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Colligative Properties Vapor Pressure Freezing and Boiling Points Osmotic Pressure
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Colligative Properties. Vapor Pressure Freezing and Boiling Points Osmotic Pressure. Objectives. SWBAT Explain why boiling point can be elevated or freezing point can be depressed. Use Δ T b = i K b m to solve boiling point or freezing point problems. Drill. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

### Transcript of Colligative Properties

• Colligative PropertiesVapor PressureFreezing and Boiling PointsOsmotic Pressure

• ObjectivesSWBATExplain why boiling point can be elevated or freezing point can be depressed.Use Tb = i Kbm to solve boiling point or freezing point problems.

• DrillWe will finish the Ksp problem from yesterday.

• Website to Trywww.chemprofessor.com/colligative.htm

• DefinitionsPo = vapor pressure of the pure solvent P = vapor pressure of the solvent in a solution

Boiling point - The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the pressure on the liquid.

Normal (Standard) Boiling Point The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to standard pressure (1.00 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr = 101.325 kPa)

• Vapor Pressure ReductionNonvolatile Substance- a substance that doesnt have a tendency to vaporize (i.e. sugar)When a nonvolatile substance is added to a pure substance, solute molecules block the solvent molecules from evaporatingHowever, the solvent molecules can still change from gas to liquid

• Vapor Pressure ReductionBecause more molecules are leaving the gas state than entering it, there are less molecules of gasThis in turn lowers the pressure of the gas, known as vapor pressure reductionThe reduction of vapor pressure does not depend on the solute used

• Vapor Pressure and IMFIf the liquid is part of a solution, the non-volatile solute molecules act to disrupt the evaporation process by attracting the solvent molecules, since they have intermolecular forces at least as strong as the liquid molecules, they impede evaporation. The presence of the solute does not affect the condensation process, because, since it is non-volatile, it is not present in the vapor phase. www.chemprofessor.com/colligative.htm

• Boiling Point ElevationThe boiling point of any substance is the temperature where the vapor pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure (usually)Because the vapor pressure is reduced when a nonvolatile substance is added, a higher temperature is required to make the two pressures match(new boiling point) (original boiling point) = the boiling point elevation This is shown as Tb

• Boiling Point ElevationSolute particles weaken IMF in the solvent.

• Adding a SoluteThere are two reasons why the addition of a solute raises the boiling point of a solution(i.e. why the vapor pressure of the solvent in a solution is lower than the vapor pressure of a pure solvent):

• Reason #11.The solute particles occupy space at the surface. This consequently slows the rate at which the solvent molecules in the liquid phase can escape into the gas phase

• Reason #2

P < Po P = Xsolvent PoRaoult's Law - The vapor pressure of the solvent above a solution is equal to the product of the mole fraction of the solvent and the vapor pressure of the pure solvent:

The solute particles introduce a new set of attractive forces with the solvent molecules.

• The vapor pressure of the solvent with the solute is lower than the vapor pressure of the pure solvent. In order to raise the vapor pressure of the solvent with the solute to atmospheric pressure, the temperature must be raised.

• Effect of Adding Solute to a Pure Solventhttp://library.thinkquest.org/C006669/media/Chem/img/antiBP.gif

• Calculating TbTb = i Kbmm is the molality of the solutionKb is a constant that is different for every solventi is the Vant Hoff factor, which is the number of particles into which the solute dissociates

Common Kbs are located in Figure 15-25 in your book

• Freezing Point DepressionFreezing Point Depression is the change in temperature to where the solid vapor pressure equals the liquid vapor pressure

Tf = i Kfm

• Freezing Point Depression

• DefinitionOsmotic pressure is the pressure that must be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of water across a semipermeable membrane.

• = iMRTi is the dimensionless van 't Hoff factorM is the molarityR=0.08206 L atm mol-1 K-1 is the gas constantT is the thermodynamic (absolute) temperature

Thermodynamic (absolute) temperature is the temperature measured or calculated on an absolute scale.

• Osmotic PressureWhen two solutions of different concentrations are separated by a semi-permeable membrane, osmosis occurs to result in the distribution of solute molecules

What happens if you have a u-shaped tube, with a membrane in the middle, and different concentrations on either side?

• If, assuming that the two sides have different concentrations, what happens to this solution?

• The solution will actually become uneven. This will continue until the concentrations are equal, or the osmotic pressure is reached

• Osmotic PressureOsmotic pressure is the pressure required to stop osmosis in the previous exampleIt is generally represented as the Greek letter piOsmotic pressure plays very important roles in the chemistry of the body

• Osmosis Equation

= i M R T