Biblio Mhxanikhs n a Borbila

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2 0.5 1 2.5 430.751.53.756 u (m/s) - x (m) x (m) u (m/s)0 () ( - - )Q > 0 W > 0 : Q > 0 : W > 0Q < 0W < 0 : W < 0 : Q < 0 2006 ( - - ) . , , . , ! . . . . . H. Young, Physics, Part 1 and 2, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., USA, 1992, . . . . Mathcad 2001 Professional MathSoft Inc . . Mathcad , . . Mathcad 2001 Professional, . , . , . . ....1 6 ...9 6-1. 6-2. 6-3. 6-4. 6-5. 7 15 7-1. 7-2. ( ) , , 8 43 - - - 8-1. 8-2. 8-3. 8-4. 8-6. (m1 , v1 ) (m2 = m1/ , v2) (m1 , v1 ) (m2 = m1/ , v2) 9 ...63 9-0. 9-1. 9-2. 9-3. 9-4. 10 69 10-1. 10-2. 10-5. ( ) 10-7. - 12 .87 12-1. ( ) 12-2. 12-3. 12-5. 12-6. KEPLER (1571 - 1630) 12-9. 13 .97 13-1. 13-2. ... 13-3. ... 13-4. 13-5. 13-7. 13-8. 13-9. : 15 129 15-1. 15-5. DEBYE 15-7. - STEFAN-BOLTZMANN 15-8. (IC) 17 .135 17-1. , 17-2. 17-3. 17-4. U 17-5. 18 143 18-1. 18-5. 18-6. CARNOT (1796-1832) 18-7. 19 .153 19-1. 19-2. 19-3. 19-4. 19-5. 20 .165 20-0. 20-1. 20-2. [ ] 20-3. 21 .173 21-1. 21-2. 21-3. 21-3. DOPPLER 21-6. 22 .185 . . 23 191 - 23 .219 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. ( ) 10. (kg/m3) 300 11. . 25 oC 12. (m/s) 25 oC ( ) 13. ( 1 Mz) 14. ( ) 15. (m/s) 25 oC ( ) 16. 17. . rad/s. ....233 H S. I. ( - 1960) 1. t: (s). , (Cs). , f, . , 9.192.631.770 . 1967 (!).2. l: (m). , . 1/299.792.458s. 299.792.458m/s. 1983 (!). 3. m: (kg). (78Pt) (77Ir) . . 1960 (!). 4. i: (A - Amper). 5. : (K - Kelvin).6. J: (cd - ).7. MOLE: (mole mol = 6.023x1023). : (rad - ). 2 . : (sr - ). 4 . :http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/hph.htmlhttp://www.aps.org/http://cds.cern.ch/http://xxx.lanl.gov/http://www.physics.ntua.gr/http://www.iop.org/http://scitation.aip.org/1H yottazettaexapetateragigamegakilohectodekadecicentimillimicronanopicofemtoattozeptoyoctoYZEPTGMkhdadcmnpfazy102410211018101510121091061031001010 1 10 2 10 3 10 6 10 9 10 12 10 15 10 18 10 21 10 24 15 . 5.5 . 65 . 2H 300 . Homo Sapiens ( ) 250.000 . 2000 ( 1912). "" , 30 . 120 2.000.000/s. . " " 60-70 /min. 10-10 s. 10 1021 m ( 100.000 10.000 ). 500.000 km/h. 3 ! 5x108 m. 6.106 m. H "" 117 m.3H 1.5 m. 10-5 m. 10-10 m. 10-15 m. 10-5m 10-9m 10-10m 10-14m 10-15m 10-18m , 4H (mol) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( 1-18 a, b, c 21 Hugh D. Young). W F s W Fs = W Fx cos Fx,( ) = A = A cos A,( ) = ( ). 1-20 a, b 22 Hugh D. Young).5H (a = 0) (a = ct) - - - , L :s u , p F, W P :tudd =tsddu =tMdd() . - t.: ( ) ( )Lrp = ur = rFirxFxjryFykrzFz= rF = 6Hz 0 = y 0 = x 0 = 0 =z 0 = y 0 = x 0 = 0 = () ():az 0 = ay 0 = ax 0 = a 0 =Fz 0 = Fy 0 = Fx 0 = F 0 = () : . (1642 - 1686 "Philosophia Naturalis Principia Mathematica" { } - 1727) ( - NEWTON - EINSTEIN) 1 : ( ) , . ! . . ! - - - - - - -. , - - - . - - - - - - - , ( 20 ). 1. (a. = 0, a. = ) (a. = ct) 2. . ( ) . ( )7H2: ( - ) ( , ) .Fm = m = ct. Ftpdd= m = ct. 3: - [ ! ]. ( ), , , , . ( ) ( - ) 1. 2. 3. 4. - . { , 1., }. - . { , 2. }. - . { 3. , ( )}. - W+, W-, Zo. { 4. , }. : { + }.8. 6 (). 90 deg cos Fs,( )< 180 deg 3. : ( ). cos Fs,( ) 90 deg = 2. : ( ). 0 deg cos Fs,( ) 90 deg < 1. :W F s cos ( ) = W Fs =sOF F6-2. ( ): U = mgy 1. ( ): U = kx2/2 F = -kx 2. 1.: K = mu2/2 2. 6-1. 6 9. 6 x c cd c 1000+ , d .. := d x1:= c x2:= x: : . . . . : ( ), ( Coulomb). : ( ), .W121 0J = W121W12W21+ :=()W21 5.25 J = W21x2x1x F x ( )d := Hooke x2 x1 :()W12 5.25 J = W12x1x2x F x ( )d := Hooke x1 x2 : .F x2( ) 900N = F x1( ) 1.2 103 N = :F x ( ) k x := Hooke :x2 0.015 m := x1 0.020 m := k 6 104Nm := : Hooke. k x1 x2. Hooke . F s x . s x, W. .6-3. 10. 6 0.015 0.01 0.005 0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.0210001000F () x (m) F x2( )F x1( )F x ( )x1x2x , ( ) . () - 6-4. () W12 5.25 J = W12E10E02+ :=() E02 6.75 J =E02 12x2 F x2( ) := :() E10 12J =E10 12x1 F x1( ) := : Hooke x1 x2 : Hooke Hooke11. 6 Www H cos 0 deg ( ) = Ww 0 > .WRwH = WR0Hx R x ( )d = WR 0 < .(): 12m u2 12m uo2 WwWR+ = u uo2 2mWwWR+( ) + = u uo(!). 6-5. W t. Pav :Pav Wt= P : P0 tWtlim= PtWdd= F u, P :: . . :dudt= dudxdxdt = ududx =Wx1x2x Fd = Wx1x2x m d = Wx1x2x m u dudxd = Wu1u2u m u d = W 12mu22 12mu12 = m H uo , u ( . ;). . w, ( g = ) , , . R, , . Ww w . . WR R . : WwwH =12. 6 P Fu = P Fu cos Fu,( ) =1. : 0 deg cos Fu,( ) 90 deg 0 8. p-V. . 9. b ( ) . ( ) 10. . . 11. ( ) 12. ( ) . . 13. , 14. . . 15.188. 23 F t1( ) 6 N =tpdd 6kg m s = . dL/dt . uo : uo 0ms := u : u t ( ) uo0 s ttF t ( )m((d + := u t1( ) 103 ms= t = 2s : P t1( )F t1( )u t1( ) cos 0 deg ( ) := P t1( ) 20 W = : Pmean 1t112m u t1( ) ( )2

