Chaipattana tsunami

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Transcript of Chaipattana tsunami

  • 1. ISBN 974-229-727-4 2548 10,000 Tsunami: The Great Waves U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, UNESCO/Intergovernmental Oceanograhic Commission, International Tsunami Information Center,Laboratoire de Geophysique, France112 12120 02-564-6900 02-564-6901 10300 1

2. ..................................................................................................................................................1 ........................................................................................................................................................2 .............................................................................................................................................3 ..................................................................................................................................................5? .................................................................................................................6 .........................................................................................................................8 ..................................................................................................................... 10 ................................................................................................................................... 12 ............................................................................................. 14 .................................................................................................................. 16 ...................................................................................................................................... 17 ................................................................................................................................ 20 (..)11 3. 26 .. 2547 221,000 () Tsunami: The Great Waves ( 2002) U.S. National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) UNESCO/Inter-governmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), International Tsunami Information Center(ITIC) Laboratoire de Geophysique, France (LDG) - .. 2547 19 .. 254822 4. amplitude () Asthenosphere Broad-Band Seismic Station deep ocean trenches DART Deep-Ocean Assessment and Reporting on Tsunamis epicenter fault focus ITIC International Tsunami Information Center (/) inundation Lithosphere Lithospheric plates magnitude ( ) Ocean-bottom pressure sensors PMEL Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory Plate boundary () Plate Tectonics propagation Ring of Fire runup Russia Hydrometeorological Service seafloor seismic sea waves Seismic wave seismometer SNAM Sistema Nacional de Alarma de Maremotos spreading plate boundaries () 3 5. subduction plate boundaries () The Centre Polynesien de Prevention des Tsunamis IOC The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission ICG/ITSUThe International Coordination Group for the Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific JMA The Japan Meteorological Agency PTWCThe Richard H. Hagemayer Pacific Tsunami Warning Center TWSPThe Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific USGSThe U.S. Geological Survey NOS The U.S. National Ocean Service WC/ATWC The U.S. West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center UHSLC The University of Hawaii Sea Level Center NOAAThe US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration tide gauge instrument transformed plate boundaries Tsunami detection buoy Tsunami Earthquakes aamplitude (H/L) L wavelength (a)H waveheight ( 2 ) wave steepness H/L() (H)( slope ) Tperiod ffrequency () (L) (Hz) cspeed ( ) 4 6. (The Richard H. Hagemayer Pacific Tsunami Warning Center: PTWC) (The Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific: TWSP) (The International Tsunami Information Center: ITIC) 800 ( 500 ) (1 ) () 100 (60 ) 10 1 (30 ) 30 (100 ) 3-6 () (Hilo) 1 1946 (Aleutian Islands) 1990 ( 1990-1999) (Brigham Victory) 10 4,000 1 1,000 (Flores) ( NOAA) 1992 2,200 (Aitape) 1998 PTWC 1 (4 ) 80 30 1995 A (Antofagasta) 1 - 3 (French Polynesia) W (West) = S (South) = 1 5 26 2004 7. (seismic sea waves) (tidal wave) ( ) () (Krakatau) (plate tectonics) 1883 40 (lithospheric plates) 70-250 (40-150 ) 30,000 (asthenosphere) 10 (plate boundary) ( ) 26 1983 5.9 (19 ) 100 14 (45 ) 3 (1) (spreading) 100 3 (2) (subduction) ( ) (3) (transform) 80 (subduction zone) (deep ocean trenches) () ( (the Ring of Fire)) ( 70 () 42 ) () () (fault) 3 (Crust) (Mantle) (Core) 2 (1) (Lithosphere) 70-250 (40-150 ) (2) (Asthenosphere) 6(Magma) 100-350 8. 2 1992 ( magnitude 7.2 ) (fault) (severity of shaking) 2 3 ( 1 12) 20-70 4 (13 ) 10.7 seismic moment (35 ) ( 50 ) 2 2 1994 21 1996 (focus) ( ) (seismic wave) (epicenter) (magnitude) (logarithm) (amplitude)2 (seismometer) : (El Transito) 1 1992 9 10 (SEA SURFACE) = 9 1,000 16 8 100 7 (SEAFLOOR) = 151 (FAULT) = 40,000 2 2 (1) (compressional wave) (primary wave: P-Wave) ( Harry Yeh ) (2) (shear wave) (secondary wave: S-Wave) 7 ( 28 ) 9. ( 20-30 ) 1960 1995 21 1996 (The Great Alaskan Earth- quake) 1964 10.6 . 1993 120 213 . 23 . 3 22 10 . 50 . (regional event) 4,000 . () (./.) (.) 