Biologia -- Field Identification Guide to the Living Marine Resources of the Eastern and Southern

Click here to load reader

  • date post

    16-Aug-2015
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    8
  • download

    1

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Biologia -- Field Identification Guide to the Living Marine Resources of the Eastern and Southern

ISSN 1020-6868

FAO SPECIES IDENTIFICATION GUIDE FOR FISHERY PURPOSES

FIELD IDENTIFICATION GUIDE TO THE LIVINGMARINE RESOURCES OF THE EASTERN ANDSOUTHERN MEDITERRANEAN

FAO SPECIES IDENTIFICATION GUIDE FOR FISHERY PURPOSES

FIELD IDENTIFICATION GUIDE TO THE LIVINGMARINE RESOURCES OF THE EASTERN ANDSOUTHERN MEDITERRANEAN

by

M. Bariche

Department of Biology, American University of Beirut, Lebanon

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS

Rome, 2012

2012Index

The designations employed and the presentation of material in thisLQIRUPDWLRQSURGXFWGRQRWLPSO\WKHH[SUHVVLRQRIDQ\RSLQLRQZKDWVRHYHUon the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United1DWLRQV)$2FRQFHUQLQJWKHOHJDORUGHYHORSPHQWVWDWXVRIDQ\FRXQWU\territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitationRILWVIURQWLHUVRUERXQGDULHV7KHPHQWLRQRIVSHFLFFRPSDQLHVRUSURGXFWVRIPDQXIDFWXUHUVZKHWKHURUQRWWKHVHKDYHEHHQSDWHQWHGdoes not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by FAOin preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned.7KHYLHZVH[SUHVVHGLQWKLVLQIRUPDWLRQSURGXFWDUHWKRVHRIWKHDXWKRUVDQGGRQRWQHFHVVDULO\UHHFWWKHYLHZVRI)$2

ISBN 978-92-5-006450-5

All rights reserved. FAO encourages reproduction and disseminationRIPDWHULDOLQWKLVLQIRUPDWLRQSURGXFW1RQFRPPHUFLDOXVHVZLOOEHauthorized free of charge, upon request. Reproduction for resale or othercommercial purposes, including educational purposes, may incur fees.Applications for permission to reproduce or disseminate FAO copyrightmaterials, and all queries concerning rights and licences, should beaddressed by e-mail to [email protected] or to the Chief, Publishing3ROLF\DQG6XSSRUW%UDQFK2IFHRI.QRZOHGJH([FKDQJH5HVHDUFKDQG([WHQVLRQ)$29LDOHGHOOH7HUPHGL&DUDFDOOD5RPH,WDO\ FAO 2012

ISBN 978-92-5-006450-5

[email protected] Policy and Support Branch2IFHRI.QRZOHGJH([FKDQJH5HVHDUFKDQG([WHQVLRQFAOViale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italy FAO 2012

PREPARATION OF THIS DOCUMENT

KLVHOGJXLGHZDVSUHSDUHGXQGHUWKHJHQHUDOVXSHUYLVLRQRIWKH6SHFLHV,GHQWLFDWLRQ DQG 'DWD 3URJUDPPH RI WKH 0DULQH 5HVRXUFHV 6HUYLFHFishery Resources and Environment Division, Fisheries Department, Food and$JULFXOWXUH2UJDQL]DWLRQRIWKH8QLWHG1DWLRQV)$25RPH,WDO\,WLVWKHUVW)$2HOGJXLGHWREHWUDQVODWHGLQWR$UDELFODQJXDJHIRUWKHEHQHWRI$UDELFspeaking countries of the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Sea. ProductionRIWKLVHOGJXLGHKDVEHHQVXSSRUWHGE\WKH(DVW0HG3URMHFW)RUPXODWLRQDQG3UHSDUDWRU\3KDVH*&3,17,7$DQGE\WKH)$25HJLRQDO2IFHIRUWKHNear East and North Africa, Cairo, Egypt.

