CARBOHYDRATE DIGESTION & METABOLISM. Definition Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή...

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Transcript of CARBOHYDRATE DIGESTION & METABOLISM. Definition Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή...

  • Slide 1
  • CARBOHYDRATE DIGESTION & METABOLISM
  • Slide 2
  • Definition Metabolism (from Greek: "metabol", "change" or Greek: metabolismos, "outthrow") is the set of chemical reactions that happen in the cells of living organisms to sustain life.Greek chemical reactionsorganisms These processes allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments. Metabolism is usually divided into two categories. Catabolism breaks down organic matter, for example to harvest energy in cellular respiration.Catabolismcellular respiration Anabolism uses energy to construct components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. Anabolismproteinsnucleic acids
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  • Chemical Reaction The chemical reactions of metabolism are organized into metabolic pathways, in which one chemical is transformed through a series of steps into another chemical, by a sequence of enzymes.metabolic pathwaysenzymes Enzymes are crucial to metabolism because they allow organisms to drive desirable reactions that require energy and will not occur by themselves, by coupling them to spontaneous reactions that release energy.energycouplingspontaneous reactions As enzymes act as catalysts they allow these reactions to proceed quickly and efficiently.catalysts Enzymes also allow the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes in the cell's environment or signals from other cells.regulationcell'ssignals
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  • Selective reaction The metabolism of an organism determines which substances it will find nutritious and which it will find poisonous. nutritiouspoisonous For example, some prokaryotes use hydrogen sulfide as a nutrient, yet this gas is poisonous to animals.prokaryotes The speed of metabolism, the metabolic rate, influences how much food an organism will require, and also affects how it is able to obtain that food.metabolic rate
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  • CARBOHYDRATE DIGESTION AMYLUM digestion by amylase enzyme
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  • Disaccharides digestion
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  • Glucose is the most important carbohydrate Glucose is the major metabolic fuel of mammals, except ruminants Monosaccharide from diet : - Glucose - Glucose - Fructose - Fructose - Galactose - Galactose Fructose and Galactose glucose at the liver
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  • Galactose Metabolism
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  • Fructose Metabolism
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  • Blood glucose carbohydrate metabolism exist are : 1. Glycolisis 1. Glycolisis 2. Glycogenesis 2. Glycogenesis 3. HMP Shunt 3. HMP Shunt 4. Oxidation of Pyruvate 4. Oxidation of Pyruvate 5. Krebs Cycle 5. Krebs Cycle 6. Change to lipids 6. Change to lipids Fasting blood glucose carbohydrate metabolism : 1. Glycogenolisis 1. Glycogenolisis 2. Gluconeogenesis 2. Gluconeogenesis
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  • GLYCOLISIS Glycolisis oxidation of glucose energy It can function either aerobically or anaerobically pyruvate lactate pyruvate lactate Occurs in the cytosol of all cell AEROBICALLY GLYCOLYSIS : Pyruvate Mitochondria oxidized to Asetil CoA Krebs Cycle Pyruvate Mitochondria oxidized to Asetil CoA Krebs Cycle CO2 + H2O + ATP CO2 + H2O + ATP
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  • Glycolisis
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  • Most of the reaction of glycolysis are reversible, except of three reaction : 1. Glucose Glucose-6-phosphate, catalyzed by Hexokinase / Glucokinase 1. Glucose Glucose-6-phosphate, catalyzed by Hexokinase / Glucokinase Hexokinase : - Inhibited allosterically by its product glucose-6-p - Inhibited allosterically by its product glucose-6-p - Has a high affinity for its substrate glucose - Has a high affinity for its substrate glucose - available at all cell, except liver and islet cell - available at all cell, except liver and islet cell
