Campus Life (November 2008)

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Issue No. 20

Transcript of Campus Life (November 2008)

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    fGh dUCG H dhdG hDdG

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    e H```dG b ```eL ```bhdG h```d ```bJG ```HcCG```je ```eL ```e ```OcCGhdG bJG ```Jh ```jdGdG Y H T IQcdG bhIQcdGh b eL FQ Gje ```eL FQ ```S ```aQOcCG G G```G OJdGh HdG GQjdGh dGh

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    . eG gJ dG jdGY K a S ```aQ IQcdG eCGY If ebh jd jG jQdGbdG Wh dhd G KEG

    eL dH dhJ ```dP Hh HeG ```J fEG ```db ```dG ```jeeSEG eG ie ```Y hCG dG dG V 230 bdG h H SQjh c 18 J gh ed 1600 H Ljh , dWh dW dCG 28IOH eG Jh jQJ g YdG jG ```He N ```e GHfjH ```jdG ```eG ```J

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    .aCG idG J Yb eL FQ ,```G T ```dbhP G Gg EG" SG g Nb eL ```H eh IL bd ```Lcc EG " ```aVCGh "cc ```cThHdG R```dG e c a ```YjJ EG j ce ```gh b ea edG idG jQJ h dG ```dGaSEH cc J c .RdG dG jQdG ```b eL W

    "jdGFf j hO ```dG b fL ```ehHG ```g EG cd ```dG ```jGdJ dG GOd ```a LJ JGSG ```N ```jJ ```cc

    FXdG e cCG OdG Jh Xd. cdH dG

    j HG ```cQG j hHJ dG h cc G ```edGdG h edG jeG jG eSGQO cQG a Y h (OSHA)gjJ h ```dM ```eG ```HGS c GG dG e HHG eG ```ac H cc

    aCG dG EG Ud cQd```ad ```cQG ```H ```a ```b hFdG ```SdG ```b a ```jGh ,dG ```HdG b Wh ,```FdGOa H dG cQG d UTCG K e J Y hCG qJ h cQG H j h ,bCG cc .2009 ```jj ```d ```jQGa HG ```a jFdG A```SCG S

    .2009 jHCG

    HG J He cc e JhedG ICGd FbdG

  • af af3

    De b eH HdG c YCGdd dG DG J Y ```UaCG ```YO f " QT ``` ,IGHdG h IAG```dG ae GQe ```d 17-18 dPh ,"QdG WCG id

    .G jjDG ":CH OU M.O VhCGhOJh b IjY kUa ```j SJ YOh ```jJ c ```M Q```aCG

    WCG i```d HdGh IAG```dG ```aeIc kUa j S fCG c ,QdGSQG aCG Y d cQdb e ```HdGh IAGdG ```ae ```d ```FNCGh A```dG R```HCG

    ."IG HdGh IAGdG aeHdG ```c f ```NBG ```Ve hdG A```YCG S ```dG ```MOU M.O H G CGH h ,OG

    L T ```dGh ,HdG ```c YREG G```gS jdG ```dG eYO h ,```VG d ```dG G```gCGh GgCG ``` ```cQd ```G

    .dG Gg jQedG AYCH O```U M .O MQheQ.O , Je e .O :gh , OG,```jfehQ ```je.Oh ,```Uf,```ja I```TQ.Oh ,Q```f ```.O he Re O .O h ,```c jH.OhdG b ```eh ,jHdG dG ```bh ,aa jOQ .O e c fG dGG d .Oh .K BG O```dG.O

    .dG HdG b OG ```Wa.O ```db ```gQhH hCH ```dG hDd ```YG ```dG ,jG dG ```e c OY ```SGj a ```dG G```gCG H e ```dCH aVCGh ,dG Gd ```dG hDHbdG IQGOEG e ```dH CGH dGLQG G h eH LQG

    .e IOjd eYEG M OGYE

    WG id IAGdG GQe bJ .. HdG

    M HcCG 15 fdG c fW jQJ dJ dG SDG diLh ,VG dG a N dGFQ G T QcdG QH Gg AYCG e OYh ,HGfh eG,YGdG cdG Y h jQdGfdG c d c G JhdN cG ``dGh dG M QcdG,dG ``fG````H dG g YY QbCGh e cCG HW dPh

    ,dG ffdG jdG e edGe ``fG``L ``Y dG QcdG `` hh ,jQdG c gG Gg.UdG TQdH gGh ,fdG

    dG G dG M QcdG ThHdG ``gh dG ``W jQJ dJS ,RZ SGQ ,cH JH ,edG,hd b ,dG GQhC``d MhdG

    .dG IQGRh ce

    fGG Y ddG K dP Hhe SDe c J dG jQdGQG jJ h ,SDG gAGS SDG g Y e fGHQhdG AL K ,UN CG eM fcGha eG SDG YAGOCG Y GKCGh fdG d gT Y,SDG J gOLh N dGe jG S gOGSG GYCG c

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  • af 4af

    GDGYHYYUDe 15 SdG ```c YCG IQGOEG LG efH ```WEG Y HcCGg LG ```efH jh ,```SG.SdG c ie Y Yf e hCG```J ```jQe ```efdG ```ajhdGh ,```eG Y ```f hCG```e ```ddG Q```j ,```dG ```f ```efdG CG ```c ,```de ```e ```SjHe QNG Ua ```ddG eCG ajh```e hG ```eL ```MhWCG ```J YS 31 ```e efdG Cjh ,```dOGeh ,SSCG ```e J ,edh ,jQNG GQ```eh ,```JdG fOG G ddG j LQO 520 ``` Y ```efdG . 2.8 Y j ```cGJ eh ,adGT.O HYCG dG DG jGH ,JOS ```Y ```eG ```FQ ```G```e ```j ```dGh ```efdG ```WEH,b eL ie Y IG eGdGY ```cCG c ,```dG c ```d ```hAGKEG gS ```dGh efdG gCG

    e j dGh ,```eH dG ```dG.Y H ```dhdGh ```eG ```jdhCGc Y M Re.O ```b fL ehgCG e ```j dG dG C```H ```SdGP```Jh ,```SdG ```c ```jdGeb ,```G Gg ```ee G```NSjQddG eGH dG IOYEH dG,```dhdG ```jd ```ah ,```gjJhOYG ```eGdG g e ```M MGg Yd ```dG eb ```c ,```OcGee H cGe AfEH dG LdGjb S c ,R```dG HCG ce e.SdG JG HG ce WEG```Sd ```dG Q```NG ```S ```Yh hCG ``` ```d ComputingCH ```b ```dG ```Le ```efHBG ```SG ```gCG EG ```Lj ```dG J fc ,```eG ```LdJhSSCG ```Y gh ,```LddG ```b,dG ```G ```dH ghY J ```dG CH ```M.O ```VCGh.iNCG LG eGH H SGQO```cP ```a ```Me ```b Q```cdG ```eCG

