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1 P21- Class 21: Outline Hour 1: Expt. 9: Faraday’s Law Hour 2: Faraday’s Law Transformers Magnetic Materials

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### Transcript of Class 21: Outline - MIT OpenCourseWareClass 21: Outline Hour 1: Expt. 9: Faraday’s Law Hour 2:...

1P21-

Class 21: Outline

2P21-

3P21-

BdNdt

ε Φ= −

Changing magnetic flux induces an EMF

Lenz: Induction opposes change

4P21-

What can change?

θε =−Quantities which can vary with time:

• Magnitude of B• Area A enclosed by the loop• Angle θ between B and loop normal

6P21-

Example: Magnitude of B Magnet Falling Through a Ring

Falling magnet approaches a copper ringor Copper Ring approaches Magnet

7P21-

Moving Towards Dipole

Move ring

down

As ring approaches, what happens to flux?

It increases

8P21-

Moving Over Dipole

Move down

Flux

Flux increases then decreasesNote we have arbitrarily assigned dA

up

9P21-

Moving Over Dipole

Current

CW

CCW

Move down

Current first goes in one direction, then other

It ALWAYS opposes the changing flux

10P21-

Five PRS Questions:Predictions for Experiment 9

11P21-

12P21-

CURRENT

FLUX

Imperfectcurrent 0

13P21-

Four PRS Questions:Force on A Loop Below Magnet

Moving Upward;Moving Rail;

Moving Rectangle near Wire;Generator.

14P21-

Brakes

15P21-

Magnet Falling Through a Ring

What happened to kinetic energy of magnet?

16P21-

Eddy Current Braking

http://demoroom.physics.ncsu.edu/html/demos/163.html

What happened to kinetic energy of pendulum?

17P21-

Eddy Current Braking

http://demoroom.physics.ncsu.edu/multimedia/video/5K20.22.1.MOV

What happened to kinetic energy of disk?

18P21-

Demonstration:Eddy Current Braking

19P21-

Eddy Current BrakingThe magnet induces currents in the metal that

dissipate the energy through Joule heating:

ω 1. Current is induced counter-clockwise (out from center)

2. Force is opposing motion (creates slowing torque)

XXXX

20P21-

Eddy Current BrakingThe magnet induces currents in the metal that

dissipate the energy through Joule heating:

ω 1. Current is induced clockwise (out from center)

2. Force is opposing motion (creates slowing torque)

3. EMF proportional to ω4. . 2

RF ε∝

XXXX

22P21-

PRS Questions:Loop in Uniform Field

23P21-

Mutual Inductance

24P21-

Mutual Inductance

1 12 12 2

1 1212

2

N M INM

I

Φ ≡Φ

→ =

212 12

dIdt

Mε ≡ −

12 21M M M= =

A current I2 in coil 2, induces some magnetic flux Φ12 in coil 1. We define the flux in terms of a “mutual inductance” M12:

25P21-

Demonstration:Remote Speaker

26P21-

TransformerStep-up transformer

Bs s

dNdt

ε Φ=

Bp p

dNdt

ε Φ=

s s

p p

NN

εε =

Ns > Np: step-up transformerNs < Np: step-down transformer

27P21-

Demonstrations:

One Turn Secondary:Nail

28P21-

Transmission of Electric Power

Power loss can be greatly reduced if transmitted at high voltage

29P21-

Example: Transmission linesAn average of 120 kW of electric power is sent from a power plant. The transmission lines have a total resistance of 0.40 Ω. Calculate the power loss if the power is sent at (a) 240 V, and (b) 24,000 V.

5

2

1.2 10 5002.4 10

P WI AV V

×= = =

×(a)

83% loss!!2 2(500 ) (0.40 ) 100LP I R A kW= = Ω =

5

4

1.2 10 5.02.4 10

P WI AV V

×= = =

×(b)

0.0083% loss2 2(5.0 ) (0.40 ) 10LP I R A W= = Ω =

30P21-

Magnetic Materials

31P21-

Recall Polar Dielectrics

Dielectric polarization decreases Electric Field!

32P21-

Para/Ferromagnetism

Applied external field B0 tends to align the atomic magnetic moments

33P21-

Para/Ferromagnetism

The aligned moments tend to increase the B field

0mκ=B BEκ

= 0EECompare to:

34P21-

Para/Ferromagnetism

Paramagnet: Turn off B0, everything disordersFerromagnet: Turn off B0, remains (partially) ordered

This is why some items you can pick up with a magnet even though they don’t pick up other items

35P21-

Magnetization Vector

M=0 M>0Useful to define “Magnetization” of material:

1

1 N

iiV V=

= =∑ µM µ 0 0µ= +B B M

36P21-

Hysteresis in FerromagnetsThe magnetization M of a ferromagnetic material depends on the history of the substance

Magnetization remains even with B0 off !!!