Campus Life (November 2007)

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Issue No. 11

Transcript of Campus Life (November 2007)

  • af1

    NG h H2007 b eL U efH

    ````e``G A``` ``` eCG ```````` `` e`` g GQ`````b

    dG e Y G j QdG dG

    hCG `` `` `` `` dG `` `` `` `` G O`````````fG

    Sd dG dG DG NG

    2007af

  • af 2af

    AeCG eg GQb NCG YLG a

    QcdG ```J j ```G bCG ```c eG Fd Ff aG dG Y MGS HQCG I fK Id IQGOEG dG ch , eG FQ e UHT e jdGh ```eG fG b

    . 2007 fjdG dG jdH j ah

    : Y G aGh a edeG FQ ```Ff LQO G```SG -Ye LQO ``` d ,dG d```dG ```d ```eG ```FQ ```FfL He ```de ```Jh ,dGdG HdG ```dH G ```fCGaGhh ,```eH YdG ```gCG Y/QcdG ```J ```Y GeG Fd k```Ff QfCG ```dGY

    .dG deG FQ ```Ff LQO G```SG - d ```SDG jdGh ```d

    SDG ```dGh dG ```e jeG fCG ```L de ```JhaGhh ,```dGh ```jdGh ```dHMGdGY ```.O J ```Y ```Gd ```eG Fd ```Ff OG

    .SDG jdGheG FQ ```Ff LQO G```SG -FQ Ff Ye LQO d dL de ```Jh ,```d eGh ,eH ```dH G fCGFd Ff gQdG ```TGQ M.O J

    .d eG,YEGh IYdG efH G YGhSGQdGh jdG ```c H eJ dGej ```jL ```efH ```gh ,```eSEGjh ,eSEG adGh I```YdG bd eRdG QOGdG jJ EG ```efdGFNCG ```e ```dG G ```LMSGQdG ``` ```SQeh ```jO

    LG FCGh jdG HdGh eSEG```cGH ```dG ```dch ,```eYEGhG iG Y adGh eSEGUGdG Y IQdG jd d dGh.bEGh QG```G ```N e NBG ```e jdG ```Y QcdG P```SCG ```cCG ```bhgCG A```eCG ```S eCG ```edGN ```G ```gJG ```dG GQG```dGJ ```fCT ```e EG M ```G ```g```dG ```dG ```jJh ```dG ```dGk```dM ```J ```eG C ,```adGhcdG e ```dG JGSG ```jjQdG ```j dG dG ```G Yj bf ShCG QhO EG ```da ```cCG```JLM ```jh ```dhdG ```jDhQeh ,jObGh ```YLG jdGe JGSG GgCG MCG Ea KNCJ dG dG jJh jJ g b

    .G dGh dG je

    ````dG ````S ````SFHK BG ````M H FQ dG hb ````eH A````eCG ````G ````aGhY NCG ````YLG````jdG ````e O````Y````dG ````dG L JGh ````ededG GQG````dG e````jdG ````M ,IQ````cdG IP````SCddG ````Y ````H ````TeG FQ GHQCG I ````fK Id

    .GS

  • afaf3

    eG FQ G T.O.CG QHeQ ```T ```b eL ```SGdG ```fj fL c/dG Q```GdMG dPh ,b dhO id QdGY eG e a SG HIQdG ```eb dG jQdG ```dG e

    .d jc Yh ,Hc 47 ```f dG OY ```HhIQGOEG ```je ```gG ```dGO IP```SCGQTCGh IQ```d feG ```Y GK dMG ```SG ```G CH

    .Hc 40 VG dG

    T.O.CG eJ SG H c hY QdG ```dG EG ```dH ```GdG H UGdG ```jJ dG JQOe

    .QdGh dGS fCH QdG dG b fL ehH SQO dG ,```b eL LGd S H dG ```M ,S 25 b ```dW d HdG dG efH ```b 1979 SGQO UGj CG ```b ,H WdGe d ```eSEG SGQdG ```

    .1984 S

    H dG h I```dG ```J ```jcP ```YhMhdG C```H : ```b VGh ```VGBG ```eCG ,FOg ```bdG ```dP ```fcH da -```HdH MV VCG-

    .VQCG AdGEG J ```jQc CG EG ```dG Q```TCGh,jQch b H dG OdG e jejdG dG SG Y J dGhdG Gg ```a ,a ```SGQdbCG ```HdG ddG CG ```c ,```d

    .HdG EG e bdG dd

    H ```ddG ```G ```S Q```T ObGh IQGOEG ```c ```jdG```Le IQGOEG ```eb ```jQJ ```e Y , 2007 ```HO U B```Le 19-7 e IdG N dPh ,b ```dhO efdG Q```T bh , 2007 ```djh```dG ``` ```e ```dWh ```W

    .HdGGVh Y TQh efdG Jh, jdG ``` GQ```G ```jd,YEGh jYdGh ,```edG bdGhjQdG efdG cQG dGhGh jG IO```HdG S dHdU gGHEG ```dGh ,Ld dG

    BG ON IdGh d dG jG.jdG je K

    jQdG G ```cQG QGR c``` ```e ```jQdG ```G ```gCGHG h ge ```jeh e GQ```eEGdG ch ,```jdG ```h ```WHShQd dG dG GQjdG g e

    .jdG```efdG ```cQG ```J h Y EG ```W 7 ```gOY ```ddGhIM Y Y c ```bfh , ```U" ```Le jd ```Ye GQaCGb efdG ```N h ,"2008 ```HOM J ```VY H ```cQG

    GOb QH dPh MG g gCG.HO U

    YCG "```eG ```G"`d ```jM h J dGh ```G S ddG JOS Y 2007 HQ SGQdG ```dGjK gYG dGh ```HdG H ddGY gj CG SG M ,jG HN J ```fL Y jh ```ceL EG H Jh ,SGQdG GS,cQG ```Ua ```d ah ```dG b```efdG ```Y ```FdG EG ```dchJGH Y G```j jdG ```jQdG

    .feEG c d Ghahh ,dG

    QdG dGeG FQ QH dG e Y b eL j

    IQGOEG H dd jQJ e aJ HO U

  • af 4af

    S 11 A```KdG j ```eG f/2007 eG ```d dG G hCh G G```g ```N h , 2008, jjdG ```FGG jRJ Ieg AYC dG I```FL Y TGhe dCG ff .O Y Mh jQdGe g ```f QcdGh ,```HdG cjG IFLh ,ObGh IQGOEG cIPSCG ```Y Mh ```G ```dGIFLh f I```M.Oh ,QGdG ```db QcdG Y Mh ```dG dGMh G XG I```FL h Me