    C```H ```efdG ```Y ```jM ```Ve SCG ```e jdG ```j CG```H b ```dGb e ```efdG ```M GQ```SGhgCG Y cDj G```gh ,SQ ```j CGSh ,```G ```Jh ,```efdGSjQddG efH AGKEG Y efdGY YhQ :b.O ```VCGh ,```dG MGdG ```Y cdG ```efdG ```J,jdG ```MGdG ```e ```cCG ```dG edG ```G ```j ```c UhefdG ```jCGh ,SG ```Y .dG ```dG ```Yd c ```H ```e:Fb b.O ``` efdG H ```Yhf hCG ,```efdG jQe ```g,dG ```f dGh ,eG ```YHe Q```NG efdG ```dd ```jhh```e hCG ,```H ```MhWG ```J```Lj h```G ```Wh ,```d.h```H ```UN Q```NG R```L:b.O b efdG ```YS OY Yh ,e ```YS 31 e ```efdG ```dCj,OcCG eY Ie ```gDhfEG ```Yh ,```Fe G```VG ```ShddG j CG j :b dG hT LQO 520 ```M b efdH ```GY j ```cGJ ```eh ,```adG Z dG ```eCG e ```efdGh ,2.8M ,```SG ```Y ```G 12 e dCj gCJ ```efH OGYEG SGSQj ```jdG d ```SGQO ```YSHdG SGQdG GQ```Gh ```G ```eL ```LQO ```jd ```d ```hH d ,BG ```SG ```JaSh Gg ,d ```dH OcCG Li```e ```Y ```efd ```e ```dGHe e ```Y jCGh ,dGSh ,```OcG ```Nh ```efdGefdH dG ```W J AdG ```NBGh ,O```dG ```jj 15 ```e AG```HG. 2009 SQe 15 ```dG d ```Ye

    SG Le TJ SdG

  • af af55 af5

    eG Qhj jdG e ahH eSEG

    c H ```UGdGh h```dG Q```WEG eSEG eGh b eH jdGjdG ```c ahCG ```dG ```HPSCG ```e c eSEG ```SGQdGhb FQ ```T Y ``` Q```cdGPSCGh jdG ```H UCGh dGPSCG ```UY HCG ```S Q```cdGjPSCc ```jdG ```UCG H ```dGIdG N eSEG ```ed jFGR eb M 2008 ```ZCG 16-28 e dG G```VG e O```Y AdEH```Ueh ```UG ```eSEG ```dGYdG ```SdGh eSEG ```jdG.eYh ```jGh ```eYh ```dGhAYCG e GAd IY dG ah Y cY eSEG ```eH jQdG ```ga TdG QGO YLh Oa iec H G hdG VGe ```MbeHeSEGSGQdGhjdG. dH c jH eSEG eGh QT dG ddGh GQjdG OJ HIQjR e jdG c IJSCG aeSEGh jYdGh dG ```SDGdG jdGh ```YSCG ```GT(Gc)jHeSEGYGgQJ

    ie Y IjL ```dK JjL JhdCG (300) G```M e j M ```dG```dG A```fCG ```L R```Jh ```fAH IQjdG ```g NGh ,LQNheSEG eG ```je M jOJa ```jQdG ```g A```YCGh G```HjaG ```H G aVEG ,```dGhjdG bhCG IQGRh e eG EG/ QcdGh e Ye /QcdG :ghIY AdG Gg dCG bh dG XcOTQEGh LdGh dG dhJ cMhdG G I```JSCG OY ```bh,dhgT dGh dG Ye jjOH fc ```dG b ```eM Ke eb gCG e G ```SCG a dSDGh LG ```e jdG AH e OY ```J h , ```Gh ```dG. IQjdG g Y KCG dG UdGRHCG MCG H eSEG eG Jha dG ```eSEG ```G eadGh ```dG dY ```e Mh```e ```j ```dG G```g ```S hjd c e jW eSEG adGe b EG ```VGe ```e I```U. dG ```HL ```aGh ```dG ```b

    c je eSEG ```eG Jh je 8 f ```j dG dG ```HL Y 1950 ```S ```SCJ ```G edG MQ ```Y ```dG edG ```jAcCG IYdG OG```YEG e dG chjdGh ```YdG dH ```GdG AfEG ```fdG Y jGH ThSe ZGa ```J c d eSEGShCG ```H eSEG I```YdG ```M c AfEG ,1990 S T K A```dGOGYE ```dPh dG ```SGQd I```YdGIYdG HdG ```GHdGh ```adG ```a ```eSEG c 1993 S ```aG K ,dCdGhAcCG AY ```jJ H jdG ```UCGJObh eSEG eCG OTQE gDeJG 2000 ```Y h , jah ```YSJh dG gG g jH QGbeh eSEG eL AfEH eN 2003 S ```SQ eG ```aG KSj ```dG ```edG ```a Q```HVaCG AdG e jdGh hVdG. ```eSEG ```dG A```fCG ```ac ```e

  • af 6af

    cQj HW`d````H ``a````````e````G`dG I`d

    HW fCG

    G Qf MCG :jJIQhdG ```b ```eL ```W Q```THGOH j eG dCd ITdG - 6 He IdG dPh ,G UY cQT b b eL fch ,HcCG 10 ,IQhdG g ```ae dhO 25 VeL e c ```eG Y ```Vh,(ShQ) FdG Ldd dfeObGh Ldd HGOH eLhSGQd SGNH OcCGh ,(G)EG ```aVEH ,(```fehQ) ```jObG

    .b eLS Q```cdG QG ```adG ```SCGJhdG jG V dGh ,```jG gT

    ,Gh QGOG hD```G ,Y MQGOEG O```U ```jdG ```Y ```dGhOe dG ```jdG Q```eh ,eYEGhg W I```Y EG ```aVH ,```jhcQe A```L jdG ,jdG A```YCGIQU ```Jh ,G ```Md ```H gLGJ cCJh ,b eL Y WGM bh ,```dGh dhdG ```aGYLG ```Y L ```fG H dPhdG Yh ,adG G gM ```dGH dG ddG NGh VjdG

    .LQNh YG NGO HWHdG ```eG ja Ff ```Yh

    dG ```LGh d :Fb ```jh Oeeh ,ghOj ```dG Q```eCG H```dG ```Y ```dG EG ```gQGVGY Oe ja CG ```M ,ThGKCG KCG Ggh ,dG ```YG dGId LG HdG Y Te H,jdG I```b hCG ```bdG ```M e AG```SG I```dG M EG ```aVEH G```gEG aVEG ,```b e hY e ```Y fCG EG c Gg ZQh d ,iNCG Ge OGOj c gAGOCG CG ```MG e

    .IGQe c KEG

    c W O```f f```eH ```jdG```ddG I```d ```bMQ G```dG ```Y,```eQ I```YY SG ```dGh```jCG I```Y i```eI```dG ```N ,kG```H , 4/9 24/8 ```eHQCG MdG Jh```G ```g jOdG HdG

    eh FdGh IQG jGh VjdG.eG

    j ```U fG ```b ```MdG ```fchc M 24/8/2008 ```aGG MCGS QcdG ```e c dG GOh jdG ```d YG ```dG ```TdGbh ,QG MCG dGY PSCGhMdG cQG d c e ceQ IdG AGOCG a dN GHIQU d ed AGS fc gCGh

    .Y M

    HQCGh KG MdG g QT bhKKh eG ```c ```e kdWIQGOEG H ```LG LQO e W```JL ```YJ ```M O```bGhAG```LCG ```J h ,```G ```fGHhjdG e VjdG EG jW MdGe adGh ```adG ```aG ```eaG NGO ```ga Gah ```HeLGG Ghd ```MdG Gae ebG ```e kG```L G```dh ```dG ```H

