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  • City West Water’s

    Business Resource Efficiency Program

    Cameron FitzGerald

    General Manager Service Sustainability

  • Melbourne, Australia

    Λ Capital city of State of Victoria

    Λ Size: 8,806 km2

    Λ Population: 4.25 million

    Λ Manufacturing hub

  • City West Water Λ Victorian State Government owned and run

    on commercial basis

    Λ Provides water, sewage, trade waste and

    recycled water services to 389,551 customers

    Λ 37,210 (around 10%) of customers are

    commercial, industrial and institutional

    Λ Service area includes industrial hub and

    Melbourne’s CBD

    Λ Approximately 40% of the 103,000 ML

    (27,210 Mgal) per year of water supplied

    within the catchment is to CII customers

  • Λ 10/28/2014

    City West Water 4 2013 population

    4.25 million 1991 population

    2.5 million

    1933 population ~ 1 million

  • City West Water’s Ongoing

    Commitment to Water Efficiency

    Λ CWW strategic goals:

    • Efficient water users

    • Clean and efficient producers

    Λ Maintained core groups of water efficiency expertise

    Λ Support Government’s new approach

    • Melbourne’s Water Future

    • Integrated water cycle management central part of plan

  • Drivers for Establishing the

    Business Resource Efficiency Program

    Λ Initiated in 2003 to assist business customers to:

    • Improve water use efficiency in Melbourne’s Top 200 water users in

    response to severe drought – CWW had 104 of these customers

    • Reduce salt (total dissolved solids) and other critical contaminants in

    trade waste discharge to enable use of recycled water in agriculture

  • Early program Λ Salt reduction plan and water efficiency with industrial

    customers successful

    • Building on relationships established through industrial and

    business wastewater (trade waste) management

    • Some great early wins

    Λ Water efficiency with other commercial customers in Top

    104 not so successful

    • Difficulty engaging them with the service offering

    • Expensive “War and Peace” audit

    • Solutions not meeting customer need – flow control valves!

  • Program Design – keys to success

    Λ Customers want a level of certainty of success to engage in process

    Λ Simple audit with high level prioritised opportunities – waterMAP –

    low or no cost

    Λ Trusted and knowledgeable expert – staff or plumber to help them

    identify opportunities

    Λ Help to over come the barriers to implementation –expert advice, R

    and D, information, behavioural change materials

    Λ Benchmarking – how they compare to others of similar ilk

    Λ Incentives –rebates or tailored grants and with ease of access

    Λ Promotion and recognition of achievements

    Λ Relationships above all, established, developed and nurtured

  • WaterMAP Template

  • Expert Advice, Information, and

    Behavioural Change Materials{F06F7C50-9086-480B-B3BD-7C2F8C2F9E7A}&h=426&w=400&sz=77&hl=en&start=5&tbnid=OYkihIeNhpkbGM:&tbnh=126&tbnw=118&prev=/images?q=water+meters&gbv=2&svnum=10&hl=en&sa=G

  • Research & Development Λ Program assists customers to investigate

    barriers to water efficiency and recycling

    Λ Projects conducted in conjunction with:

    Λ Customers

    Λ Universities

    Λ Research institutions

    Λ Government agencies

    Λ Industry associations

    Λ Projects can be:

    Λ Customer specific

    Λ Industry sector based

    Λ Metropolitan wide

  • National Business Water Efficiency

    Benchmarking Project (NBweb)

    Λ Scope: To develop and display national sector

    specific water efficiency benchmarks

    Λ Cost: $AUD360,000 + in-kind

    Λ Outcomes:

    Λ Benchmarking methodology

    Λ Website and portal

    Λ 40 industry and climate specific benchmarks

    Λ Learnings:

    Λ Need many water utilities involved

    Λ Difficulty in getting customer data to create

    benchmarks – greatest opportunity while

    customers are engaged during drought!

