Carbohydrates

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  • 1.

2.

    • C, H, O
    • :C x (H 2 O) y
    • C=O -
    • IUPAC
    • CO 2+ H 2 O + 2
    • 2-Carb-1.1. Carbohydrates
    • The generic term 'carbohydrate' includes monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides as well as substances derived from monosaccharides by reduction of the carbonyl group (alditols), by oxidation of one or more terminal groups to carboxylic acids, or by replacement of one or more hydroxy group(s) by a hydrogen atom, an amino group, a thiol group or similar heteroatomic groups. It also includes derivatives of these compounds. The term 'sugar' is frequently applied to monosaccharides and lower oligosaccharides. It is noteworthy that about 3% of the compounds listed by Chemical Abstracts Service (i.e. more than 360 000) are named by the methods of carbohydrate nomenclature .

3.

4. 1. 4. 3. 2. C=O : D-L- : : - - 5. : Tollens : Tollens : : : 2-10 : >10 5. D- L-

  • - :
  • D-
  • L-

-D- -D- - Fischer Haworth Cis- trans- 6.

  • C=O
  • - COOH
  • -OH
  • -
  • C=O
  • NH 2 , SH, X
  • -
  • -
  • C=O-
  • (/)
  • ()
  • /

7. 1. RCH=O+2 [Ag(+) OH()]RC(OH)=O+2 Ag ( metallic mirror )+H 2 O Tollens test Benedicts, Fellings - http://www.cem.msu.edu/~reusch/VirtualText/aldket1.htm#rx4 8. http://www.cem.msu.edu/~reusch/VirtualText/carbhyd.htm#carb1 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Glucuronic.png 9. http://www.cfs.purdue.edu/Class/F&n630/Virt_Class_2/CHOreactions.htm

  • ,

10. 2. D- D- () D-

11. 3. 4. (Williamson) 5. ( ) 12. 6. - : , , , , - - : S- : , , 13.

    • cola
  • Maillard

14. Maillard reactions 1. : - 2.Amadori 15. A ( Maillard reaction) 3. 16. A ( Maillard reaction) 3. 4. Strecker 17. D- D- D- , , , , , 12 18. . , , , , 19. () 20. - (- D-1,4), 20% , 80% (- D-1,4) - (- D-1,6) MB=10000-50000 MB=50000-300000 21.

  • ( Retrogradation)

gel formation 22. (- D-1,4) ( -1,4) 23.

  • (Maillard)
    • : , , ,
    • :

24. ()

    • : 100 ()
    • :70
  • 2

25. ()

  • ( ) .
  • ( , ).
  • . , , . .

http://www.kventouris.com/mesa.cfm?Level1=7&Level2=2&Level3=0&Level4=0&Level5=0&Level6=0 26. () . , 72 75 76 71 68 FANTA 61 67 57 51 44 34 all bran 27 (40

    • 80%

32.

  • : 0,7-1,2mg/ml
  • :

33.

34.

  • , , ,
  • 60-70%
  • (10-20%)