Cell Biology

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Cell Biology. Prokaryotic Cell Small ~ 1-2 µm 01-50 µm Max.? Min.? No Nucleus Little Internal Structure Some are Motile Unicellular or Cluster. Eukaryote 10-200 μ m. Nanobacteria. 0.1 μ m 10 4 – 10 5 /ml Ocean waters 0.15 μ m minimum size?. Always Exceptions? Max? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Cell Biology

  • Cell BiologyProkaryotic CellSmall ~ 1-2m01-50 mMax.? Min.?No NucleusLittle Internal StructureSome are MotileUnicellular or ClusterEukaryote 10-200 m

  • Nanobacteria0.1 m104 105 /mlOcean waters0.15 m minimum size?

  • Always Exceptions? Max?E. fishelsoni - 600mMultiple genomes

  • Cell ShapesBacillusCoccusSpirillumSpirochetesAppendaged

  • Cell ClustersPairs DiploDiplococcusChains Strepto..StreptococcusOthers Staphylococcus

  • Cytoplasmic MembranePhospholipid BilayerNo SterolsBacteria & EukaryotesEster linkagesArchaeaEther linkageLipid monolayerThermophiles

  • Membrane FunctionDiffusion osmotic pressureSelective PermeabilityTransport ProteinsSimple Transport proton motive force

  • Group TranslocationGlucose PEP PyruvateGlucose - 6 - PO4 Transport linked to first step of Glycolysis

  • ABC System TransportPeriplasmic-binding proteinMembrane-spanning proteinKinase

  • ExportTranslocaseSignal sequenceExoenzymesToxins

  • Bacterial Cell WallPeptidoglycan, Murein Layer

    n-acetylglucosamine n-acetylmuramic acid 1-4 Linkage Peptide Cross Links

  • Diaminopimelic acid - all G-Lysine - most G+d-Alanine, d-Glutamic acid

  • Gram Positive Cell Wall Multi-Track layer25 layersTeichoic AcidLysozymeProtoplastAutolysins

  • Teichoic Lipoteichoic acid

  • Gram PositiveGram Negative

  • Gram Negative EnvelopeOuter MembraneLipopolysaccharidesPeptidoglycanPeriplasmic spaceCytoplasmic Membrane

  • Gram Negative Outer MembraneLipopolysaccharidesEndotoxinsPyrogens -Lipid ACore PolysaccharideO PolysaccharidePorinsPeriplasmic Space

  • Archaea Cell WallPseudopeptidoglycan 1-3 linkagesN acetyltalosaminuronic acidS-Layer - most common

  • Prokaryotic DNAClosed CirclesE. coli chromosome has 4.6 million Bases SupercoiledHaploid Sometimes Plasmids

  • Outer SurfaceFlagellaPili - FimbriaeCapsuleSlime LayerGlycocalyx

  • FlagellaPolar flagellaLophotrichousPeritrichous flagellaFlagellinSelf Assembly

  • Inclusion BodiesPoly--Hydroxybutyric AcidGlycogen

  • Polyphosphate Metachromatic granules

    Sulfur

  • MagnetosomesVaried morphology

  • Gas VesiclesProtein coat

  • EndosporesMost Resistance CellWithstand BoilingFormed in CellsContains Calcium dipicolinic Acid 10%

    Bacillus & Clostridium

  • Endospores need 200 genes

    May live?250 million years

  • TaxisChemotaxisTumbles RunsPhototaxisMagnetotaxisGliding?Twitching

  • Eukaryotic CellsContains OrganellesNucleusMitochondriaChloroplasts

  • Endosymbiotic Theory

  • Cell Biology Word List

    Prokaryotic0.1-50mTransportCell Shape600m Max?ProteinsBacillusCytoplasmicGroup CoccusMembraneTranslocationSpirillumPhospholipidsCell WallSpirocheteBilayerPeptidoglycanAppendagedSterolsN-acetyl-Strepto, Diplo,ArchaeaglucosamineStaphylo.Ether-linksN-acetyl-Size?Permeabilitymuramic acid

  • Cell Biology Word List 2

    PeptideArchaeaCore Poly- Cross-linksPseudo-saccharideDiamino-peptidoglycanPorinspimelic acidGram -PeriplasmicD-AlanineLipopoly- Space 1-4 linkagesaccharideAutolysinGram+Outer Prokaryotic Teichoic acid Membrane DNALysozymeEndotoxinClosed CirclesProtoplastLipid A4.6X106Bases

  • Cell Biology Word List 3

    SupercoiledPhototaxisAcidHaploidMagnetotaxisGlycogenPlasmidsPili, FimbriaePoly-FlagellaCapsule, phosphatePolar FlagellaGlycocalyxMetachromaticPeritrichousSlime layer granulesFlagellinInclusion SulfurSelf-Assembly BodiesMagnetosomesChemotaxisPoly--Gas VesiclesTumbles-RunshydroxybutyricEndospores

  • Cell Biology Word List 4

    EndosporesEndosymbiotic DipicolinicTheory AcidEukaryotic OrganellesNucleusMitochondriaChloroplasts