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  • Glucokinase : - available at liver and islet cell - available at liver and islet cell - in the liver to remove glucose from the blood after meal - in the liver to remove glucose from the blood after meal 2. Fructose-6-P Fructose-1,6-biP 2. Fructose-6-P Fructose-1,6-biP - catalyzed by Phosphofructokinase enzyme - catalyzed by Phosphofructokinase enzyme - Irreversible - Irreversible - Rate limiting enzyme in glycolysis - Rate limiting enzyme in glycolysis 3. Phosphoenolpyruvate Enol Pyruvate 3. Phosphoenolpyruvate Enol Pyruvate - Catalyzed by Pyruvate kinase enzyme - Catalyzed by Pyruvate kinase enzyme Oxidation of 1 mol glucose 8 mol ATP and 2 mol Pyruvate
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  • ANAEROBICALLY GLYCOLYSIS : - The reoxidation of NADH through the respiratory chain to oxygen is prevented - The reoxidation of NADH through the respiratory chain to oxygen is prevented - Pyruvate is reduced by the NADH to lactate, by Lactate dehidrogenase enzyme - Pyruvate is reduced by the NADH to lactate, by Lactate dehidrogenase enzyme Lactate dehydrogenase Lactate dehydrogenase Pyruvate + NADH + H + Lactate + NAD + - Oxidation 1 mol glucose via anaerobically glycolysis 2 mol ATP - Oxidation 1 mol glucose via anaerobically glycolysis 2 mol ATP
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  • ANAEROBICALLY GLYCOLYSIS : Respiratory chain is absence Respiratory chain is absence Reoxidation of NADH NAD + via Respiratory chain is inhibited Reoxidation of NADH NAD + via Respiratory chain is inhibited Reoxidation of NADH via lactate formation allows glycolysis to proceed in the absence of oxygen by regenerating sufficient NAD + Reoxidation of NADH via lactate formation allows glycolysis to proceed in the absence of oxygen by regenerating sufficient NAD +
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  • GLYCOLYSIS IN ERYTHROCYTE Erythrocyte lack mitochondria respiratory chain and Krebs cycle are absence Erythrocyte lack mitochondria respiratory chain and Krebs cycle are absence Always terminates in lactate Always terminates in lactate In mammals the reaction catalyzed by phosphoglycerate kinase may be bypassed by a process that catalyzed Biphosphoglycerate muta- In mammals the reaction catalyzed by phosphoglycerate kinase may be bypassed by a process that catalyzed Biphosphoglycerate muta- se se Its does serve to provide 2,3-biphosphoglycerate Its does serve to provide 2,3-biphosphoglycerate bind to hemoglobin decreasing its affinity for oxygen oxygen readily available to tissues bind to hemoglobin decreasing its affinity for oxygen oxygen readily available to tissues
  • Slide 18
  • GLYCOLYSIS IN ERYTHROCYTE
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  • OXIDATION OF PYRUVATE Occur in mitochondria Occur in mitochondria Oxidation of 1 mol Pyruvate 1 mol Asetyl- CoA + 3 mol ATP Oxidation of 1 mol Pyruvate 1 mol Asetyl- CoA + 3 mol ATP CH 3 COCOOH + HSCoA + NAD + CH 3 CO-SCoA + NADH CH 3 COCOOH + HSCoA + NAD + CH 3 CO-SCoA + NADH (Pyruvate) (Asetyl-CoA) (Pyruvate) (Asetyl-CoA) Catalyzed by Pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme Catalyzed by Pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme This enzyme need CoA as coenzyme This enzyme need CoA as coenzyme In Thiamin deficiency, oxydation of pyruvate is impaired lactic and pyruvic acid In Thiamin deficiency, oxydation of pyruvate is impaired lactic and pyruvic acid
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  • OXIDATION OF PYRUVATE
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  • GLYCOGENESIS Synthesis of Glycogen from glucose Synthesis of Glycogen from glucose Occurs mainly in muscle and liver cell Occurs mainly in muscle and liver cell The reaction : The reaction : Glucose Glucose-6-P Glucose Glucose-6-P Hexokinase / Glucokinase Hexokinase / Glucokinase Glucose-6-P Glucose-1-P Glucose-6-P Glucose-1-P Phosphoglucomutase Phosphoglucomutase Glucose-1-P + UTP UDPG + Pyrophosphate Glucose-1-P + UTP UDPG + Pyrophosphate UDPG Pyrophosphorylase UDPG Pyrophosphorylase
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  • GLYCOGENESIS Glycogen synthase catalyzes the formation of - 1,4-glucosidic linkage in glycogen Glycogen synthase catalyzes the formation of - 1,4-glucosidic linkage in glycogen Branching enzyme catalyzes the formation of - 1,6-glucosidic linkage in glycogen Branching enzyme catalyzes the formation of - 1,6-glucosidic linkage in glycogen Finally the branches grow by further additions of 1 4-gucosyl units and further branching (like tree!) Finally the branches grow by further additions of 1 4-gucosyl units and further branching (like tree!)