(( 0

(( := Pmean 5.556 W = 23 1 ( ) m = 2Kg, ( , uo = 0), 15s, F , ( SI).(m1)u F A BxF t ( ) t2 + = m 2 kg = 2 N = 1Ns2 =) dp/dt dL/dt 2s.) 2s. ) F 2s. ) F 2s.) m 2 kg := 2 N := 1Ns2 := t 0 5 s .. := F t ( ) t2 + :=t1 2 s :=tpddF t ( ) =189. 23 F x ( ) a b x2 + := WF0 m xox F x ( )(d := WF 7.333 J =) 12m u2 12k xo2 + WF= uo 1mm k xo2 2 WF |\ |.

(12 := uo 3.559 ms=1mm k xo2 2 WF |\ |.

(121 mm k xo2 2 WF |\ |.

(12

(((((((( uo 1 mm k xo2 2 WF |\ |.

(12 := uo 3.559 ms= 2 m = 1kg . k = 200/m . F ( ) Strmax = 100. , : F(x) = a +bx2, : a = 60, b = 4.000N/s x .) WF F . ) u ;) ;(m)Fx (k)) a 60N := b 4000Nm2 := Strmax 100 N := m 1 kg := k 200Nm :=F x ( ) a b x2 + = a b x2 + Strmax 0 = xo 1bb a Strmax( )

(12 := xo 0.1m = 1bb a Strmax( )

(121 bb a Strmax( )

(12

((((((( 1 bb a Strmax( )

(12 0.1 m =190. 23 r cos t ( ) x sin t ( ) y + = ) :) (x, y).) a.) ( ) , . ) F . . x y . y x : , , , , t , r cos t ( ) x sin t ( ) y + = 3 m : F WF0 m xox F x ( )(d =F x ( ) a b x2 + =0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.086080100120 F(N) - x (m)100NF x ( )xoxu022xo2 +|\ |.12u022xo2 +|\ |.12

((((((((((A 0.271 m = Auo22xo2 +|\ |.12:= u022B2x02|\ |. = 14.142rads= km:= )191. 23 Lrp = Lm r = Lmx cos t ( ) sin t ( ) y sin t ( ) cos t ( ) z 00|

\||. = Lm 0 x 0 y + z +|\ |. = Lx0 = Ly0 = Lz m z = ) Fm a = Fm 2 r = rF = rm 2 r( ) = m 2 rr( ) = 0 = tLdd 0 = L = . ' L = mur . , r p .Lrm u = L m u r sin =x cos t ( ) =xcos t ( ) =x|

\ |.2cos t ( ) ( )2= y sin t ( ) =ysin t ( ) =y|

\ |.2sin t ( ) ( )2= (0, 0). M 2 (xx') 2 (yy'). x22y22+ 1 =) : r cos t ( ) x sin t ( ) y + =trdd= sin t ( ) x cos t ( ) y + = atdd= a 2 cos t ( ) x 2 sin t ( ) y = a2 r = ) pm = pm sin t ( ) x cos t ( ) y +|\ |. = 192. 23 r r. F r. = 0 =: tLdd= L =) U r Uo, ro,( )Uoror|

\ |.2ror|

\ |.3+

((( := rU r Uo, ro,( )ddUo 2ro2r3 3ro3r4 |

\|. D1r ( )rU r Uo