    .adGh

    T ```jCG hCG h```c ```eQIdG ```MQ ```abSG Q```jdG fAGOC ```eG Hh ,IdG SeIU ```e A```fGd hC ```jhGdGR```J ,```eQ```HQCG EG ```dGc O```j YAYCG MCG ```YL O ```dG gh ```MdG IQGOEG dGYh ```c Hh ```UdGY

    .UdGY L MCGhGP jfCG e jdG W O```f jhjfG i```e ```Y ```G ```dGOdG jh ,```b eL ```HdGjdG c ```W ,HW ```eL f NGO eSEG SGQdGhY dG J ```jDhQ Odh ,bHGdG ```Y JJ ```aK ```H O```jEG

    .IOG QaCG YJh YdG

    eQ IY hODj eG W

  • af af7

    IjL IQhO AH VG HcCG T TYGPEG KCG Y J hD```T efH eIQGOEG J ```dG efdG ```jh ,bG```e ```eH ```LQG ```bdGMeh ,```jHdGh ```dG ```TdgGDhQh eG IQU jE YehCG G aSG ,G dFf QfCG ```Y.O HcCG ```T V eCG ,dG hDd eG FQhVdG dEG.O fa fdG Ga ,b eH jhdG AjdG PSCGb FQ OU jdGY PSCG cddGh ```YLGh ```dG dGV dGY ```Yh dGY MCGa HGdG ```G ```eCG ,ddG ```GYG ```dG ```jO.O aSG```jdG ```H ```OcCG hD```d

    .eSEG SGQdGhFQ ```Ff QfCG ```Y.O hhCG G dG hDd ```eG jb YHcCG 4 ```jQH efdG e

    .dG e Ye Yb J IceL dG ```jeh hT aeL C```H QfCG Y.O ```b bdG je J CG ```Y U b dG ```LQdG e ```e ```SJ ```dG ```je CG ```cCGh ,```dGJ b eL MdG efdG:jCG bh ,FdG fdG GdG jG g J CG Y k```FGO Uf dG ```LQdG e ```e SeJ eG ,```G dG ```eGdGjN e ```YCG a SG ```dG,eG b SS g ,jfdGIjY GS e Y Ie eGh

    .```efdG ```M GD```S ```Y OQ hC```H :Q```fCG.O ```b ```SCdG```fH ```d ```SCdG ```efdGe LGj W a ,```jQLEG

    ADg eh ,adG LQO Y ```GEG ,SCdG efdG Nj dG,SjQddG M ITe ```jdG ```jJ h```jj jdG ```dG ```eCGj ```dG AD```g e ,```jEG,```SCdG ```efd ```Nd ```UaUdG ```g QGSH ```eG JhjGh ,f ```ddG d S EGj SCdG ```efdG CH cdHY kjCGh H ,a jEG dG Y

    .BG SG GQeh VjdGddG ```e Y GDS ```M OQ h LQO 500 ``` e j ```b dGg G :```Y.O ```b ```adG eG ```HJ dG ```dG e ```dG ,adG 500 J eG ,QGSHGPEG dG e d ,U Ggj SCdG efdG ```ddG NOaVEH SCdG ```efdG RLG e eGh ,a adG LQO 450 EGeH GdG Y UG c jMCG dN e eG jJ Y LQN

    .Yf J J fCG cCJLGj ```jdG dG ```d dHh ```LQO 450 ```Y ```H ```e jW d Ea ,OLe Ggh adGH ,jJh dG ADg e HeLQdG ```Y G ```j ```fCG d ,adG LQO 450 `a ,HG

    . ddG LQdH```Y Q```fG ```Y Q```cdG O```Thd ```JGP ```H ```SCdG ```efdG CG,```jG ```g Q```LEG , k```jQLEGCG d ```ddG j CG ```j dG dGh ,SjQddG ```efH CGjj e g jG ```g j

    .SCdG efdHddG gj jCG M GDS Y OQ h hCG dG hT j dGe dCGh ,```SCdG efdG Rh```j

    eG gh ```b eL CG ```VGdG L ```J CG IMdG ```WdG

    .? Jje NG e jdG,Vhe ```fCH YCG :```Y.O LCG,J e eG qf CG dG ```ed dG ```G ```eG ```af fjG c ```J CG ```Y ```Vaj ,jfdG ```MG e jGhG jf ```fCG kVGh ```j CGEG ```eL ```jCG ```eG IO```dG,gCdG G```fCG e f hCG ,```gCJ gdh d kSe j b Gg gCdGh

    .d Se j CG IQhdHe GD```S GDdG G```g C```H YCG ```fCGY Of CG ```j bh K GDS ,kG```LGcQj CG j dG ,ee cHdG IQGRh ,GDdG Gg e Y OdHQJ CG j ```dG dGh dGhj d ```YCG ```G ,O```dG j b ```eL ,O```dG Q```j CGiNCG SDGh O```dG QJ CGfCH YCG,OdG QJ CG j dcJhe ```gCJ Ua aJ EG ```f

    .jfdG j jehhCG d SdG e ```c Y g CG c,gCdGh ```eG IO```dG ```H Ndh ,gCJ ```eL IOT c aIO```T ```g ```gCJ c CG IQh```dHIOdG Y ```H gCJ a ,```eLIOL Y ```J JLh ```eGdch , eG IOdG ```Y Yf heL jN c ```d SCd ```dfhh b eL d J dG Ggh ,gDejN j CG ```gh d H ```J

    .M gCJ gDe b eLec d ```SG dhdG jCG aj c ,eG be Y

    .bG Y d edG

    jdG eCG :c

    J hDT

    QfCG Y.O J hDT Y kV

  • af 8af

    ```Ybh ```eG G``` ```JIdG f H ```cM GVGgG e eGe ```dP JCjh ,I```NCGS Jh ,```dG dH ```dhdG dhdG ```fGe ```e 2.8% ```eCGj ```dG G```g h ,```dG ```d```dG IQGOEG ```je ```M ```eDe.OdG ```dG b eH ```OcCG,eG jDhQh ```dhdG SS e ALH jd ```UGeh I```c O```Gh

    .H Vd deh jQGOEG

    d IQGOEG C```fCG b ```eG fchdG ```dG Yd ```dPh , ```OcCGM ```eDe.O ```j ,b ```eL dSQ Y OcCG dG IQGOEG jeJ IQGOEG dSQ jDhQh IQGOEGe Leh e ```H H N XJ N e dG ```G jb

    .G e IOSGh OQGGYO e ,```Ye a aGgCG ```Y eCGV ,eG dG eGH jJhAGOCG ```jJh ,```dG HCG IO```L HCG Jh ,eG ```dG,WdG ```LMd G ```GSDe e H cG```T AH jCGhJh Sd GTDe Vhh ,GdH gGh FdG dG dGdG dG ```aK jJh ,```GGDGh Gh```dG ```ebEG ```N e

    Y QG ,eYEG Gh.dG eG f

    LGJ b ```dG ```HdG ```UHheL ```e dG :```b dG ```dGe ,Hh ```J ```eL EG ```Je j ,dGh IO```G Y aGYCG dh ,```LGf b dG ```jdGdG IQGOEG ```H ```dG ```MJ C```H```H h```dG hQ O```jEGh ```dGhGg ```f ```j ,```G GQGOEG