GCP/INT/989/ITAEastMed

T

7KH EDVLF LQIRUPDWLRQ UHJDUGLQJ PDULQH RUJDQLVPV IRXQG LQ WKLV JXLGH ZDVacquired and compiled from various national facilitators from Eastern and6RXWKHUQ 0HGLWHUUDQHDQ FRXQWULHV 7KLV LQIRUPDWLRQ ZDV VXSSOHPHQWHG E\PDMRU ZRUNV VXFK DV )LVFKHU et al 6HUHQD &,(60$WODV RI([RWLF 6SHFLHV LQ WKH 0HGLWHUUDQHDQ DQG )$2 )LVKHULHV DQG $TXDFXOWXUH,QIRUPDWLRQDQG6WDWLVWLFV6HUYLFH7KH UHJLRQDO VFLHQWLF FRRUGLQDWLRQ ZKLFK LQYROYHG FROODWLQJ DQG LQWHJUDWLQJUHOHYDQW VFLHQWLF LQIRUPDWLRQ DQG FRQWULEXWLRQV DYDLODEOH IRU WKH UHJLRQ DQGIURPWKHQDWLRQDOH[SHUWVZDVGRQHE\WKHDXWKRUDWWKH'HSDUWPHQWRI%LRORJ\American University of Beirut, Lebanon.FishFinder programme manager:-)LVFKHU)$26FLHQWLFUHYLVHU1'H$QJHOLV)$2Arabic translation:,.URXPD)$2&RQVXOWDQW6\ULDArabic technical editor:,.URXPD)$2&RQVXOWDQW6\ULDEditorial assistance, page composition and indexing:0.DXWHQEHUJHU/RQJR)$26FLHQWLFLOOXVWUDWRU('$QWRQL)$2&RYHU('$QWRQL)$2

Fischer et al 6HUHQD &,(60 $WODV RI ([RWLF 6SHFLHV LQ WKH0HGLWHUUDQHDQ )$2 )LVKHULHV DQG $TXDFXOWXUH ,QIRUPDWLRQ DQG 6WDWLVWLFV6HUYLFH

Index

iii

ivBariche, M.)LHOGLGHQWLFDWLRQJXLGHWRWKHOLYLQJPDULQHUHVRXUFHVRIWKH(DVWHUQDQG6RXWKHUQ0HGLWHUUDQHDQ)$26SHFLHV,GHQWLFDWLRQ*XLGHIRU)LVKHU\3XUSRVHVRome, FAO. 2012. 610 pp.

610 .2012

7KLV HOG JXLGH FRYHUV PDMRU DQLPDO JURXSV RI WKH VRXWKHUQ DQG HDVWHUQ0HGLWHUUDQHDQ6HDLQFOXGLQJFUXVWDFHDQVPROOXVFVVHDXUFKLQVVKHVVHDWXUWOHVDQGPDULQHPDPPDOVWKDWFDQEHHQFRXQWHUHGLQVKHULHVODQGLQJVRQWKHPDUNHWRUDWVHD$WRWDORIVSHFLHVZDVVHOHFWHGDFFRUGLQJWRtheir economic interest, commonness, and endangered or invasive status.

372

7KHHOGJXLGHVWDUWVZLWKDEULHILQWURGXFWLRQFKDUDFWHULVLQJWKH0HGLWHUUDQHDQ6HDQRWDEO\EDVLFSK\VLFDODQGFKHPLFDOIHDWXUHVELRGLYHUVLW\DQGVKHULHV,W LV IROORZHG E\ D SLFWRULDO LQGH[ WR WKH GLIIHUHQW IDPLOLHV GHVFULEHG DQG DJORVVDU\RIWHUPV(DFKVHFWLRQFRQWDLQVDQLQWURGXFWLRQZLWKWHFKQLFDOWHUPVDQG PHDVXUHPHQWV RI D WD[RQRPLF JURXS DV ZHOO DV 2UGHU DQG )DPLO\FKDUDFWHULVWLFV DQG VSHFLHV DFFRXQWV (DFK DFFRXQW LQFOXGHV VFLHQWLFnomenclature, FAO common names, size, habitat and biology, importanceWR VKHULHV DQG GLVWULEXWLRQ DV ZHOO DV DQQRWDWHG LOOXVWUDWLRQV KLJKOLJKWLQJrelevant diagnostic features. Tables comprising vernacular names from theFRXQWULHVFRYHUHGE\WKHJXLGHDUHDOVRLQFOXGHG7KHHOGJXLGHLVWUDQVODWHGinto Arabic for better dissemination among Arabic-speakers, particularlyVKHUPHQ

Abstract

Acknowledgements

7KHDXWKRUZRXOGOLNHWRWKDQNDOOSHUVRQVZKRSURYLGHGKHOSLQWKHUHDOL]DWLRQRI WKLV ZRUN ZKHWKHU LW ZDV VFLHQWLF H[SHUWLVH HOG DVVLVWDQFH FULWLFDOcomments, translation, editing, or simply moral support.

