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Culture & Civilisations [CLS 30105]Project #02: Messages From The PastGroup Component: Report


Group Members:

Natalie Ki (0318918)Ameer Farhan (0319304)Naim Ariffin (0319698)Ryan Kerry (0318715)Philia Chua (0318936)Andrew Mah (0318798)Kan Sook San (0319326)Ricco Soh (0319890)Darshiini Vig (0319359)Chai Chin Ee (0907p72950)

ResearchI. On Greece

GREECE ()Greece, who's official name is "Hellenic Republic" or ''Hellas'', is a country in Southern Europe.

The population density of Greece is roughly 11 million people and it's capital city is called ''Athens''

Modern Greece is a democratically developed country with an advanced 'high-income economy' The technological and culture developments of this country has influenced the world vastly - with many aspects of the Greek civilizations being passed onto the East through Alexander the Great.

Etymology of GREECEThe names for the nations of Greece differ from the names used in different languages, locations and cultures. The locals of Greece refer the it as " (Hellas)" or " (Ellada)", although it's official name is "Hellenic Republic". In English, the term "Greece" comes from the Latin word "Graecia", which loosely means "The Land of the Greeks" (as used by the Romans).

GREECE'S FlagThe motto of Greece is " " which traditionally translates to "Freedom or Death" The national anthem " " means "Hymn to Liberty"

AccoplishmentsIt is considered an vastly influential country that has helped shape Western civilization. Greece is also the birthplace of: - Democracy - Western Philosophy & Literature - Olympic Games - Historiography & Political Science - Major scientific and mathematical discoveries - Elements of Western drama such as tragedy and comedy.

Modern Day Greece

The ParthenonThe Parthenon was temple that was dedicated to Athena. It is located on the Acropolis in Athens. It is one of the most representative symbols of the culture and sophistication of the ancient Greeks and a wonder of architecture.

Timeline & Notable ErasModern Greece traces its roots back to Ancient Greece, which began in the Aegean Civilizations of the Bronze Age. There are many notable ages throughout Greece's history. These are sorted out into four major eras with periods in between:

1. GREEK BRONZE AGE: - Helladic - Cycladic - Minoan - Mycenaean2. ANCIENT GREECE: - Greek Dark Ages - Archaic Greece - Classical Greece - Hellenistic Greece - Roman Greece 3. MEDIEVAL GREECE: - Byzantine Greece - Frankish and Latin Greece - Ottoman Greece4. MODERN GREECE: - Kingdom of Greece - Second Hellenic Republic - Third Hellenic Republic

ERA #01: Greek Bronze AgeThe Greek Bronze Age comes after the Neolithic period. Evidence of this period are still unclear due to the large amount of passing time. The period of 'Greek Bronze Age' is commonly known as the 'Aegean civilization'. The name of this era stems from the three distinct geographical regions of the birth of the civilization: Greek mainland, Crete and Cyclades. The movement of these three regions are split as follows:

Mainland - Early Helladic (EH): 3200/31002050/2000 BCE - Middle Helladic (MH): 2000/19001550 BCE - Late Helladic (LH): 15501050 BCE Crete- Early Minoan (EM): 36502160 BCE - Middle Minoan (MM): 21601600 BCE - Late Minoan (LM): 16001170 BCE Cyclades - Early Cycladic (EC): 33002000 BCE - Kastri (EH IIEH III): ca. 25002100 BCE - Convergence with MM from ca. 2000 BCE

Notable events of the Bronze Age are: - Houses of Vasiliki and Myrtos- Messara Tholoi- House of Tiles at Lerna - Destruction of Minoan settlements - Eruption of Thera volcano (sometime between 1627 and 1600) - "Sea Peoples" begin raids in the Eastern Mediterranean - Trojan War (1250 or 1210) - Destruction of many Mycenaean palaces- Doric Invasions? (1200-1100)- Sea Peoples (1200-1100) Legends: - Argo Voyag - Heracles Oedipus

ERA #02: Ancient GreeceAncient Greece is a period in time of Greece's rich history that lasted during the Archaic Period of the 8th to the 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. It is considered the most eventful period of Greece's background and includes many conquests.