    .dG f M PSCG YQH ```dG A```dG Gg ```fG bhdG ```Y H ```T IQ```cdG IP```SCGFQ Gfh ```b eL FQ ```Gg AYCGh ,dG AGYh ,eGVhCGh ,eH XGh jQdG```H ```dCG ```c ```G ```T .OISCG g ```dG ISCG CG ```SG

    QT CG G I```e , I```H ```HdGeG J CG ```g ed dG G```gMGdG T e zIH kHf{ k

    .Gh OcCGY b ```eL CG ```G .O ```Hh```HQCG G```dG ```N ```VGh ```Hjd ```Y eGH SJ ```d ```VGhe dH dG OG CG PEG ffG a d ,Ic fc jdGj a ,dP e gCG dh ,O```G

    .G OG dGh dG dHe UGeh I```c O```L ```dH Mdeh OcCGh jQGOEG H jJ LCGeG A```eCG ``` YGh ,I```jLfCGh dBGh ```SdGh fGdGaGQh ,IjG dG ```g Yd eRdGHG dG ```dG YJh A```H dP

    .dG hG Gg e d f CG ```H f dG :```aVCGh feEG ```MCG ```b ```eL CG

    e TJ ```dG ```OcCG ```eGdGhjdG OYG ```a ,dG ```jGdG O```YG ```SDe ```e ```e

    .OYG EG S iNCGhaG ```M .O G ``` ```cIQGOEG hD```d ```eG ```FQ ```FfUM eG CG :c b dGhhP e ```XG Jh ``` ```YG ```dj ``` I```G GA```dGH jh ```XdG ```ee AGOCG

    .IHeh Jh UNEGSCJ ```Y YEG QWEG G```g h ```jdG z```G ```XG{ I```FL EG ```J ```dGh 2007 ```dj ```TeG ie Y ```e Xe JIe ```geh ```YCG ```H ```bdG Hh ```b j ,Y ```Xe dG ```j h eG

    .eG

    b eL f "g j" QT ```dG jdG AdG S e TdGOG XGh ```jQdG g AYCdG jGH ```e eH G```dG jdG M , 2008-2007 G OcCGGMQ jdG , eG GOb dMGd Gh , OG jQdG g AYCH

    .OGSh aJ c

    j jJ c h```VG SGh```dG ```eGh ```fdG ```gCG ```Y,ebEG fGc ,b G Lj,QhG GO```TQEGh ,```dG ```dGhjQhdG dG ```bQCG EG aVEHdc ,dhdG G Lj dG```YG EG ```aVEH ,GQGR```dGh

    H bh G```g,GQdG ```LCJ JehjdG O```G jQdG ```g AYCG O```Y Y 150 dG G```g eH G```dG Y 700 UCG e dPh ,```jQJ g,eG c ``` jQJ ```geH XG O```Y LEG j c

    .Xe 700

    hCG dG G J eG

    "XGh jQdG g AYC" g j

  • afaf5

    b b FQ g ```f QcdG cAYCG ```MCG eG fh ```SG,J jdG jG jQdG ge a ,ed IjL IQOH d ,Qhf CGh ,```f CG dGW b ```Y Qfh ,Y ```e cGeG fh SG b ```dGObGh IQGOEG ```ch ,UN ```H

    .Y H

    IGQcdG IOT Y g f.O MjdH ```e ```jh ```eL ```e bdG J ch ,I```G Financial ```dG ```G ```S ```e ```jeCG ```bh , DerivativesIdG ```N ,eY jdG ```Y ```jj,2005 EG 1984 ```e IG ```edGjeCG ```gb dG GdG ```Nhb ,JeL ```e OY H ```d J ```eH 2005 ```S ```j CGIQGOEG ```H jQJ ```g ```c bb SFQ ```J K ```eh ,O```bGh

    .eG fh SG IQG ```HCG ```e ```jdG ```jdEG Jh ,```G ```dG GM HCGh ,```dG ```HCGM ,SG JG ```gCG```J ```Sd ```SSCG ```XdG CGSGQO ```Y A```H ```VGh ```eeSGQOh , G e ```j c YQd Jh ,```HG J FfN e dP ```jh ,QGdG ``` hCGdP j CG jh ,YEG ```Y UGdG

    .eh VGh Hf.O ```HCG ```e ddG A```G ```eCGEG cCdGh ,dG L H a Qd cGe ```ddG SQj e cJ ieh ,SGh jQGOEG dGe IOSG ```feEH gh ,SQj ei dG Gg j c ,L ```H,jQdG ```g AYCGh ,```f ddGW OG```YEG N e ```dG G```g jh

    .FdG Sd IO Yg Y IFL ```Y dM Sh,AdG Gg e jLCG ,G jQdG

    dCSh ,jG G```WCG e HPhb SG ```bGh Y ,```jGdG Ea SGQdG ```gG Mf e : ```aJ ,```b eL ```SGQdG ```GjQj f fCG M ,jeCG eS ```e ```UNh ,```jeCG ```GOcCG O```YG Y d ```dG ```d ,```jeCG AACSB ```e ```e```b E```a ```SG ```d ```dH,```SG QOG```dG G```Y ```JBG GA```dG g ```e jd ```LHhJ CG ```jh,eOdG G```dG hgh SG Y IQO```b QOGdG gQJ dGh ,```dhdG SG ```je.bGdG VQCG Y Jh ,QGSH

    dG jQdG I```a gCG Y ```dCSh,O```bGh IQGOEG ```dd ```dH.O ```J e I```NCG I```dG :```aJ M dG IO```Y hGdG HdG ,dG eGH eT jJhdG d dH dG ```jQdG cG e H a BG eCG ,jQNGIdG g AKCG ddG jh ,jQLEG 8 6 e hGJ I cdG iMEG ddG j I```dG g Nh ,HSCGj ```Yh FGOCG ```Y YSCG G```jJg ```d ,```cG ```dG G```GhjQdG efH ```Y G ```jQdG ,```efdG ```jf ```eT ```jJh ,cdh ```jQdG Yd ```J jHQG J ```jCG g ```c ,f