    .jdG e gZh dGeL dG ```dG bGd ```dHhIQGOEG ```je M eDe.O ```j ,```bfc ```VG :```OcCG ```dGe Ff J fMCGh ,jOa OGeCG ,XJ hO J fC ,bGh bSS e A```L dG dG E```a BGIc OGh ,```eG jDhQh dhdGdeh ```jQGOEG H ```jd ```UGehAH EG ```f ```eh ,```H VdOcCG ```YdG H Ie cG```T

    .YdGh

    :eDe.O b IQGOEG GREG RHCG YhbNCG ```FGd OG```YEH IQGOEG ```ebfCGhSdG jJh,dGdGAdGh ,eH dG ```d HdGGh HCd fH YGb AH

    .eG a dG IQGOEG C```H ```M.O VCGh

    ```H I```e cG```T ```HJ ```eG```M ```YdGh ```OcCG ```YdGG EG b SDe e hdGgZh hd ```b EG d ```YCG 6.5 g dLG ```fGG EG ```bh ,M J ```j jeCG QhO ```e

    .MdG

    G Gg d IG bdG YhbY HJ ```fEG eDe Q```cdG bhdGh G hO ```e jdG ```e W.iNCG dG hO e jdGh HdG

    e jHCG f b b eL fch hCG dG G QG dGe dG jdG j f GY H be G h```Jh ,"bdG ,eG LdJ YVeffEG dG ,jG dG , dG,LddGh ```YdG , ```YLGh,dG h ```HdG ,O```bGh IQGOEGg A```YCG ```G G```g Q```TheL W ,```b eL ```jQdGG ,HCG hG bMdG ,YdG jdGh dG DG Th ,WdG dG ```cGe ```gQaCG ```Vd ```ed ```UaYdG b ```e G eCG dGfeEG ```dHh,iNCG ```YdGh``` hCG ```e ```YO ```Y ```G

    .KHCG jQ

    AdG IFGO

    dG IQGOEG`` `` O`` cCG: M eDe .OcGT AH Y fG SDe e H

  • af af9

    Kj dG dG G eGeG G `d

    S 17 AHQCG j b eL fT.O QH ```dG dG ```G,```eG ```FQ ```G ```dGY ```HAGYh ```eG FQ G```f IO```dGhjG ```J G ```Th ,dGg AYCG ```e ,eG i```e ```Y

    .jGh XGh jQdGGAdG ```g "eG ```G"`d chQcdH dG M ,eG H eefdH VjdG PSCG QdG Y,G jQdG IFH FdG SCdGY cR ```EG IQcdH ```dG cY IFG ```HdG H jQdG ```g

    .SG IFL```LQO ```Y Q```dG ```Y.O ```Me AjdGh ```VjdG IGQ```cdG j ,G```c jfe ```eLh AjdGh ```VjdG ```jQJ```J ```UN ,```dG ```dG ```J W h dG G

    .SQGdGh d eGb VjdG ```Y jQJ gCG YhAfCG L h```dG J :Q```dG.O```dGh ,```dG ```VjdH ```dGdG ```dG FQ ```H ```NJddh ,```SdGh A```jdGh A```dcVjdG ```jQH j e Y ```jGQdG ```NBH FGO Y ```Y j CGdG MhWCGh ```SGQdGh ```dG

    .G Gg J

    GNDe ```Y M ```dG ```dG ```Yhb G SQG IFL Y dMhdG QhdG fCG CG :QdG.OOcCGh ```jQdG dG d ```dGIMh h ```Y ```H ```b ```eL Yh UN ```H ```SCdG ```eGdGefdG ```FQ dG ```dN .O ```SCGQFQ f e.O O```L G aVEHGfc G CG ```M,VjdG ```bdG IFG d bS e GALjQJ gAYCcdIFLgYG

    . dG Gg N e I```FG d TJ ```bhfc ```dGh ```H ```b ```dG ```SGQdGOQH dG LdJ GSG "G```HUh ```b b eL CG ```jCGQ ```M " GL ```ee LdJ ```MeXJh bdG ```LddG G```SGMCG ddh , dG eCG XdGadG c YJ OQ```H dG J CG" SQGh ddG " ```dG dG c Ge aeh ,```NBG He g Y P```SCG W a ,```adGHe OQH dG Y ```j jQdGdG j c e UGdGh HWQJ ieh JLGhh JLQO aeSGQdG dG G```W OcCG FGOCGYJh adG Y SCG J dadG dG UGdG e je Y

    IQcdH "```eG G" ```dG cUGh ```HdG c ```e cR ```EGIQ```cdGh ,```SG I```FL ```Y J 2005 ```eH ```bdG ```e,ddG ```jG h```dG h ```SH Ie GQ```b jdh O```G dGhc j c ,jNBG e UGdG

    .IFd TJIdG g ```N fCH EG.O ```Jh gM Y ```TQh 20 e cCG ```eb Y dhDe ```ch ,```T 100 ```fdch ,HdG HdG c FKh LJGDGh GhdG jQdG LdG H G```TGh ,dH ```UGcQT fCG ```c ,HdG c eSQGG eG Q```N Y TQH

    .dG SH G:QS cR G .O

    jQH G a EG.O dhH GPSCG ```dM J ,```HdG eeL , HdG H , jHdG dGHdG a dG GQ```cO LQO ,bdG ```jQJ ```Wh ge ```J)eL HdG c , 1992 (jEGjQJ KCJ " ```dSdG GYh , ```GjEG d ```J HdG c WY ddG IAG```dG ```JGSG ```aJGSG d eGSGh HcG

    ." jEG dG a IAdG Yh

    Je dN -ShdG FY :QGM

    cR EG.OQdG Y.O

  • af 10af

    dG AGOG M W````G jJj ddG dW

    14 b ```eH ddG ```c fd ```dG b AGOCG ```M HcCGG OcCG d dH GIQ```cd ```c ```G G```g ```JheG FQ G ```dG Y H T```K BG ```L ```H ```T IQ```cdGhOcCG ```d eG FQ ```FfddG c Y jL H QcdGhddG dW ```L c EG aVEGAdG WG AGJQG ```SGe CGH K

    . YL H dG dG AGOCGhIQcdG cCG SG H ```c hAfEG gCG eG FQ ```G T

    e jS ```H QJ dG ```dG g Yf e c hCG EG dd efHeG AeCG ```aGe H GdG Gg ```c EG efdG j ```Yg ge EG ```G IQcdG dbh , ```gG bQC He ```dGY HjEG ```H ```Sh ```ddGG T IQcdG Th , GN hCG e Y jah dG ```YdG efdG Y e ```VG GdG IFGQ c EG ```gOL H ```

    . ddG H ```T IQ```cdG ```K ```gQhHhd eG FQ Ff ```K BG L fEG db ```dG dG ```OcCGdG ``` dGh ```jdG ```H Yf ```e hCG ```Jh ```ddGG ```fGG Y ```Kh ```GeG ```ddG ```Jh ```jQdHEG dG S H Jh IjGdG G jQdGh d ce```b ```SG ```H ```c hdG OGYEG g dSQ EG"```jL.OY ```dGh ```fU ```eN ```d

    ,```dG ```jYdGh ```eG ```jJdOdG ```aJh dG dG ```JhdGh ShCG ```dGh dG daCG iMEG ```J C S ```fL EG,```gSCH ```G ```ddG ```cG G```gCG e ```dSQ ```TJhWh ```eL ```J ```c b ```e