1LQH VKHULHV H[SHUWV IURP YDULRXV FRXQWULHV FRYHUHG E\ WKH SUHVHQW ZRUNDFWHGDVQDWLRQDOIDFLOLWDWRUVDQGSURYLGHGWKHUDZGDWDXVHGLQWKHFXUUHQWHOGJXLGH7KHVHZHUH0RKDPPHG5DPGDQL8QLYHUVLW\0RKDPPHG95DEDWIRU0RURFFR%HQQRXL$]HGGLQH&HQWUH1DWLRQDOG(WXGHVHWGH'RFXPHQWDWLRQSRXUOD3rFKHHWO$TXDFXOWXUH7LSD]DIRU$OJHULD2WKPDQ-DUERXL,QVWLWXW1DWLRQDO GHV 6FLHQFHV HW 7HFKQRORJLHV GH OD 0HU 6DODPPE{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data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

EastMed ARPATARPATIndex

v

vi,QWHUXQLYHUVLWDULR GL %LRORJLD 0DULQD HG (FRORJLD$SSOLFDWD /LYRUQR ,WDO\ IRUFDUWLODJLQRXVVKHVDQG*LXOLD0R,VWLWXWR6XSHULRUHSHUOD3URWH]LRQHHOD5LFHUFD$PELHQWDOH5RPH,WDO\IRUSLQQLSHGVSincere thanks go to the FAO team for providing full assistance at all levelsGXULQJWKHSUHSDUDWLRQRIWKHPDQXVFULSWIURPGDWDJDWKHULQJWRQDOHGLWLQJ7KDQNVWR1LFROHWWD'H$QJHOLV(PDQXHOD'$QWRQL0LFKqOH.DXWHQEHUJHULongo and Monica Barone for their patience and dedication. I am also gratefulto Piero Mannini and Michel Lambuf for giving me the opportunity to produceWKLV ZRUN WR ,VVDP .URXPD )$2 &RQVXOWDQW 6\ULD IRU WKH WUDQVODWLRQ LQWR$UDELFDQGIRU$UDELFWHFKQLFDOHGLWRULDOZRUNDQGWR6DPLU0DMGDODQL)LVKHULHVDQG:LOGOLIH0LQLVWU\RI$JULFXOWXUH/HEDQRQIRUKLVFRQWLQXRXVVXSSRUWDQGhelp. I am also indebted to Mohamad Abdul Sater, Hana Ibrahim, Paul Ramia,Colin Smith and Nancy Sayar for their assistance and valuable help at differentOHYHOVRIWKLVZRUN,DPDOVRJUDWHIXOWR7RXIHHN$VVDOSURIHVVLRQDOVKHUPDQIURP%DWURXQIRUhis friendship, constant help and availability and for his incredible love to the0HGLWHUUDQHDQ6HD7KDQNVDUHDOVRH[SUHVVHGWRDOOWKH/HEDQHVHVKHUPHQIRU SURYLGLQJ PH ZLWK YDOXDEOH LQIRUPDWLRQ VSHFLPHQV DQG IRU UHJXODUO\reporting their catches.7KLV ZRUN LV GHGLFDWHG WR DOO VKHUPHQ DQJOHUV DQG SDVVLRQDWH RI WKHMediterranean Sea.

Table of Contents

PageINTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1

1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A PICTORIAL INDEX TO DIVISIONS AND FAMILIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

GLOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

52 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

INTRODUCTION TO ARTHROPODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

68 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

STOMATOPODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68Order Stomatopoda Mantis Shrimps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69SQUILLIDAE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

68 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .