quality cuts on measured rigidity and velocityOne candidate event found, corresponding to flux 5x10-5(m2srsec)-1Estimate background from ordinary nuclei < 10-3 events

  • Summary / Conclusions

    COSMIC RAY PROPAGATION light isotope abundancesANTIMATTER SEARCH limit on antihelium/helium 10-9STRANGE MATTER SEARCH anomalous Z/ADARK MATTERSOMETHING NEW?