    .IdG jf ddG gd IG aVEG e hdH eGdG jJ ```e : f.O j,bdG dG Qe SQj ddG UCGPEG ,```dGh GOBG ```c MJ ```dGGQOb jG ```j CG EG dG ```Jj ```c ,e ```H ```dG ```Ych ,d G OjEGh G jHj CGh ```LGj ```dG gGdG ```jddG ```SQj jCGh , ```e ```YYLG ```dG ```bNCG Q```eYjh ,```jdG ```c ```MJ ```dG,ddG ```Yh IO```jR Y Q```G G```gjh , ``` bNCG QhOh

    Sd dedG IO```T SG b 10 IQhdG Jh , CPA jeCG

    .TCG CPA ````dG IO```T ```H ```dG ```YhdG SGQdG : ```b dG SGQdGhJ dG SGQdGh HCG Y FbM aJh e ```e M Ya jeCG ```dedG IO```T eCG ,dbdG UdG ```ae e SQGO e ,dM ```Jjfh ```SG ```bGd

    .GQGh GG J NS ObGh IQGOEG c JhhP jG I```JSCG ```e ```Y FdG GQ```dG ```cG ,IA```dG, ```SGh ```jQGOEG ```dG ```dd G```c bEG g CG ```UNhM , g f.O j c dG HeH G```dG jdG ```dG K CGIQGOEG ```c gQN c , ```dG G```gfh SG b j c ,ObGhIQGOEG ```c bCG cG ```e eG 250 f ```HW OY jh O```bGh

    .dWh dWeG f efH CG f.O ```cPhdG Ya c dM hGGSG Y ```ddG IYe ```Y j```eN ```JJh BG ```SGe jG ```jh ,O```bGh IQGOEGfdG YGb ```Y e efdG Gg```bO i```e ```e ```cCdGh ,c```dG aVEH ,```d dNOEGh eGIdG h ,```JG Y ```dhDe EGY ebEG Y dG ```S eOdGY ,efdG GH jd ddG e

    .jb dG eCG a j CG eCGfh SG b FQ YCG GNCGh UGGQdHJOSY eG, G ```L dM ```eG ,HS e ```aCG bGdG ```S chjQGOEG ,G L T QdG GghJ BG cdG UCG , OcCGhJQG jdG ,jN S IHeGdG FdG jdG f gGe

    .eG c MJ dG

    J H dG G

    g f.O

    : "eG G"`d IH J cdG jN S

  • af 6af

    e jQJ g c J Se EG ```S dG ```dG Gg d ,IO```G JhH ```SaFQ MG ```b QcdG ```e AdGdGh ,```SG ```Yh ```Sg ```bdG dG bGh dN ```e VSGIdG ```dG ```Nh b ```eL dG hdG Dd bJ ```c ,G.OdG dG e jHEG dG S

    IOT ```Y ```MG ```b.O ```Mhd a G eL e SjQddG jOdG ```HdG H OGhMh ,BG ```SG Sg ```J IGQcOh Le IOT ```Yfjjd eL ```e BG SG ```YbdG ```Jh ,I```G ```jdHAGOCG ```dY JG ```T ```

    .eG jJ JJhcL ```eL ```dH ```dG ```K 2005 - 1994 IdG N Hh ,b eL dH bdG Me cT j c bdG GPch ```eG ```LSGh ```jH

    .LddG e c a eIe IN AH IdG J N SGhdPh ,dG ```jQG IQGOEG cdG ```Xh H ```L e ```eHCG jQe jH ```J fc dGaeh eH GPSCG fch ,HdGfc dG HdG HCG ```jQe Y

    .eG H Jb FQ MG ```b QcdG idh H 70 e cCG SG Yh ```SgJAGH J dM ```j c ,kGQe eOdG TCG ```N SH G```NG

    .YLSGh eG jJ j eG dG dG bGh Yhb eH bdG ```Y :b QcdGNdG G```g dG ```d j ```S```jQe ```YJ BG ```ea ,```dGIOjR SCG LJh ,c H HCG

    ShQG LdG EG dG dG fN e dG SGQdG ede jYH ,NGdG ```HCG jQe,dG dG hDd eG FQ Ffd ```WdG b h```U gS ```c

    .Jh HCG J dGSG Yh Sg b GREG YhM dG C```H : b.O ```j dGefH e hCG IQhdG Ie Fff dG ```M M , ```dG I```GRM dG ```HCG ```jQe ```e %10hU ```eb dG dG ```G YjQe e fch ,d WdG b J ```fc ,```J ```HCGfhdEG ILCG AH He hGJ SGh

    .ee fhdEG fCG AHh ,Hd J b fCH b.O bhdG jYQ aGgCG e ,dG dGce HCH ```d dGh ```dGM hCG ,dG NGO ```dP c AGS

    .LQNd dG ```dG gCG Y ```dCShY IO```Y J ```dG I```G : ```aHCG g N e ,jdG eGG ```LGe ```c dG ```jc , M H dG , e edGh

    .dG dG AH Y YJYh ```SdG ```b ```jdG ```YhEG SG Y b fG e SGbGdG : b , S b SdG c, SG ```Y W H ```YdG OGRc g M ,SG ```Sg WhW H j dG dG jQe ei SGQO ```gh ,fdG eSdG e ```cCG c AH J ```dMY h ```SG ```Sg ```fH ```HSGQdG ```G jJ Sh ,```SG

    .jbI```dG O```e Q```J ```dG cd fG G dG h ,VG j c ,O```L jQJ g A```YCG 6

    OcCG GYG ```Y d dGdG ```SG ```bh ,```G I```dG QWEG G```g IYd G```e GP```SCGe```T J Y AGLEH ```dG bh ,J e UCG e SCH ,Gd

    .SdG c eGdGh bCG HSG Yh ```Sg b Sh GgM dhO GDe OdG jHEG ```T cQ``` ,JJh ```JdG ```fCG ```Sh , MHh Y 200 e ```cCGjZ Y ```Y GQhCG ```be DGTQh eg Y S c ,gCG e

    .Ib jQJ eGHh ,YeL CH b.O ```cCG AdG N h,dG d I```e H ```UCG bGg eG dJ dG O```G f```H dhdG Yd f dch ,QWEGGd d ```WdG b h```U ,```YYh Sg ```b JCJh , ,GMdG e Ic W bGdG ```SGdG ``` h```d ```dG ```M NPRP ```efH cQ```d ,```dGEG ```dG dG cG g ```Ffh , IRQH ```S ```fEa ,BG ```J