The period of Ancient Greece is split into 5 ages: The Archaic Period - c. 800 c. 500 BC - in which artists made larger free-standing sculptures in stiff, hieratic poses with the dreamlike "archaic smile". - Often taken to end with the overthrow of the last tyrant of Athens and the start of Athenian Democracy in 508 BC The Classical Period - c. 500 323 BC - Characterized by a style which was considered by later observers to be exemplary or 'classical' (timeless), for example, the Parthenon. - The Classical Period was dominated by Athens and the Delian League during the 5th century, but displaced by Spartan Hegemony during the early 4th century BC, before power shifted to Thebes and the Boeotian League and finally to the League of Corinth led by Macedon. The Hellenistic Period - 323146 BC - Greek culture and power expanded into the near and middle East. - This period begins with the death of Alexander and ends with the Roman conquest. Roman Greece -The period between Roman victory over the Corinthians at the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC and the establishment of Byzantium by Constantine as the capital of the Roman Empire in AD 330. Antiquity and Christianization - later 4th to early 6th centuries AD - Taken to be complete with the closure of the Academy of Athens by Justinian I in 529.

Notable events of Ancient Greece: - Destruction of Miletus and resettlement - First Olympic Games - Greek colonies established in Southern Italy & Sicily - Invention of Greek alphabet - Homeric poems recorded in writing (750-700) - First Messenian War Sparta invades Messenia (730-710)Naxos founded (734) Syracuse founded (733) - Second Messenian War- Sparta invades Messenia (640-630)- Cyrene founded (630) - Pythagoras (ca. 569-475) born in Samos - Solon replaces the Draconian law in Athens and lays the foundation for Democracy.He introduced to Athens the first coinage and a system of weights and measures - Pesistratos becomes tyrant of Greece. - Pesistratos dies. His sons become tyrants of Athens. - Alcmaeonid family and Spartans free Athens from tyranny.- Introduction of Democracy in Athens - Battle of Marathon- Athenians defeat Darius and his Persian army - Battle of Thermopylae- Persians burn the Acropolis - Peloponnesian Wars: "First Peloponnesian War" - Acropolis and other major building projects begin in Athens - Construction of Parthenon (449-432)- Sophocles produces the tragedy "Ajax" - Construction of Temple of Athena Nike (420-410) - Athens surrenders to Sparta- Thirty tyrants rule Athens - Alexander the Great defeats Persian army at Granicus river in Anatolia - Death of Alexander the Great - Macedonian War - Death of Cleopatra

ERA #03: Byzantine EmpireThe Byzantine Empire is sometimes called the 'Eastern Roman Empire', and was predominantly the Greek-speaking continuation of the eastern part of the Roman Empire during the Late Antiquity and Middle Ages. The capital city during that time was Constantinople (modern day Istanbul).

- Partition of Roman Empire285 - Founding of Constantinople330 - Death of Theodosius I395 - Nominal end of Western Empire476 - Fourth Crusade1204 - Reconquest of Constantinople1261 - Fall of Constantinople29 May 1453 - Fall of Trezibond15 August 1461

ERA #04: Modern The history of Modern Greece covers the history of Greece from the recognition of its autonomy from the Ottoman Empire by the Great Powers. (Great Britain, France, Russia) in 1828, after the Greek War of Independence, to the present day.

II. On Movies

Paris abducts the wife of Menelaus and becomes her lover, prompting the 10-year Trojan WarThe battle between the ancient kingdom of Troy and Sparta

The battle between the Spartans and the Persians.Perseus leads a band of warriors to prevent Hades from overthrowing theking of the gods and laying waste to Earth.

II. On Literary Works

Iliad (Homers epic poem)Iliad, also known as Song of Ilion, was a poem written about the Trojan War, by the epic Grecian poet Homer.

The first few lines in Book I of Iliad:

The following books are all available at Taylors Universitys Lakeside Campus, and have been personally reviewed to aid with the development of our script, costume and props:

Title: Trojan horse : the world's greatest adventure

This book helped us review the overall plotline of the Trojan War, and the significance of the Trojan horse, as well as the meaning behind it.Visual accuracy was also obtained through the pictures that were provided between the texts.Clement-Davies, David.

Title: The Iliad

By glancing through this book, we were able to pick up the dialogue that was significant to the story and implement it into our script. We were also able to correct the errors that were made from re-written passages of the Trojan War, thus improving the accuracy.Homer.

Title: The ancient Greek world

This book was mainly used to analyse the culture, tradition, lifestyle, social strata, cuisine, language and history of the Ancient world.Pictures were provided as well as descriptions to help us get the idea of what Greece was like during the Bronze Age.A timeline was also included to help us organise the sequence of events for our script.Roberts, Jennifer Tolbert.

Title: Ancient Greece

This particular book was very helpful. It was a summarized version of the entire history of Ancient Greece, inclusive of the events leading up to the war, during, and after.As the language was simple to understand and the dialogue was not as complicated as the direct translation, it helped clear a lot of doubts.Kovacs, Charles

III. On Costumes & Props