7000943282 1990 ( 1990-1999) 4000713213 (1992) (1994) 2000504151200159 48 (1998) (1996) 507923 1036 10.6 (1995) (Pagaraman) (Babi Island) 12 1992 (1 ) (Marquesas Islands) 700 30 ( Harry Yeh )8 10. ? 6,000 300 (1,000 ) 800 (500 ) ? ? 500 3-4 15 (50 ) 30 (100 ) (Epicenter) (Tide Stations)E (East) = W (West) = 26 1983 (Noshiro) () (tide gauge instrument) 9 11. 27 1964 (Kodiak) 21 30 (1,200 ) (International Tsunami Information Center - ITIC) ITIC (Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission: IOC) (TWSP) ITIC (The Wave) (Lucas Rawah) (Aitape) ITIC 17 1998 7.1 10 12. (PTWC) (The Intergovernmental 1965 Oceanographic Commission: IOC) PTWC PTWC (The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural TWSP TWSP 100 Organization: UNESCO) ICG/ITSU (The U.S. Na- (The International Coordination Group for the Tsunami Warning System in the tional Ocean Service) WC/ATWC (The Pacific) University of Hawaii Sea Level Center) IOC 25 IOC / PTWC PTWC (The Japan Meteorological Agency) / / 150 (Sea of Japan) (East Sea) (The U.S. Geological Survey) (The Centre Polynesien de Prevention des (Incorporated Research Institutions Tsunamis) 129 IOC for Seismology) International Deployment of Accelerometers GEO- Sistema Nacional de Alarma de Maremotos 2 SCOPE Russian Hydrometeorological Service (The U.S. West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center: WC/ATWC) IOC 2 WC/ATWC IOC IOC PTWC (The International Coordination Group for the Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific: ICG/ITSU) 1111 13. DART (Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting on TsunamiSystem) ( NOAA/PMEL) 1 1964 (Hilo) (: Bishop Museum) (broad-band seismic station) (PTWC) (emergency manager) / (all clear) 1212 14. (.) 30 1995 1500 seismic moment (source ( duration) ) (Tahauku) 1000 (ocean-bottom pressure sensors) (Hiva Hoa) (Marquesas Islands) (French Polynesia) 2 (real time) 500 (Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory: PMEL) NOAA (Tsunami detection buoy) 2003 7 9 0 0500 1000 1500 15 .. 2548 38 25 6 2 5 implicit-in-time finite difference method 2 .. 2550 (inundation) (Seismologists) 20-0.003 (broad band seismometer) (Richter) (surface wave) 7.5 The Seismic moment (Mo) Mo = S D1313 = rigidity S = D = 15. - - ! - 10 ( ! 30 ) - - - - 10 60 - ! - - - - 26 1983- - ( Public Works Research Institute- )- 14 14 16. - - - () ( ) - / ( - ) (Aonae) (Okushiri Island) 12 1993 120 () 30 1995 : (breakwater) (Tahauku Bay) (Marquesas Islands) (French Polynesia) : 15 51 17. (Ala Wai) (Kamchatka) 4 1952 ( Camera Hawaii) Oahu (Aleutian Island) 9 1957 ! ( Honolulu Star-Bulletin)1616 18. Ring of Fire : vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Imgs/Gif/PlateTectonics/Maps/map_ plate_tectonics_world.gif (spreading) : http://www.dnr.state.mo.us/geology/images/SpredZones.jpg/ http://www.dnr.state.mo.us/geology/images/SubdZone.jpg/ (subduction) 1998 / : http://epod.usra.edu/archive/images/tectonic_map.gif/ (70-250 ) 15 (Epicenter) (Eurasian Plate) (Indian Plate) (Nazca Plate) (Australian Plate) (Arabian Plate) (Caribbean Plate) (North American Plate) (Pacific Plate) (Juan de Fuca Plate) (Scotia Plate) (Philippines Plate) (Hypocenter Focus) (Antarctic Plate) (South American Plate) (Cocos Plate) (African Plate): 17 19. 26 .. 2547 26 .. 2547 (aftershock) 4 (thrust) (Strike-slip): U.S. Geographical Survey (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqinthenews/2004/usslav/tectsetting_lg.gif/) 18 20. (Ikonos) . ( ) 13 2003 ( 29 2004 3 6 26 2004) : Center for Remote Imaging, Sensing, and Processing (CRISP), National University, (http://www.crisp.nus.edu.sg/)19 21. : U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, http://www.noaa.gov/ National Weather Service, http://www.nws.noaa.gov/ . .. .. UNESCO, Intergovernmental Oceanic Commission, http://ioc.unesco.org/itsu/International Tsunami Information Center, http://www.prh.noaa.gov/itic/ Laboratoire de Geophysique, France : International Tsunami Information Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, http://www.prh.noaa.gov/itic/Laboratoire de Geophysique, FranceU.S. National Weather Service The Richard H. Hagemayer Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, http://www.prh.noaa.gov/ptwc/ The U.S. West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center, http://wcatwa.arh.noaa.org/ U.S. National Ocean Service, http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/ U.S. Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/pmel/Servicio Hidrografic y Ocenografic, Chile, http://www.shoa.cl/School of Ocean & Earth Science & Technology, University of Hawaii, http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/ http://www.nectec.or.th/ http://www.nstda.or.th/ , ICG/ITSU, ITIC, and Tsunamis : http://www.most.go.th/International Tsunami Information Center737 Bishop St., Suite 2200, Honolulu, HI 96813 USATel: 808-532-6422, fax: 808-532-5576 http://www.chaipat.or.th/EMAIL: [email protected] .. 2548http://www.prh.noaa.gov/itic/http://www.shoa.cl/oceano/itic/frontpage.html/UNESCO, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission1, rue Miollis75732 Paris Cedex 15FranceEMAIL: [email protected]://ioc.unesco.org/itsu/Illustrations and Layout by Joe Hunt Design, Honolulu, Hawaii, and ITICBackground images and wave logo courtesy of Aqualog, FranceRevised and Reprinted, May, 2002 20 22. () (National Weather Service) (StormReady) ? ( SMS) ( ) ? 26 .. 2547 () 200521