    .jdG G

    UN Ad MG b.O

    b eL H UCG d Ie

    dG

  • afaf7

    ```e ```fcheG HIM IQcdG```gh ```fi ```M EG

    eL e G```G jGI```H Y```SG ```dGh ,```bCG jPdG ```Yh ```JOGQEG ```dG h dG J Y AV ```a fCG a ,Gjh ```JM e I```e IajOGYEG MG fc eY```SM GQG```b ```JG ```fCG EG gYS ,```SGQO ```UGe LJ G```g ,```FY dP```HOCG ```dG ```edG ```jfdG ch % 95 ```jH ```fdGb dhO ```Y ITdG ```JJHdG ```dG H ```dG K ,jH e d ,b eH

    . 1998 S ReG

    QdG e e Y K ehIPSCG J fc M adeL J CG b ,HdG d jEG ```dG SGQd ```bdP H CGd , I```G jdG```M ,```dG ```SGQdG ```MQHdG LG Y M 2003 ```S ```UGh ```edG jRL ```fS eL ```eLJh , ReG jH fHIGQcdG IO```H dG ZfHh ,jHdG IO```dG GS ```bSG SGQO ```MQ IGQcdG ```Y ```M K

    .2007 je 12

    ``dG I`g``b ```f I```M.O

    dG jG ```e MQ ```UGddG f M PSCH " jCGG ```XG IFL ```Y FGLSG dG G QGG Gg aCGH M ,eG jQJ e fL aeH dG ```M P```SCG , 1977 ```S hCG ```JjGH ```eOGe J HdG c e Jh SQj ch , 1985 S YLG

    .bdG GP jhIQGOE```H eH ```bdG ```Y Y, "edG hD```d ```dG ```bGG" 1980 Y h ,edG hDdG HH SG I```Md FQ ```UCGd fG ```e K eh ,IQGOEGIQGOEG e J ,```ed FGdGUCGh , "edG bdG IQGOEG"EG edG bdG d FQ VM G G```g ```Xh , IQGOEG d FQ UCG M , 2004 ```Y

    .adGh ddG eG I```G Y YfG YheG : PSCG j JjGH Y fc Y BG G```c QJJGh ```G M ```e ,```JCfOcCG ```MdG ```e Q```dGh ,hCG IdG e d ,jQGOEGhISCc f ch , IQGOEG M UL a ,OdG b H ,HGe

    .MGh e eG dH bdG S ```YhY SL ```jUh fCG eb : ```bch , e e cCG d jN

    ,jQdG jfdG ```e LJ bjdG ```dG SD ```d ```bCG EG ,jM SCJ b c dGVdG aQ dd , j jUe e f CG fQb b c fCEG ,eG eb Ggh ,```MGhaGG AL,iNCG ```ceCG fL d , jU a WdH dfa ,WdG H dG OQCGdN eG aGh edG e Ia

    .H d da W Y ```LGh ```dG ```HdG ```Yh```Y ```j ```Y : ```Y ```jGHf h ,```SSCG ```H JGc Gd ,G ```J RL AGLE jG e EG gd feG f ```ch ,JG

    .bdGh dG N ee ```eT ```jJ ```M ```bh

    GdG adGh ```ddG b dG ```g I```e hCh ,I```NCG 3 I IQGOEG e Yb JbCG a LGJ ,HSCGg Y dEG j dG eGh,eH d ehb Y ```jQdG```bdG ,```jdG OQG```c,eG ,```jG ,LQGdG jQdG ```g Y Y aeG Y d hdG HeCG Gg ,```Lj dG eGh```HdG ```e ```j c ```dGg Y SG Yh,bhh GLJg J ```j QG ```jQdGeG EG ```aVEH ,```d GLd af c ,```eG Y SSCG 6 I eG EG h ```e j ```FS

    .HSCG

    ``````M ``````G`HEGh `dG

  • af 8af

    jQehDeQhNOY.OYCGdG d b hU HCGefH e ddG IQhdG fG Y, eG ```d ```HCG I```NhN HG YH eY Ihf dPh

    .S 25 eHCG EG Qh```N Q```cdG Q```TCGh```dG ``` EG ```j ```efdGQJh ,```dG HCH d```eL ```Ya ```H ```efdG eL ```N EG aVEH ```bdG ```J CH ```cPh , i```NCGah j ```G ```g Y ```d j CG e ,```eQU hT,dG d dG ```FGdG dGi j CG jh ,b dhdhGd ```e ```dG h```GddG QhOh , ```cG fHh. hd edG hGh MdG

    QhO BG 10 G b Jh Gg

    d 2000h dd 4000 ```e 4000h ```G ```jQdG ```g

    .eRdG GddG ```d ```b h```U chFf Y VG ```dj YCG bdG IG efd fdG IQhdGFf b eL W M ```M ,, GdG ```Y fdG I```d Ie,MhG G L dPh,```ffEG ```dGh GOBG ```ghdG ,```dG ,dG ,```SdG H 32 OY M M ,YLG 51 UCG e eG W e eef Hh G Y H he dG OY eCG ,% 59 HCG b dW 85 H a G e jG

    .dWheG e eG HCG Mh```M , ```G ```L ```dGKdG ```cGG ```eG R```MCG

    ,dGh ,SdG hCG dGh hCG ```jcGh``` hCG ```cGh ,```dG

    .ffEG dGh GOBGIQhdG g IG HCG ehdO : VG b" GH HY RM ```dGh ,"jKCG ```bGdGOBG ``` ```V hCG ```cGddGHeJ ,ffEGdGh,SL Y Y ,```jG a eSj OdG ,```jG a FYHL EG , MCG IM ,h dGdG Sj.O GTEG , L

    .hG jT.OT jQJ c e dG gCG Jhb e QY EG Lj ```b IjL,jQdG QdG ```M h jQdGjKCG ```bGG dP ```Y J ```cdO ```aj fCG EG ,```b ```dhH,bGG d IAG```dG Sh eT MdG ```YU L dG h

    .b dhOKCG ```dG ```YCG CGH ```d hG ```e b IjL T g G```J h ,jdG ```dG eH BG M UGe YCGSGQdG ```g ```Sh ,```WG ,dH ```jKCG ```be 60 h```JjCG QS dGh ,ddH VhfGSCG ```Y ```fhdEG ```f

