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The Ancient and Medieval cosmos as depicted in Peter Apian's Cosmographia(Antwerp, 1539).
In the general sense, a cosmos is an orderlyor harmonious system. It originates from theGreek term (kosmos), meaning"order" or "ornament" and is antitheticalto the concept of chaos. Today, the word isgenerally used as a synonym of the wordUniverse (considered in its orderly aspect).The word cosmos originates from the sameroot. In many Slavic languages such asRussian and Bulgarian, the word cosmos means also the "outer space". InMandarin Chinese, cosmos is translated as yuzhou, which literally translatedmeans space-time ( yu = space + zhou= time).
The second largest extent of the Universe so far
Pythagoras is said to have been the first philosopher to apply the termcosmos to the Universe, perhaps referring to the starry firmament.
Russian cosmism is a cosmocentric philosophical and culturalmovement that emerged in Russia in the early 20th century.
Cosmicism is a philosophical position that mankind is an insignificantaspect of a universe at best indifferent and perhaps hostile. Thisphilosophy, explored by writers such as H.P. Lovecraft (who some sayis the original proponent of the philosophy) and later writers whoactually represented the beliefs in books such as Hitchhiker's Guide tothe Galaxy.
In theology, the term can be used to denote the created Universe, not including the creator. The Septuagint uses bothkosmos and oikumene for the inhabited world. In Christian theology, the word was also used synonymously withaion to refer to "worldly life" or "this world" as opposed to the afterlife.
The cosmos as originated by Pythagoras is parallel to the Zoroastrian term aa, the concept of a divine order, ordivinely ordered creation.
Olaf Stapledon, in his science fiction novel Star Maker (1937), describes how God (the Star Maker) evolves bycreating ever more complex cosmoses across multicosmic hypertime.
Flammarion engraving, Paris 1888
Cosmology is the study of the cosmos in several of the abovemeanings, depending on context. All cosmologies have in common anattempt to understand the implicit order within the whole of being. Inthis way, most religions and philosophical systems have a cosmology.
Image of distribution of the cosmic microwavebackground radiation 700,000 years after the BigBang, generally assumed to have occurred about
13,700,000,000 years ago.
In physical cosmology, the term cosmos is often used in a technicalway, referring to a particular space-time continuum within the(postulated) multiverse. Our particular cosmos is generally capitalizedas the Cosmos.
The philosopher Ken Wilber uses the term kosmos to refer to all ofmanifest existence, including various realms of consciousness. Theterm kosmos so used distinguishes a nondual Universe (which, in hisview, includes both noetic and physical aspects) from the strictly
physical Universe that is the concern of the traditional sciences. Wilber's nephew (Cosmo Iacavazzi, fullback atPrinceton University) is said to have been named after the scientific term.
Ancient Greek conception of the cosmosThe Ancient Greek natural philosopher Archimedes in his essay The Sand Reckoner, estimated the diameter of thecosmos to be the equivalent in stadia of what we call two light years.
Age and size of the cosmosAccording to current scientific theory, the cosmos began 13.7 billion years ago short scale in the Big Bang. Thecurrent diameter of the observable cosmos is thought to be about 93 billion light years.The diameter of the entire cosmos is unknown. However, according to Alan Guth's inflation theory, the actual size ofthe cosmos is at least fifteen orders of magnitude larger than the observable universe. This means that if the inflationtheory is correct, the 93 billion light year diameter of the observable universe is approximately as much smaller thanthe diameter of the entire universe as the diameter of a helium atom is compared to the diameter of the Sun. This isequivalent to a minimum diameter of the entire cosmos of 1026 light years (100 septillion light years short scale).