    ." kGeh kYf kJ J IFGQhOGe SGQH ```dG ```dW ```ShhGJ ,```dG G```g ```Ye ```J,```bdG ```Yh ,```ddG ```He```jYdGh ,```LddGh ,```jdGhddG efH ```ja dCjh ,dGjdG ```jG IJSCG ```e ```f ehJ EG aVEH ,```efd GfGc ```jQdG ```g AYCG ```e OY,GQG H jQd dGh GOBG "VGaG e" AfEH dG ShU S ```Y WG d ```ddG jYdG eN IQGOEGh fhdGVGG e dP ```Zh U Yh

    .bdG GP

    Je dN :c

    j H eCG

    hdG Kc

  • af af11

    SjQddG LQO IjG dG hQ```cO" IO```T ```Jh ,```ddG dG I```MdG LQdG ```g "```dUc j IG jdG kdM eG ```H EG aVEG ```ddG

    .ShCG dG edW e OH "eG G" dGhdG ```g ```e ```d ,```ddGddG ddG db jGdG ,I```GdG Gg ```dG : RGH ALQH ```j ```a ,dG ```H ```jdGh IQSG jh ```dG OTQEGAGhdG g e Vjh ,Ve dM dd dH ,dG J aCGj ```gjh Q```j a ```MdG

    . jCG dG Yfh dG FShbh :da ```j ```H eCG ```ddG ```eCGH L fC dG Gg ```Y QNGjYdGh YLG eGh d Med I```c Ua aJ dG ```dGe CG ```c ,Te H ```jG e.HG dG G e J ddGCH ca gGHEG Y eBG ```ddG eCGCG EG Lj dG Gd gQNG SJ Ic G a ddG JWG fEG :aVCGh , MW SG

    VGeCG cC Fc bY caVCGh ,R```jGh Wdc IQ```NdG ```HCG ``` ```VN ```aCGdU ```dG OhCG ```c LJ ```H c ```cG Y d ```G S ```dG FdG ```bdG e.G FGLEG jQCG dG HCG

    :hhdG ``` Kc ddG ```dbhjYdG ```dG ZQ dY GO```T Y ```Gh ```dGUdG ```J ```ddG ```ch ,```Yc ,e ```KG a dP ```de IMdGh C```G ```jM ```c ```fCGdG YdG G aVEH b ```Yffc CG ```e ddG J ```fc dGd J dG ```dG jG efH

    .Gc GRG e dGh ZQCG :Q```M IQ```S ddG ```JhY ```jjdG ```ddG ``` ```VNG VH gG jWbH ```e d ```edG ```jYdG ```Jh Zd ```dPh ```VGh A```WCGeCG ```dG aJh ```SdG I```YeUTCG dhCG g d dOda , dH ,a fjh AGhdG j ```jdGgCGh T iNCG gCG ```d

    dG QhO CG ```dPh jG jYQjdFGhdGdGMeHCGjdG jdH AGhd ```NCG e cCdGh

    .dGa :IO```M ihQCG : ```ddG ```Jhe ```fC ```ddG ```J ```NOH j eh dG dG ```SGQHOcCG efH aJ ddG c CG c JCG CG ```e CGh , ```b bG fC ```jjdG ddG ```dG ```dGh ```VG ```e ```edGH ```jdG jh AGh```dG ```YUh

    .ShCG

    dG AGOG M W````G jJj ddG dW

    dG jODj ddG e Y

    RGH ALQ

  • af 12af

    dG hQdG Oe Y j S e QeGhf

    8 dGh LddG ```dG b fOhQdG Ve dhJ Y Ihf HcCG,ehdG jdG L QTCG JdGheGc GH .O Ih```dG g VMhdGh ,```fQdc ```eL ```MdGdG JSGQO N e hj fCG :bHOCGh ```dG SGQdG ```H ```j CGATCG ```M ```Vj R```e ```H

    .JdLhQ```TCG ```ZG CG ```Lh : ```VCGhBG M h```b e ```fhG ```SQdGJdG ```e O```Y ```dCG ```H ```jeGSG d CG Lhh ,QgRCGh```fc ```H ```Jh ```e OcQ bh Q```TCG J i```a ```JY jG dH IQG JSGQOe Od ehdG jdG L eGSG: bh ,QTCG Q```gRCGh ```JdG, "ehdG ```jdG L " ehdG ```jhjdG ```L fe SdG ```j ```dGaU ```eSEG Ge h ```a h ```jOCGH dG jdG ```L dhh ,fGjEGfaCH j e) GjEG SGN j fb ```je J h k```dM

    . 1273 Y cH dGe Gc GOY SG ehdG : VCGhH fch QTCG QgdGh dG,edG GP TY dG d SfG

    hG YG I```gd eGSG ``` ```afch ,```dG hCG jdH ```J ```e dGh GA```fd J ```JLe IgdG ```g ,fEG I```M,```VGh IA```fG GPh ```SCG EGfc ehdG Y ```jM IgR daJdG c H SCG EG Jh ee j Ggh , eCG EG Jh ISH Ld ```dCG GSG dL

    .G dGb dc ehdG SG bh : VCGhdPh fEG ```LGH Th ```dGT c ,```dG H ```Hd fIgR Th ,fEG H LdG IgR,dG ```MCG GdG ```TH ddGedG cd ```eGSG EG ```aVEH

    . AG GgG hH JGjEG " ```eGc .O CG cdH ```jGhfGjEG UdG ```dGe eh " GOGYEGhFGHG JJh,GW```LQO ```Y ```Mh ,```H ```fdGheL ```e ```YGQdG ```SjQddGLG IO```T Y Mh , G```WeCG , h```H jeCG ```eG e Gc ```e Y M ```a IGQ```cdG Mc Yh , G Y J

    .fQdc eL

    ehdG QTCG JdGh OhQdG

    Y Ih```f dGh GOBG ```c ```fhQdG OeRL ```Ve Y e cCG Y IQ```Y gh LHC ``dGMaG ```dGh ,```dG ```LL ```j HCd ```S ```e HCd e cCG j idGh ,GjH

    .JG bdG Aja 15 j Y dG IhdG a ``` bh Y je Qe ,dEG L.O ```HcGZ hdG ```e bdG hD```d ```SVY Ih```dG a ```b M ,A```YCGHdG ```g G```gC ```VGh ```e e IOSGh ```gJ ```ch,G dGh G e jdGG G```g CG c VG ```VhCGhfCG c ```She YCG QhH ```SSGH M ,J ```YCG jCGUCG ```SGQO ```e S R```G G```gS ```bdG GP ,IO```G AG```LCGdG ```j e SGQO ```e SGH

    .dG je e M ehS HdG g dEG.O VCGh

    LQO ```bCGh ,IQG```M ```LQO ```YCGCG H ```bh ,VQCG ```Lh Y IQG```MhJ fc EGh SGQdG e YdG gHdG fCG EG ,H Y ```jGdG dG dG e jdG EG FGO OCGH IG Z dG edG JM

    .GL cb FQ h```VdG dG .O ```fchQGOCG ```b eG a ```jhdG ```jdGQcdG IQ```jR CG ```VhCGh ,Ih```dGY ```JG d ```JCJ ,```dEG La hdG dG G GGg J bJG bJh Sh ```b H CGH b h```dG CG e ,h```dGSQEG h VG dG IYEG ```HQG e OY