    .eFf ```M ```b ```eG ```fchhCG IQh```dG ```jCG I```ed ```dG I```G ```efH ```e ee H 31 M PEG ,eGe ,dG G Y ```eG e H Mh ,H 61 O```Y LEGM e hCG ```cG eG ```e iNCG HCG 3 M a ,dG, hCG G cGG H ```fedG jQG O```Y LEG ch 120 f hCG IQhd eJ dG

    .H Yhe

    ddG IQhdG Y YEG

    `````HW h```jIG efH`````````dG

  • afaf9

    SOdG G ```j b eL fjJ A```d VG ```S T ```eGOb ```cQ dPh ,O```G ```dd dPh ,jG HWh eGd eG I```G Y bGh IQU

    .OGT.O.CG MQ SG H c h adG d h OG dH GdG S CH : dbh ,eG JMOcCG G ddG Y j dMj dG ```ddG Y j H ,```a

    cG Y IQ```dGh dGh jH.jNBG N e JG GQG

    Ff Q```fCG ```Y.O ```jCG ```dCGhH c dG hD```d eG FQeG e Y a ``` ,SGe IOSG Y ```dG Mh ,GG LdGh OTQEG GH HG dG jd ```dPhddG Y ```j CG dGh ```dG

    .eG Je G```c GO```Y ```g EG ```jCG ```bhdG Y GaQT ```jdG eG WG N Y VhY ```Y jGe jQJ Ua aJ j c G

    .dG e c OdLe ```ddG ```b ```Me ```SCHhVY b eL je je GhdGFGdh fGb gCG dN e T JddG QhO jGdG e M , eGdG dG dG IQdG bh G

    .ed dG H dN e jb , OSCG ```e GSG ```e fCG EGe MT d ,e IQdG HfGH , ```eG IG ```M aGh

    .fCGh dG CG ```f Y ```VY ```cCGh, G L dG j eG, SGQO bj eG ```W ga fGbCG hj ```bdG GP hM QOdGY ddG a c VjdGdH h```fjdG gP ```M dG hj ```c , 2006 ```MhdG ```dCGADg eh , ```HdG fCG ```

    .G MCG ddG jGMCG j Y ```dd K Ad h

    L T.O ```db ```S ```e ```SdGhDd ```eG ```FQ Ff ```K BGad J b eL CG : ```OcCGN e ```dGPh , Hd ```e ```Jb ```f ```ddG ```Y ```FdG ```dGddG j ```H PSCG Y O```YGcG ```Y kGQO```b d IG i```edbh ,JGdG JGQb jJh GQG dG S Ic Ua ```g EG

    .jG H OG adG jY jM ```eG CG ```Y O```Thah je jQJ g AYCG SGGgCG H dPh IO je```eG EG ```dbh , ```d ```eSGaJ N e dG dG SGY Ic IQH cJ I J HRL aJh hdG dG GSG

    .dW d JcH ```ddG e ```Y ```cQTheb ```M , ```jdG A```dG G```aILe If jGdG dG e ddG,aGgCGh ,```gCG ,jdG A```dG YfGOh MH e ```ddG eb cYGb ```M Le ```T H O```ac

    .eG SShIe P ASCG jCG VSG ```cdG FY ddG eh ddG ead WdG G IFL Y IFGFfh ,IdG dG dGh,HdG hQO ``` jdG FQM dG ```eT Y ```eCG ddGhgh ,jdG FGL IY ```Y.hQO HdG jdG ja V

    OG d jJ Fd J eG

  • af 10af

    CGS G ```OcCG dG jGH ```e ,b eH ddG SGQO dW 20dG ,efd hCG bfG e dPhVG G```dG ```d OGYEG i```Lh```dG ```ddG R```LG ```dh,OcCG eY SG ```SCJ fH PCAT QNG H ```Y c ,ec Y dGh , ```VG je ```T Gg a j dG hCG IG gh b

    .ddG jeCG QN QNGJdG ```efdG dW ```Y ```Sh dW 40 ```H e ```jH ```gQNG ```Nh,efdH ```dd ```eJOGe SGQO ,```SCdG efdG Q```ZHe hGJ ,dG Gg Ye J,jdGh ,```bdG ```Yh ,```ddG

    .dG jYdGh ,LddGhddG ```J efdG GH ```bdHhH dW M M b LG e dPh ,dG G SGQOe Jh, dEG eG Jh SdGjG ```dG G```g Lh ```fCHIJSCGh ```ddG CG ```cCGh ,```Hj Ze ```ja S dGM ,efdG Gg e ILG GgCG

    . IMGh Fc G SG ```e ```G ```ZdG ```fchdG A```M ddG L ```dG aGdG fCG M ,```ddG efH ```J,KGM ```cCG H ```ddG Y ```H.G Gg GQdG e IOSGhe SM ```eCG ddG ```db ```gQhHh

    dG dG h```dG CH ,edG d ```J ```L ```Wh ```HWh ```J M ,```dG ```G G```g

    .Thf e ddG ```efH ja ```dCjhGfG ```jdG ```jG I```JSCG ```eOY h```J EG ```aVEH ,```efdGOBG c jQdG ```g AYCG e

    .GQG H jQd dGhjL ```H.O efdG ```je jhjGH CG```H fCHh ,```e ```efdG C```HY jh ,dG Gg e bfG ,jbQGh dG ```MCH JdW J

    .ddG

    ddG SGQO CGj dW20

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    ```b ```eL ```H h```dG Q```WEG eG aSG ,G eLh T HSCG 3 I```h VG dGjGR eL e dW VG ```ZCGb cT e dH dPh , GQeEHfc M "```c" dhdG ```aVEd

    .HQJe h ```Y M ```ddG ```fche e ```Y ```M ```b Q```GaJ ```jQJ I```a Ad "```c"jf G ```dG dBG Y ```dNeG ```e e ```dHh ,```Yh , eG ```SEG IQGOEGh ```GIa GW HdG dG aSG

    .jQdGdH ```dW ```gh Y ```M ```JeH FdG SdG ```H eGIQY LJ h```e CH ,GQeEG

    ,GQeEH fe e hCG J YGg IG cdG e J "c"hM ,a jQdG ```a dd , GdBG Y aJh ,```ebCG JQGR

    .a dGeS ```eRh ```fCG EG Q```TCGh, Jh ```G ```Y ```aGh ```SGQO,fG ```gCG jGH bS ```MfEG Y SGQO ```K ,JeGSGhbeh ,dG ```eG G,```Y c ```dGh ```HjEG

    .VjdG HG GNCGhd : db jQdG Ia Y YfG Yh,cd Oh``` dG hdG ```gSCG I fc I```dG g C```H cPhGNCGh ,L b I```Gh ,JMcT h b ```eL EG dH ```eJ

    .fhJ Y "c"

    eH ddG QG e eR eCGgQNG ```S C```H ```da GQ```eEGj jL he fCG g hde Y H e JQNG Gd ,MCG dEGhG jf h ,MG jQGAfE dG ```dG ```H eS

    . GQeEG e GgHYEG Y ```jM jf Y ```cfCG EG Q```TCGh ,```dG ```b gCHJQjR g fc bh L I```a b

    .b EG hCGe SG jQdG Ia N heG FQ ```Ff QfCG ```Y.OH MdH ```b M dG hD```dSGQO adG c dd ```h

    .G JMh

  • afaf11

    16 G j b eL T dd ```eG ```G ```ZCG 2007 ```b eL ```U ```efHQHdPh,jfdGMGdFf ```K BG ```L ```H ```T.O,OcCG hDd ```eG FQFQ Ff QfCG Y.O hdGh ,```dG hD```d ```eG

    .efdG je QG dGYH c QfCG Y.O bhU efH H fc : SGch ,jGH jKb eLH jdG SSCG H e dGAdhCGh G HWh eGY ```HLEG ```N e ,```gQeCG

    .Y H G JGQSGQG ```dGY dG O```TCG ci G eG e jeM efdG cQG dGGd dG e Ie f QNG gj ```j ah ```efdGdG ```YJ C```H ```cPh , ```bHc efdG gQeCG A```dhCGhYO d j ```dG eCG , ```HjEG efdG ```jd G```c ```je

    .dG AT EG eOdG GdGY ```ddG ```M ```T bhYHCG ```dG I```G G```dG ```ee fch , ```J ```ddGdG ddG c G```dG g HAGgRh ```jBG ddG ```dCG

    . dUY IQKEGh G AGLCG J hdG ```M YCG dG ```dG MaJ ``` ```ddG ```dCG ```M ,, efdG ```W Y ```Hf ```dGGG QG Y dN OShVG ```dG N cG ```dGGQhdG ```e Y Q```M Y, YG ```dG TQhh ```jQdGJ GQhO ```H MhGJ dGh, BG ```SG ``` h G```dGGQhOh ,dG Ofh ,Gh, dG ```jdG a aJ ```dW SH ```d hefdG Q```j ```H Y Q```cdG

    G jf h .O```dG ```dGGOTh jQcdG hQ```dG jRJgS dG SDG Y ,```dG, ```efdG ```jYQ ```gOH```dG A```YCGh ,```jVGhGOT GNCGh , efd dG

    .d efdG cQGb b eL ```U efH ch dj 22 ```e IdG ```N fG gJ IjL Hc ```ZCG 16Ie Nh , I```e hC b eL HSCG 4 ```SG ```dG ```efdGhCG dG W bG , deIG ```e cCG ```fdG ```dGh

    . eGeL U efH da Vh jQJ GQhO J 07 bbGH ed SCdG efdG e YRe k```YSCG ```YS ```KVjdG ,```jEG ```dG ```H

    .BGh SGhc H eb Ie IQOH he jJ GA```d ```H ```eG```J ,```dG ```efdG ```W

    dG ```bCG ```Y ```dN ```dGdGh ,```G ```GHh```e EG ```aVEH ,```MG

    .H dG hThYe bH ```Y efdG ```TGh, adG ```fCG ```ddG ```eAj ```jH gQNG ```dGH Hh ,dG ```MG g eEG G j M ```JhdG Y

    .SdGefdG ```da R```HCG ```e a```dG , ```FdG O```dG ```fO a Ige Y Ja YG,FdG ```VdG QhO iMEG jf Ih```f ```dG ```j ```K ehdG gG ```j ,e ```H```gPCG EG ```SSCG ```jHdGh

    .jdG MG g dG```e ```Y ```efdG ```V ```cJ ``` ```YG GQh```dG```HQe ```eb G```dGdZ PSCG e ,ePSCGh , T gW QcdGh ,

    .QfCG Le

    Ie hCe H``U efHjfdG d

  • af 12af

    Y Y jCG ```efdG TGh H ```e c adG GQh```dG ```eeb HdG ```dG ```a IQhOIQhO ```eCG, Lf ```HG IQ```cdGeb ```a ```dG ```G ```jQJM ,M ```M PSCG VG,QJh ```G IC```f ```Y ```V hCG ```JjGH G```jhjedH AfG ,jZEG IQGGQhO EG aVEH,dG Y ffEGh BG SG a```Jh ,```FdG ```jdGh ,

    .GQdGce je ```G jdGY.O ```bh```d ```jdGh ```jQd I```jG, G ```eAGG QNG ```efdGe S ```Y ddG ```j MY SCG ```Y AH Ie ,```SCGYj ,JGQbh de ,ShQeSGQdG J ``` cG YY ```dHh ,```e ```Sj ```dGG ```M.O b ```c ,```edG S JGSG Y ed ```dN e ``` Y ```TQh,b ```dG ```S Y ```efdG,MG UdGh ,G baBGhSQ KCG HCG d S dG eCG

    .e ee

    efdG IRQ```dG ddG ```ehfGG ```MdGh GQjdG ```fcjJ GQ```jR He YJ ```dGhdG OGh IjG Ib McQN Mc , aJ iNCGh jed

    .adG IjLh jdG```U ```efH CG ```cdH ```jGhSSCG FL e ```dCJ b eLej YS I``` Q```LEG hCG ,eCG , SCdG ```efd ``` ,Ih , jQNG c a dG AGQj ddG c M , ej YSa cQH ```Zj dG ```fCGGQN H e JZQh ```d ahcCG j M dPh ,```Me IjY

    .eG SGQdG AGLCG eY "eG G" dGhdCd ,efdG dWh W eU ```efH" ```M YfG ```Ya db ```jGH , "07 b ```eL dW ```gh ```dG Q```e ```CG CG SQ fdG dG dG,e h ```L efdG C```H jfdGeeCG ```j PEG ```dc ```gj ```ac ,aGh ```dG ```dG ```aBGGH ```Y J CG ```ed ```j