References (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ hopper/ text?doc=Perseus:text:1999. 04. 0057:entry=ko/ smos), Henry George Liddell, Robert
Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
External links Cosmos an Illustrated Dimensional Journey from microcosmos to macrocosmos (http:/ / www. shekpvar. net/
~dna/ Publications/ Cosmos/ cosmos. html) from Digital Nature Agency Macrocosm and Microcosm (http:/ / etext. lib. virginia. edu/ cgi-local/ DHI/ dhiana. cgi?id=dv3-16), in
Dictionary of the History of Ideas Encyclopedia of Cosmos (http:/ / www. eocosmos. org/ ) merriam-webster.com/dictionary/cosmic (http:/ / www. merriam-webster. com/ dictionary/ cosmic)
Article Sources and Contributors 4
Article Sources and ContributorsCosmos Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=442610414 Contributors: A Macedonian, A930913, Aethralis, Alansohn, All Is One, Allraoul, Altenmann, Ancientmacedon, AndreEngels, Arcendet, AtmanDave, AxelBoldt, Bamos, Being blunt, Bigwyrm, Bkonrad, Bogey97, BostonMA, BruceDLimber, Brumi, Bryan Derksen, Burntsauce, C1k3, CalicoCatLover, Carnby,Ceyockey, Cgmusselman, Chameleon, ChangChienFu, Chaos, CommonsDelinker, Copymates, Cybercobra, Cynwolfe, Cyrius, DJProFusion, Darknext, David R. Ingham, Dazedbythebell,Dbachmann, Dialectric, Dna-webmaster, Don Braffitt, Doulos Christos, Dust Filter, DwightKingsbury, EME44, Eb.hoop, El C, Eleuther, Eloquence, Facius, Falcon8765, Faramir1138, Fconaway,Feeeshboy, Feelin420247, Felipe P, Filemon, Fizan, Foobaz, GB fan, Gene s, Gianfranco, Goethean, GrahamN, Grendelkhan, Greyhood, Headbomb, Hiltonbooks, IPSOS, Iam on andromeda, IsMise, IvanLanin, JJ Harrison, JMK, Jeffloveswaffles, Jimp, Kariteh, Keraunos, Kku, Kostisl, Kungfuadam, Liquorthief, Luk, Markmark12, Maurice Carbonaro, MaxErdwien, Mbell,Merovingian, Michael Hardy, Mietchen, Monkeykiss, Mr Stephen, Mr.chewy, Muke, Music Sorter, Nagelfar, Nataly8, Newone, NexCarnifex, NickelShoe, Nlu, OP8, Olmer, Pjacobi, Podzemnik,RDF, RJBurkhart3, RandomCritic, Ras, Raven in Orbit, Reaverdrop, Redheylin, Retiono Virginian, Saberlotus, Sam Korn, SheikYerBooty, Siddharth Prabhu, Sj, Smilo Don, SoCalSuperEagle,Stepa, SteveMcCluskey, Strait, Susyr, TeleComNasSprVen, Template namespace initialisation script, Theathenae, Thumperward, Tide rolls, Tokle, Trevor MacInnis, Tyrenius, Vanished User0001, VanishedUser314159, Versageek, Viriditas, WHEELER, Weetoddid, Wertuose, Yidisheryid, Zorio, , , 129 anonymous edits
Image Sources, Licenses and ContributorsImage:Ptolemaicsystem-small.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ptolemaicsystem-small.png License: Public Domain Contributors: FastfissionImage:Hubble ultra deep field high rez edit1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Hubble_ultra_deep_field_high_rez_edit1.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:NASA and the European Space Agency. Edited by Noodle snacksImage:Flammarion.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flammarion.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Dbachmann, Diego pmc, Kersti Nebelsiek, Kugland,Leinad-Z, Martin H., Mladifilozof, Mu, Pieter Kuiper, Ragesoss, Tales23, W!B:, Warburg, 8 anonymous editsImage:WMAP 2003.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:WMAP_2003.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Chrisbrl88 at en.wikipediaLater version(s) were uploaded by Khailarkin, Papa November at en.wikipedia.
LicenseCreative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unportedhttp:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/
CosmosPhilosophy Theology Cosmology Integral Philosophy Ancient Greek conception of the cosmos Age and size of the cosmos ReferencesExternal links