    .S eVG Gg T CG IQcdG cPhY Hd G```L e ```b eL age Qe ```f MaG M ```gT

    .VG S 10 j ,dG M

  • af af13

    G dG j QfCG Y O

    eCd hCG AdG j IG ddG ce,HdG H I```G ddG ce Y, QeCG A```dhC hCG jdG A```dGYb , ```VG G ```j ```dPhWa.O ```e c A```dGM .```cGhD```d ```YG ```dG O```GefH e hQha HQ.Oh ,```dGG H ig.O h ,IG ddGIG ```ddG ```ce Y ```OcCGe ```e jQdG ```dG A```YCG hjQJ Ye h IG ddG ceWCG ```eCG h ,dG ```dG H

    .cHa VH ```H ig .O ```eb bh```VhdH ```dG ```SCG h ```VhdGY j ```VhdG ```e CH ```VeY e ,```dG G```MdG SSCGa CG ```Y IcDe ,SGQO ```aid dG ```J ```Y Fb ```VhdGG dG ```dSCG JEG h ,```dGGSH HdG h IAGd dG ```J h

    .JGP dG e j Ye fCGH i```g.O H ,```JGP ```dG hgCG e J jdGdG cGdG efH C```HIG ddG ce J ```dG eGdG,dG Jh d aCG j dG eCG H e ```dGh Y Wd dG G```e 4 EG 3 eefdG GMhh FGdGh fGdG H

    beh ```G ```fCGh ```dG.eCG GQSG Y OdGh

    GMdG CH ```H ig .O aVCG chCG ```SGQdG ```d ```dG:ddG gG Y j (2008 jN )

    IMhh ,```G IMhh ,```fCG ```e IMhdG GfCG j ```dG dG YdGh (jH ,```YGQR ,MS ) ```KdG.Y aG h dH ```gG c

    YLGh ```dG ```dG ```b fb ```eH ```HdG ```fCG IQGOE```He IdG N eG ```jN bS dG dPh af 6 HcCG 26```dG ```jQ O```Sh ,```H ```HdG

    .dG hdQfCG Y .O e c aG ```M.CG h , dG hDd eG FQ FfdG dG ```FQ OU jdG Yh HdG fCG IQGOE```H YLG hh dG ```dG b ```Xe e OY

    .YLGe dG CG QfCG Y .O cCG b hY dG J g G ```VG, eG ```da h fCH ```cQGOG QdG hP ```dG I```YehH dPh ```de fYE ```LGh

    .dG hd dG jQ IOY ,VH cT 40 e cCG cQT hAjRCG ```e Y ```VG ```Jh,jGdGh ,GQdG h G```He h , GQG```cEG h ```dG hG dG ```HdG a .```WCGY h .```G VG ```VQCG ```Yj fCH VG ```Y ddG iMEG

    IdG e ```L YGj h ,```dH.ICGG h

    CG GFGdG iMEG Uf CG Q```TCG cdG He hJ VhG QSCGS Y JGP dG h , SG hcQe CH AjRCd Je MUY ITdG ```cQG ```J dG G```djdG ```cQd ```J ```a G```dG S eN ```e ej Vd

    fhG h GAGLEG J

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    .G aCGeRQc ``` MU ```MCG CG ```db hJ CG YGQ ```d AjRCG h ```Hd

    .b eL dW h QSCG

  • af 14af

    ,eG YLGh ```dG dG b FQ O```U jdGY,jdGh SGh ```SdH ge , e cCG ```e aHdG dG Q```bCG EG b dhO ```JjQc Sc JT Rh```

    .ffEG T Y be N e dP e HG QhjdG JjQdG Sd ```Y TQh OU jdGY QTY AH A```L dG IQjdG Th ,```VG jHEG T I```GeSQ ```FeH Add ```Ua MhdH ```jeCG IQ```dG ```TJQGG b c ,```jeCG dG Gg WSCGh ,dG ```JjQdG

    .e jLCG dGQWEG JCJ ```TQdG g CH OU jdGY ```b TQdG g ```YQNG h ,jeCG ```LQG J eh "hdG FGdG" ```efHMCG ch ,b ```jG JjQdG ```eSQ MG c Y A```HYG Vh ,```jaCGh ShCG ```dG e e ```eSQ N

    .HYh N 5 IQjH dN b , j 20 QGe Y eG MdG CH OU cPhSSCG H Ice jdG g JGQjR ```fch ,jeCG jh

    .eGh ,dG VQGh ,jeCG dG IQjR YjGH :```Fb OU jdGY ```Kj ```MdG g G```gCG RHCG ```YhIG jdG ```SdG JdG ```j dG QhdG ```Y WGdch ,edG SdGh dG CGdG ```LJ Y KCJh jeCGjdG ```jQSO fG ```adG jM bGh ```Y ```dGV c jCGh ,dG jM Oe e aGj eh jeCG IGfOCG dG jeCG LQG ```SdG be IQjdG GgCGed WGdG d aCG a cQG eh ,jaCG Th

    .jeCGIQjH b M ,S O TGh OU Hj gQhf je hCG fch,adG O```fh ,JjQdG ```eh ,TGh Q```NCG eTCG JjQdG eSH dGh ,```TGh JjQdG LhadGh dG ```M GQGM Hh H QGO ```M jeCG ```dG

    .SH TGh U g e cPGh ,SdGhjdGh HdG hdG JjQdG eSQ ie H QdG Yh,Gh SdG ```HQe Jje CG cG ```d :b I```G

    .Gh dG Y f h ,jCG Je fGe CH La JjQdG eSQ MCG aSG jghCG jH ```fc je hdG jGh ,SdG jG ```M GQGM H QGOh ,deM ,Sd G SdG M jCG jG QGOh ,```d Vf bYbG Mh ,UG G```H VGh jCGQ d Uf CG ```SG

    .ff LHIjL JjQdG SQ H J dH dG jCG ```fc hSFdG jg OQa QPhQ ce jCG fQRh ,```fQL H hcCG 1800 e ```jeG SdG ```Jd ```gdG ```dG Ve ```ah

    .1900 dG ```d IQjH ```b Sedc ```je :```jdGY ```VCGh Y TQh ```H b M ,jfK ```SQe jCGh ,```GSH UN ```e fQR ```jCG Sedc h ,```JjQdG ```SQ

    .G Gg dDGh JjQdGaJ jGH :OU jdGY b IQ```jdG g e JOSG ie Yh,jeCG ```JjQdG ```eSQ e G```G ```dOJh ,```jeCG EGGQjR Gg QGd j fCG Y ```cCGh ,Ie Y GN fSGh

    .e SjQddG IOT Y UM OU jdGY CG f CG HhSQ gh ,eH YLGh dG dG b SCGjh ,jQdGdG IdG JeSQ J ,jdG jGdG IjH ej JjQcVQe e c OY Q```T ,Ye jHJh YLG jb ```Y c 4 ```d QU ,dGh Gh ```b JjQdG ```SQ

    .2003 S QU b dG g NBG ch ,JjQdG SQ dN e , www.asadiq.net ffEG T Y be d dch ,dGh jG ,jQJjQdG eSQ e P Ige ,gjH b dG QdG EG aVEH , Comics IQG dG