    .JJhc , dG h ```SdG a SQ

    aVEH , HdG h ```dG iJdG hJ h SG EG ```SGdb efdH bdG S Yh ,bCG c bh efdG AL d :Wf J GQhO ```Y dH aOLh ```gfG d ```dh , ```HeOGR ```FdG ```jdG IQhO

    .fH ZQSY OTQ j AG```SEG ddG eCGfdG dG ```dH dW gh ,, ```d ```jfdG ```N ```SQgYjh , e efdG CH dach , ```G ee ```J d FG ```dG Q```NGUG fG ```YCGh ,JGQbh```d ```dhCG ```eG ```H

    .eH dG feGSQ ```fdG hCG ```dG ehddG A```L d ```jfdG I```cdGYCG ```dG , YhQG ```TGQ Y cQH ```JOSh ```VQ ```YG AG```LCG ```Y G```H , ```efdGIRLEG H j b dG G```dGhIc SQ ```Y i```j , ```dGCG jh ,hOQ```dG ```dh ```dGj CGh e eG e j

    .G Ya GY

  • afaf13

    eL ```dWh ```W ```jL e ```Ye dPh ,ec ```jOb GQb Y ```befH da J cQe N GYRJ ```M , 07 ```b eL ```Ug Gfch ,dG dG ``` YY G ```fCd dG ```jGH UdG M Gfch , ```bGdG VQCG b G```d,aGh efdG ```We PH AdH "eG G",cCG dEG ```d ,dG AD```g e QY ddG e hCG fDhd a

    .fG SdG H ddG , TT: b dG efd efG S YhcQG MCG dG S Y H,IjL GN j M ,efdG FeR ```e Y ```cCG ```bY ```jhc ```bh ,```eG IQGOEGh ```dGfc ,efdG Gg cGTH eIc ATCG J fCH bh ,IjL H,jQGOEG MdG e AGS ,efdG e```b ```c,YLG hCG ,```dG hCGId b e Y fc H QYMdG IQhO ```H , ```HS AGY jQH ```b M ,efdG ```dIQhO d ```b c ,hCG ```MdG

    .AG Ic VjQ FGHGAY ```e e dG ```fDhd chdG b e jM jN gh ,,O```bGh IQGOEG ```H ```aGh

    fc fCH efdG H Y dbYe G```N Jh ,```jd I```ehDdH e dP c AGS ,IOehj e hCG ,eG edG ```jQGOEG

    . efdG dG QeCHQKCGh Lf c ```efdG C```H dbh```W ```e ```cQG i```d ```JQGdG W M edG jfdG dWhCG UNh , ```efdG Ia j ```efc MhG dG ```TQhh GQhdGGdG ```J GQh```c ,Yeh I```efCd ```aVEH ,```dG ```jJh

    .iNCG adGh adGH ddG gGHEG gGHEG MCG eCGJ eY fCH : a fG SdGIYO j c dG h```dEG jdGfS Ua gLh efd fGc ```dPh ,```j ```e ```d j c fCG UNh ,IjL GNc dG I```a Y Y ```dG,e ```J IjL GQeh G```NdG ,```dG ```Hd ```J G```ghd Y QNG bhh H gRLG

    .efdH```e c ```efdG C```H ```MCG ```cPhfH c ```Y ```Hh ```HjEHUNh ,IFdGh adG H j ,WbHh ,Yf e hCG ```HdG fcOTCGh ,a Ie fc MG GQhdG

    efdG e cG dG GQH MCG.YG dG GQe H eh

    S Y ```dG I```e ddG ```Jh Yc efdG ```cQeSCG M :```eYEGh dG dGc ,```e ```eCG ```dG ```bWS efdG dG Ua CG Lhj c ```fG EG G```f ```dG ```Jg hCG QdG J h hCG I```dcCG CG MCG Gd ,he c gCGAGKEH S fCH YG c e GALfCG M e , dG h eG JMh b ```Y dG I```G LCG ```S

    .a a GAL cCG S:db eYEG ```dG ```gQhO YhHG AG```LEG Y ```j QhO c```jQdG ```Hc h ,```jVG ```e```j ```dG ```ddG ```Y ```dGAKCG ddG Y GTEGh ,efdG

    .ddGHdG e H LN ```dG IFdG YhhQ g M I```Fa cCG:Ie ```JdG Gg ```fCG M ,YG ```dGf h "fCG " ```Y f CG j cdOe K g ```J CG h ," ```dH "e f ```fCG e cCdG h ,```G ```Hh efdG ``` g ,MGh ```g LCGiNCG FGdG ```eh , OdG d

    .G h dG J CG

  • af 14af

    gDe b eH SdG ```c fdG jGH S ```dPh dG dGddG M.O DG Mh ,jG,jQdG ```g AYCGh , ```dG ```YDG TGh , Wh dG Xeh,YS HQCG bSG L K YdH JG jdG e jdG bfdG ```N EG ```aVEH ,```GHh

    .jG OcCGM.O MQ SG ```H d c hg AYCH SdG ```c Y ddG Y 16 gOY ddGh O```G jQdG adG ```d ```h , ```jQJ ```gdG Y O```TCG c , ```eOdG ```eCG Y OTh ,```HdG dG GR```EHY d hDh```dH dH ```aM ```eY

    .CGj CG Th eJ eGH 4 CG c M.O cPhOcCG OYG ```Y M b dGSdGh ,FdG SdG eGH ghSdGh ,FHdG SdGh ,fGI```dG ```dG ```Jh ,```fGOcCG OYG Y ```d dGSg efH ```H eh ```eGdG d

    .SGdG gCG ```Y c M.O cCGhdG ```H h```dH O```TCGh , ```dGe j ```dG eCG ,YdGhdG ```fGe C```H ```cPh , ```adGjQ e ```Y jJ dG ```dGe YdG EG ```aVEH , jS ```bd b hUh , ```YdG dG

    .dGb ce A```fEG ```dG GR```EG eh fGe J ```dGh , RdG HC b jQ ```je 6 f hCG ```dGe Y jGH cG ```Sh ,FG J bh ,```SdG c eeh