  • Promotion of Customer


    Λ Case studies

    Λ Publications such as Liquid Assets

    Λ Website

    Λ External publications and conferences

    Λ Resource Efficiency Seminar

  • Customer Engagement

    Λ One on one relationship still most important

    Λ Person to do the initial investigations for them

    Λ Present them with opportunities and ways to realise them

    Λ Reduce red tape, bring funding opportunities to their desk

    Λ Quick wins important

    Λ Demonstrate how they can achieve $$ savings

    Λ Different tools for different business sizes

  • Results - Water

    Water reduction of 16.2 billions litres (4.3 billion gallons) per year compared to 00/01 levels








    2000/01 2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 2010/11 2011/12 2012/13

    M L


    Non-residential water use (ML)

    CWW Below 10ML CWW Above 10ML waterMAP

  • Water Energy Nexus

  • Water Energy Nexus Supply End-use Disposal

  • Melbourne’s Water Cycle Nexus

    Source: Adapted from Natural Resources Defense Council March 2009

    Minimal treatment

    • Disinfection

    • Fluoridation

    • pH correction

    • Sea water desal

    Source: Photos courtesy of Melbourne Water

    Thermodynamic processes:

    • Heating

    • Cooling


  • Water-Energy Nexus at

    End Use

  • Targeted Programs

    • Programs developed for specific equipment, processes or industry sectors

    • Developing program ideas:

    • Look for common equipment/processes across industry sectors

    • See what customers have done already

    • See what other water (and energy) utilities have done

    • Partnerships

  • Steam System Efficiency Program Λ Scope: Improve water and energy efficiency of steam systems

    Λ Cost: Total project $AUD230,000, including partner funding $AUD50,000

    Λ Methodology:

    Λ Provide free audits

    Λ Train operators to identify improvement opportunities

    Λ Produce reports quantifying water/energy/chemical savings

    Λ Help customers to implement saving opportunities

    Λ Savings identified:

    Λ 239 ML (63.1 Mgal) water per year

    Λ 187,000 gigajoules (1,772,418 therms) gas per year

    Λ 1 0,400 tonnes CO2-e per year

    Λ Implemented savings to date:

    Λ 10 ML (2.6 Mgal) water per year

    Λ 14,900 gigajoules (141,225 therms) gas per year

    Λ 784 tonnes CO2-e per year

    Λ Winner 2012 AWA National Program Innovation Award

  • Cooling Towers Efficiency Program

    Λ Scope: To assist businesses to optimise water savings through self management rather than

    capital investment

    Λ Project Partners: Victorian government, Australian Institute of Refrigeration Air-conditioning and


    Λ Outcomes:

    Λ Free cooling tower efficiency assessments

    Λ AIRAH training course

    Λ Guidance material on water efficiency incorporated into

    standard cooling tower operating procedures

    Λ On-line calculator

    Λ Check-meters to optimise water efficiency

    Λ Assessment outcomes integrated into waterMAPs

    Λ Potential savings1.7 billion litres (0.45 billion gallons) per year

    Λ Learnings:

    Λ Cooling towers more inefficient in regional areas

  • Pre Rinse Spray Valves Λ Scope: Exchange inefficient PRSV using 10-15 litres/min to efficient PRSV using 4-6 L (1-1.6

    gal) per min

    Λ Cost: $AUD146,147 for 367 PRSV

    Λ Technology: Fisher Rinse-maid spray valve

    Λ Methodology:

    Λ Identify customers with inefficient PRSV

    Λ Plumber exchanged PRSV

    Λ Savings:

    Λ 23.9 ML (6.3 Mgal) per year

    Λ 3,129 GJ (29,657 therms) per year

    Λ 160 tonnes CO2-e per year

    Λ Learnings:

    Λ Customers requiring hose and adaptor exchanges were greater than anticipated

    Λ Opportunities for “white certificates” for carbon reductions to improve business case

  • Showerhead Exchange

    Λ Scope: Provide water efficient showerheads to businesses

    Λ Cost: $AUD15 - 37 per showerhead