    .aYh dCJ e SG YG d SG dch

    OdGY Oe :QGM

    eG aS dG OH

  • af af15

    K``G GQ``Y `````e c HdG IQG ce Y QU dG PSCG Qb N Qcd ```jLeH ```dGh GOBG H ```HdGj dG dG ```e AL gh ,```b```dCJh ```gOGYEH ```N Q```cdGSQGdG ```e HdG G```dG ```jdLCG H WdG ```UNh ,dGbh ,jEG dG e ```eG hCGGjL YVe ```N QcdG Q```NGKGGQYe"gh GGd```G ```Jh " ```jhG ```f gOY j dG G d LJ 200 dG ```jh ```e 1193MGh gh ```SG G ```e U. HdG SQGdG J Le KK ee e ee MdG SG ```bheGdGh ,jdG IdGh dG c```Gh , OQ```G ) ```e ```jG

    ```gZh ( ```jdG ```dCd ```dGCG EG IQ```TEG Qh ,```LGG e

    1968 IG dGe e ```N QcdGeH HdG ```dG b ```e JhfdG GO```T NCG ```eh IgdGg Y gh,IGQcdGh LGh.bh jdG Ib eH jQdG: e ```dDG e ```jdG d Q```UWd ```HdG d ```dDe HQCGY G IQ```TEG O ,```gHG e ,```jdGh ```G AYGQY e ,EG HY jdGh```HY ```jhG ```f ```KG jdG ```S HG GQ```Y,EGdG dh JGeh dG HcgKCGh eSEG M W aK" c. "HOCGjhGKJOLY

    eHLQGbdGIQGOEG YQUgh "UGJ" If e edG OdG bjJ he jb hJ a If j dG OdG ```Jh ,b eL ,jEGh HdG ```dH U 28,YG Gh ```SGQdG e GOY jdH ```e fhDT h```J dGjQGOEG ```MGdG ```e ,eG

    .OcCGh"```UGJ" ```e ```NCG O```dG ```f```fhdEG ```HGdG" G```H ```e dG ```Y OcCG ```Y myQUQG T je H ,fhdEGIf a AL , LQG bdG IQGOEHoM jG dG aj : HGdG gCG Y

    OcCG eG e ad k LfdG jh ,```fhdEG gQOehdG fhdEG ```dG ```ad kG```ce,SGQdG ```dG ) ```eG ```OQGG ,h```dEG ```dG ,```dGSdG ```feEG EG aVEH (```jdGg e ```fL EG iNCG ```fGL ```d

    .dG dGh eGdG e aedG GH fhdEG HGdG J ALhad k```jceh k ee kGQ```e ```adIQb ```V e ```fCGh ```eGG ```dH eGSG ```Y OG```aCG

    . dGN gCG YVe JdG hJ ```cZdG Yh : ```HGdH G ```jdGjJ CG EG , ```bG ```cG b e,Sh b Y ```j HGdG jhgCH ```HdG dG G```SG j PEGkY , ```bh SCH Sh i```bdG aGdG hCG G```dG ```H g CGfYEG e HdG dG ```a J

    .dP HT ehLGQ fge c OdH NBG e hY dG hDT H QG QeccQGh ```YdG SGQO ``` YCGeG ddGh fCG HdGdG Y Y e dG MGG gCGh ,FdG e GAL VSGh ,J e, e SGQO Y dEG ```UJ dG 2007 jO T ```b dG fchdG H e jb SGQO HAYCG ```Vh , eG ```jdGT ch b eLh b SDe e

    .MhdG WCG

    (( UGJ )) e edG OdG..h

    HG QK e

  • af 16af

    dUCG H dhdG hDdGdG Y fGh

    eGdG ```e ```dhdG hD```dG ```efHCGH ```dGh ,```b ```eL I```jGS W ```e aO hCG SH dG S LM J AL , 2006G ```G G```g jG ```edhdG hD```dG efH jh ,```dGHe j fH fc b eL JQGh ```SdG QGh ```dG,HdG aGGh eSEG ```jQdHje ```W jJ Y ```S jeeh ```UCG aH ```j

    .bdG GP dG Y ```efdG CG EG IQ```TEG Q```hdhdG dG ```SjQddG LQOdG ``` ```ddG R```LG ```H YS 34 e ,e YS 120 ```gh e 56h ,```eY eL ```e OGe YS 30 h ,jQLEG ```dGAdG e jG AdEG ```LC ,jQNGg fc ,```gCGh efdG G```g Yje gRCG S IeCG.O e GAdGefH dWh W e OYh efdG

    .dhdG hDdG```efH EG ```gRCG I```eCG.O ```dbIOdG e L j dhdG dGM AdGh G ```dG Y jQOdGMCG G dG ```Y ddG M ```j

    FdG j dGh , efdG GgCGjG dG ```e L N EG YaG gOH ``` Y jQOdG,```YLGh ```jObGh ```SdGGQe J Y cdG N e dPhdG ```Y dG Jh Q```HG,jQdGh ```SdG ```d ```dGhjQH ```U Y ```ddG j ```Ha ```j ```dG ```bdG ,```dUCGhJ ```eh dG e ```edG ```dSCGdH ```EG ```e ```dhdG ```bdG

    .JGOYh dG jQJh```dG ```SGQdG GQ```G ```gCG ```Yh```db ,```efdG ```W ```SQSefdG ```W SQS :```gRCG.O,```eSEG ```jdGh ,```dG ```jQJ```j ```c ,O```bGh ,```dGhG```U ```jb GQ```e ```efdGIAGH jQdG e jh ,GQGeg de hCG ```Hc SCG c ```ddGjQJjh,FeR ehe beJ

    .jEG dH GQG e

    GL QOf J

    Y QG GY ```Y ddG cCGJ EG :Fb ```dG Gg gCG

    GdHh GL IQOdG dG e jCG IH ZQ G```d ,G e Y j a ```dG Gg SQOG IY Hj ```g H H VeSdG : ```e ```MGh ```, gZh fdGh YEGh ObGhe c a OdG gDj dG Gg aSCGh bdG dM e Qhj

    . dG EG OCG dG NGG

    INCG ```fhBG : Q```G ```jhdG ```dhdG ```jdG ```e c ```LJJe fc dG CGdG gG QJgG ```T ```dh ,```dG ```HiQCG hdG dG a ,e jHe g bGdGh ```dG ```dG CGd Lj fG YG dG ```jdG gCGbh ,```gGdG bdG Q```L MdG J ```UN jOCG ```Y h```dGJ g G a dG dSQ dW

    .SEG Y Gh dG ```H ```YG CG OhCG : Q```G ```YCGhYLG ```eG ``` ```LJ hdG hCG G dG ```Y GASaH IH e OdG j G GghCG dG ```J dG G ```jb

    . IQG Ad

    Je dN :

  • af af17

    SdG dG CG

    db dG Gd gQNG S Y hdG Gg NO :``` H ddGaVEH ```dGh ```dG ```YG c GjL ``` ```dG ```c EG,G jOb QGhOG d e OdGLCG CG dG H CG :H aVCGhdG SdG Se ```Xh SdG e dG IM Y KDJh eJ

    e eSEG HY g cCG GdG

    :a dG ```M dGY ddG ```eCGIOe dG ```e j ```JMGh fL Y JJ dG ```GdG c ZQ NOG CG KBG Gd ,adG ```M ```MCG ```M ```dPhGf dPh ,```SeHdG ```dG X dhd LQG edG Id