    YO H , ```YU ```cT 11 ```e.QhO dCG N H cd ScGG ```g e A```fEG ```gCG ```YhU OLh EG : ```M.O b dGfe ```e Rj R```dG H ```ccRd ```UY J ```d kY ```bG eCG ,eCG S gGj ```cfeEG ```e ```j ```S ```ca,b IOLG RdG cT Le dH GH L S MGg ```edG c```dG e ```FG

    .dG G```N ```H ```H ```cG ```SdG c```dH MGh ```ddGh ,```G G```g ```Gb eL W Y dH Oj SjQeh ```dG jQG ```M eg A```YC ```dH ```eCG ,```dGeY cG ```j ```a ```jQdGdH ```J Y GA```d ```L

    .SG jQJh jQdG dGgS ```dG dG jQG ```gCGhQJ , ```G MG ```cGIQGOEG :hCG ,```SSCG ```FL ,FdG dG jJ hCG G

    cG ```HC ```dG Q```G eCG. eGG dG a G MG

    J Y ```c dG Y ```YCG c```SdG ```c ```bCG ```H A```SCGdPh , fG SdG bh fGIjG eGdG Y AdG J j ceh,bCG g ```aVEG dGfG SdG ```b" IjG ```GfG SdG b"h ,"jQGh

    ."YdGhSdG ```c W O```Y LEG ```jh dG ```bh ,```dWh ```dW 900 ```f ,jL dW 400 f dG Gg dH

    OcCG dG eb b dG fchSQGGejhJHVGS dPh ,dGh ```d jfdG

    . jG dGfG ```dG dG ```DG G```g jh dG dG g ,S 18 AKdG ```jb dG fc M ,```SdG c J dG gDe 2006 S YjJh UGdG SG dGh ,hCGe ```a H A```dG ```TdGjQGOEG hCG OcCG dG AGS dG```G EG ```aVEH ,```dG hCG

    .Ydc dH JG LQG

    dG dG gDe J SdG

  • afaf15

    IjL JcM G OcCG ```dG jGH e b eL THKh hQ ```d dPh ,I```jG ```dG ```e ```fjdG Y ,dGh ```dG e L Nh jdG ```f

    .QGOEGh OcCGOG Wa.O J a OcCG dG Y eCGd GYe G```Y dG ```dG H QG P```SCGiOT Y M b OG Wa.O fch ,HdG cCGh , 1979 S b eL HdG jQddGY Mh ,jeCG IG jdG dG SGQOQL eL e HdG GQ```cdG h LG ```LQOfch ,1997 ```S jeCG I```G ```jdTGhjN e I```G ddG ```efH ```e ```e ```J

    .2005,``dG ```S ffZ /IQ```cdG IPSCG ```J cdG d kFQ HdG H jHdG dG H PSCG````dG G S ffZ.O.G M , HfEH jHdG,1978 Y b eL ```e HdG jQdH LQO Y b eL ```e dG Yh ```HdG UN ```HOhe GQcdGh ```LG JOT Y ```Mh ,1980,1985 S ```HdG e ```jQH ```T Y ```eL b SFQ ````dG ```ffZ.G dJ ,JdG Y 1989OcCG dG ```HdG H jQdG ```Wh gG

    .(2004-2003)YG PSCG , ```TJH O /QcdG ```J hkFQ ```dG h GOBG H A```jdGh VjdG ```HO .O ```M ,AjdGh ```VjdG ```d ```HfEHeL e VjdG IGQcdG LQO Y ```TJHeL dH ```dGh ,1989 Y GdH ```SQGhd k```FQ Yh ,1997 ```Y e Ye P```SCc ```be IdG ```N b eL ```dG ```H ```VjdG

    2004-2001Sj /dG :e c J a QGOEG dG Y ```eCGIQGOEH OGG IQGOEG d kFQ - LG Le gGHEG - edG S Qe dG Y /dGh ,aGGh dG

    .jG IQGOEH YGh dG d kFQ kG```je ,QGdG ```Uf eS/ fBG ```J hUf/dG J c , dG hD```T H UGdG

    . dG IQGOEG G d kFQ ,G TGQ LQG bdG IQGOEG jQGOEG GdG H ehSeJPSCG SFHYEGbJYYEG GNDefhdEG ```bGG I```Mh AfEG ```c , ```LQL

    .QhN PSCG SFH

    gh g eeGdG I```Mh je ```dG ```dN Q```cdG ```YCG - dWh ```dW 2200 cCG CG ```b ```eH ```SCdGdG G j eG Nd S M G```eJ

    . adG jGG S ```e SOdG ```eG MG -Gh ,hd bh RZ b f dG hCG HdG,FEG IG CG ```efHh ,ISBG hD```d YCGjYQ Y dG ```G SGh,fdG ```ehAGQRdG FQ Ff dG M H dGY dG IOSdG Gh gGdG ```UQ EG YdGh bdG jRhgSh ,d SG G Vhh Hh ```dG LGJeG ```dGh SDG ```e OY DG ```J gCG hG dG ,d edG dG gh UGh

    .dGY dGY cTh ,QdG dGh ,jdG

    AYC dG gAd ```dGh GOBG c f - HG YH ```S 12 AHQCG ```j OG jQdG ```gY hVdG S IQcd H AdG CGH M hNdhJh O```G jQdG g A```YCH a ```MQ ```dGMh , dG G SdGh dG dGh dH

    . d dGh dG d gOL H Y G J ```Y U ```De ```HdG ```c ```YCG -IG ddG ```efH j dGh hCG ddG ```Dejj e SOdGh eG ```dH dG dG H

    .HdG c e dd ce AfEGh ,OdGW Y b ```eH G ```dG e ```YCG -IdG N edGh ```G jQdG eGdG e ```YSG efH ```Jh 2007 ```af HcCG e,BG SG IOd dhdG NdG ```efHh , jQGOEGdG efHh ,```H WdG d ```HdG dG ```efHh,fd FMEG ```dG efHh YCd ```jGe e UGdG h ,HQG OGYEGh jQJ efHh

    EG N e G dG [email protected]

    af 11 dG dG j -

    21-18 hCG ```G b ```Ve -af

    b eH LQG bdG IQGOEG gQJ jT If eG GffEG Y eG G be

    www.qu.edu.qa/home/publications/harem/index.htm

    ddG FUdG Y e UGdG [email protected]

    OdG Y Oe : hD``G Q```GS````dG `F``Y : cQe hQI````Y ``e : jJN``N`dG `M : G``NEGh ``JdG ````N ```e : hdEG bG

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