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  • SYNTHESIS OF GLYCOGEN
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  • Slide 25
  • GLYCOGENESIS AND GLYCOGENOLYSIS PATHWAY
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  • Glycogenesis Glycogenolysis
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  • GLYCOGENOLYSIS The breakdown of glycogen The breakdown of glycogen Glycogen phosphorilase catalyzes cleavage of the 1 4 linkages of glycogen to yield glucose-1- phosphate Glycogen phosphorilase catalyzes cleavage of the 1 4 linkages of glycogen to yield glucose-1- phosphate (14)(14) glucan transferase transfer a trisaccharides unit from one branch to the other (14)(14) glucan transferase transfer a trisaccharides unit from one branch to the other Debranching enzyme hydrolysis of the 16 linkages Debranching enzyme hydrolysis of the 16 linkages The combined action of these enzyme leads to the complete breakdown of glycogen. The combined action of these enzyme leads to the complete breakdown of glycogen.
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  • GLYCOGENOLYSIS Phosphoglucomutase Phosphoglucomutase Glucose-1-P Glucose-6-P Glucose-1-P Glucose-6-P Glucose-6-phosphatase Glucose-6-phosphatase Glucose-6-P Glucose Glucose-6-P Glucose Glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme a spesific enzyme in liver and kidney, but not in muscle Glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme a spesific enzyme in liver and kidney, but not in muscle Glycogenolysis in liver yielding glucose export to blood to increase the blood glu- Glycogenolysis in liver yielding glucose export to blood to increase the blood glu- cose concentration cose concentration In muscle glucose-6-P glycolysis In muscle glucose-6-P glycolysis
  • Slide 29
  • GLUCONEOGENESIS Pathways that responsible for converting noncarbohydrate precursors to glucose or glycogen Pathways that responsible for converting noncarbohydrate precursors to glucose or glycogen In mammals occurs in liver and kidney In mammals occurs in liver and kidney Major substrate : Major substrate : 1. Lactic acid from muscle, erythrocyte 1. Lactic acid from muscle, erythrocyte 2. Glycerol from TG hydrolysis 2. Glycerol from TG hydrolysis 3.Glucogenic amino acid 3.Glucogenic amino acid 4. Propionic acid in ruminant 4. Propionic acid in ruminant
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  • Gluconeogenesis meets the needs of the body for glucose when carbohydrate is not available from the diet or from glycogenolysis Gluconeogenesis meets the needs of the body for glucose when carbohydrate is not available from the diet or from glycogenolysis A supply of glucose is necessary especially for nervous system and erythrocytes. A supply of glucose is necessary especially for nervous system and erythrocytes. The enzymes : The enzymes : 1. Pyruvate carboxylase 1. Pyruvate carboxylase 2. Phosphoenolpyruvate karboxikinase 2. Phosphoenolpyruvate karboxikinase 3. Fructose 1,6-biphosphatase 3. Fructose 1,6-biphosphatase 4. Glucose-6-phosphatase 4. Glucose-6-phosphatase
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  • GLUCONEOGENESIS
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  • GLUCONEOGENESIS FROM AMINO ACID
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  • GLUCONEOGENESIS FROM PROPIONIC ACID
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  • CORY CYCLE
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  • HMP SHUNT/HEXOSE MONO PHOSPHATE SHUNT = PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY An alternative route for the metabolism of glucose It does not generate ATP but has two major function : 1. The formation of NADPH synthesis of fatty acid and steroids 2. The synthesis of ribose nucleotide and nucleic acid formation
  • Slide 36
  • HMP SHUNT Active in : liver, adipose tissue, adrenal cortex, thyroid, erythrocytes, testis and lactating mammary gland Its activity is low in muscle In erythrocytes : HMP Shunt provides NADPH for the reduction of oxidized glutathione by glutathione reductase reduced glutathi- one removes H2O2 glutathione peroxidase
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  • HMP SHUNT Glutathione reductase G-S-S-G 2-G-SH (oxidized glutathione) (reduced glutathione) Glutathione peroxidase 2-G-SH + H2O2 G-S-S-G + 2H2O This reaction is important accumulation of H2O2 may decrease the life span of the erythrocyte damage to the membrane cell hemolysis
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  • HMP SHUNT
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  • Slide 40
  • BLOOD GLUCOSE Blood glucose is derived from the : 1. Diet the digestible dietary carbohy- drate yield glucose blood 2. Gluconeogenesis 3. Glycogenolysis in liver Insulin play a central role in regulating blood glucose blood glucose Glucagon blood glucose Growth hormone inhibit insulin activity Epinefrine stress blood glucose