    .jdGh dG ```eSEG ```HY ```g ```cG EG : ```bh dG jaGdG ```VQG GdG g efG M a dSG S

    e FMh jeCG IG jdGGj CG ```bGd dGh ```VGQCG

    .dSG H eM

    e b a

    Gg :```G ```V ```ddG ```JhSCG fa ```JMW Sj dGG h ```LQG IQGRh ```ddG b CG YCG :aVCGh ,dhdGdG dG jdG e UCG dGeCG ,GdG c e ```e dGR jdG e BG UCa a ```bedG e O```Y e a ,```eGMh ,```H h dCG ```g Y.eSEGh HdG hdH g MdG

    Sd TY

    CH MH ``` M ddG ```bhdd ```aO dG g Sd ```Y f Lh :VCGh ,efdG GHSdG Y e CG M dG Ggd S fG EG ```aVEH ,Jh

    G ```d I```YGh ```.QH dhdG GQS

    dG Ld jhe ICGGSdG

    :db ha ```dGY e ddGICGG Y jL ``` dhdG hDdGAYEG Y dhdG CG ```h jdGac LdGh ICG```d jhe ```Ua```Y QG```UEG c ```dd ,```G

    .efdG Gg NO

    aCG J

    : a QGdG gT Q```H ddG eCGd dhdG hD```dG ```J NOT j CG j fEG H ```dG,G eG e e SSCG YhDdG ```J ```JLh ```e Ggh aCG ```J fG ```M ,dhdGdG Yh ,dG e jdGdG H hGj ```fCH b j dG dG hCG ,SeHdG dG

    .jQdG

  • af 18af

    1992 je 19 b ```eL TdGh hdEG G IMh aG,bdG dP ```dG c ```j c HJ d GNDe j CG bdG hD```d eG ```FQ ```FfaG jT b b ch ,```dGb eL ```je dG ```dGY.OOS a .O ```aGj ,HdH

    .dG c YGY HL.O ```aG M c```MdGY.Oh ,```eG ```ch,eG ```Y eCG ```gGHEG M,dG c ch dG gGHEG.OhIMh Y G GdG L.Ohe ```c O```Yh h```dEG ```GeL bCG ASDhQh dhDG

    .b 1995 HcCG 17 IMdG SGhdG ```dG MU ```MU IMOdG ```eCG ```K BG ```N H ```M

    IQjR AL b S ch ,iG```dH ```dN ```dG ```eG EGeh dG c e Jh jQGOEG

    .dG LdJh```dEG ```G ```e ```jh,adG hdEG ```G e EGNGdG jG Y ```j dGhhdEG ```G ```eh ,d```dG ```Y ```j ```dG ```SGTCG ```N ```e ```d ```LQG ```j 2005 ```Y h ,Q```dGNBH SG hdEG G RLcT ```e YH dPh ,GQ```J ```cCGb Hh ,Jc jdG JG

    .b jQ e 1.8 G,```d ```e I```MdG ```Jh```UG ```dG ```d ```gMCG Y Jh adG HNBG eh ,SCG f ```dG gEG ,SG ```G ```Y d

    bdG ```dG ```J ```e fL.JhH

    cGG JeN I```MdG Jdch ,eG MdGh dGH e G SDGh cdG,YdGh ```dG b c```dGEG aVEH ,```dG M ```SDehL e Ldd ```SS cT

    .jaGe dG ```TJ ```e RG ```ahhdG ```MdG ```Y ```Gh ```bdGQG EG ```d h```j G```fcfG ```dG QU Y ```d

    .LddG hCG JdG hCGFNCG SCJ ```Y IMdG ```SCGJYdG ```f.O h```dEG ```GbW dCjh ,2006 ```Y M dPhSj ```dG e dM I```MdGh```dGh ,hG ```MH hDh```dGY

    .IYe MH GjR IQf

    hdEG G IMh aG 1992eG IcGP

    IY e :QU TQCGO`dG`Y O````e :OGYEG

  • af af19

    M jJ AdCPA efH

    A```d ```HcCG 14 O```bGh IQGOEG ```c ```fSG deR IOd OGYEG ```efH M jJ SG b GTEH ( CPA ) ```jeCG ffdGe IOdG g Jh ,b YUh IQ aH dPhdGh ,SG ``` IG G GO```dG edG SG Yd dPh gd ```dG J J IOdG Y G feG CH Y ,b

    .jeG IG jdGSd ```dG ```G f ```NBG ```Ve he fb ```M Ihf 17/9/2008 AHQCG ```jdhO WdG ```SG Je eh ```SGIhdG g ```h ,b eL ```MQ ,bG e gh MG H dGY PSCGHG ```e jdG ```dh SG ```fGb ``` OGYEG QTh ```LGGh SG Gh.hdG hO G dhG MG dG

    b eH LQG bdG IQGOEG gQJ jT If eG GffEG Y eG G be

    www.qu.edu.qa/alharamddG FSdG Y e UGdG

    [email protected]

    OdG Y Oe : hD``G Q```GJe dN - ShdG `F``Y : cQe hQ

    I````Y ``e : jJY Me - jdG OY Y : aGL

    N``N`dG `M : G``NEGh ``JdG ````N ```e : hdEG bG

    dG h dG jdG ```e je Uf eQ .O ```U - 1d Ye fCG ```j G CH dG ```ed HdG ```H ```dG ```JGSEG Q```WEG ```dPh , 2008/2009 ```SGQdGh ,e G d dGh dG jdG ce jMG ```jQJ efH ```W cG j Q```WEG Gge cGdH ,WdG jG GP ```dG OGe jOGYEG 22 Mh af 2 e IdG ```N hH jeCG eGY J Y ```TQh IY e efdG ```jh ,2008 ```jOHQG AGOCG ```Heh J ```S fCH kY ,```He Ja

    .jQdG SQ AKCG jQdG KCG fG d

    AjdG P```SCG hVdG ```Sj ```dEG IQ```cdG ```J - 2jOH MCG{ IFL jQH ```HcG e eH jhdGHdG dG ```e dG ,```HdG ICGd dG ```d,SEG jdGh ```dG M d dG ```dGh ```jQHJGRE GjJ , IFG Y hVdG dEG.O M ALhQGGh ,```G dG h```G jLh ,```bG ```dG

    .G dG

    dG ce IQjH SQGd fRZ ```He ja b - 3dG dG A```Hh HG fG e ```Yf e IQ```jR hCGddGh dG jhJ g IQjdG e ```dG ch ,jQJY G Jeh dG RdG ```Y eG HIFL Jh ,GHEG ```Y gh Ie jQe QNG ```YRdG De ```S dG FGG e IMGh ```fRZ ```HedGh b eH RdG ```HCG ce j dG hCG ```dG h S jYQ ``` 2009 jj 12 10 ```e Jda ```S

    .K BG M H dG dG

    Ve M Y TQh ```eH dG dG e ```f - 4d WdG ```jdhCG efd fdG IQhd ```fGG OGYEGhdG e Q```e jO dG IhdG ```g bh ,```dGdG f QcdGh ```b SD dG dG jYd ```WdGY e MhT ```TQdG g Jh ,W ``` QcdGhhdG j dG ```Gh HCG efd dG ```jWgaJ j dG hdGh cQG ```ZGdG MdG eCGJQhO ```dG dG ```efH cQG ```Zj ```e

    .dG

    jdG AdG AKCG g f .O

    af 4-3 : YLG d dhdG IhdG -

    af 13 - 10 : d HGdG hdG G De -

    af 12 : dGh dG H dG gCG -

  • af 20