Bible - Hymns · 2 3 HEBREWBIBLE The Kennicott Bible, by Benjamin Kennicott, with illustration,...

Bible For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). “Biblical” redirects here. For the song by Biffy Clyro, see Biblical (song). The Gutenberg Bible, the first printed Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, “the books”) is a collection of texts sacred in Judaism and Christianity. It is a collection of scriptures written at dif- ferent times by different authors in different locations. Jews and Christians consider the books of the Bible to be a product of divine inspiration or an authoritative record of the relationship between God and humans. There is no single canonical “Bible”; many Bibles have evolved, with overlapping and diverging contents. [1] The Christian Old Testament overlaps with the Hebrew Bible and the Greek Septuagint; the Hebrew Bible is known in Judaism as the Tanakh. The New Testament is a collec- tion of writings by early Christians, consisting of narra- tives, letters and apocalyptic writings. Among Christian denominations there is some disagreement about the con- tents of the canon, primarily in the Apocrypha, a list of works that are regarded with varying levels of respect. Attitudes towards the Bible also vary amongst Christian groups. Roman Catholics, Anglicans and Eastern Or- thodox Christians stress the harmony and importance of the Bible and sacred tradition, while Protestant churches focus on the idea of sola scriptura, or scripture alone. This concept arose during the Protestant Reformation, and many denominations today continue to support the use of the Bible as the only source of Christian teaching. With estimated total sales of over 5 billion copies, the Bible is widely considered to be the best selling book of all time. [2][3] It has estimated annual sales of 100 million copies, [4][5] and has been a major influence on literature and history, especially in the West where the Gutenberg Bible was the first mass-printed book. It was the first book ever printed using movable type. 1 Etymology The English word Bible is from the Latin biblia, from the same word in Medieval Latin and Late Latin and ulti- mately from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία ta biblia “the books” (singular βιβλίον biblion). [6] Medieval Latin biblia is short for biblia sacra “holy book”, while biblia in Greek and Late Latin is neuter plural (gen. bibliorum). It gradually came to be regarded as a fem- inine singular noun (biblia, gen. bibliae) in medieval Latin, and so the word was loaned as a singular into the vernaculars of Western Europe. [7] Latin biblia sacra “holy books” translates Greek τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια ta biblia ta hagia, “the holy books”. [8] The word βιβλίον itself had the literal meaning of “pa- per” or “scroll” and came to be used as the ordinary word for "book". It is the diminutive of βύβλος byblos, “Egyp- tian papyrus”, possibly so called from the name of the Phoenician sea port Byblos (also known as Gebal) from whence Egyptian papyrus was exported to Greece. The Greek ta biblia (lit. “little papyrus books”) [9] was “an ex- pression Hellenistic Jews used to describe their sacred books (the Septuagint). [10][11] Christian use of the term can be traced to c. 223 CE. [6] The biblical scholar F.F. Bruce notes that Chrysostom appears to be the first writer (in his Homilies on Matthew, delivered between 386 and 388) to use the Greek phrase ta biblia (“the books”) to describe both the Old and New Testaments together. [12] 2 Development See also: Authorship of the Bible Professor John K. Riches, Professor of Divinity and Bib- lical Criticism at the University of Glasgow, in an Oxford University Press introduction to the Bible, says that “the biblical texts themselves are the result of a creative di- alogue between ancient traditions and different commu- nities through the ages”, [13] and “the biblical texts were produced over a period in which the living conditions of the writers – political, cultural, economic, and ecolog- ical – varied enormously”. [14] Timothy H. Lim, a pro- fessor of Hebrew Bible and Second Temple Judaism at 1

Transcript of Bible - Hymns · 2 3 HEBREWBIBLE The Kennicott Bible, by Benjamin Kennicott, with illustration,...

Page 1: Bible - Hymns · 2 3 HEBREWBIBLE The Kennicott Bible, by Benjamin Kennicott, with illustration, Jonahbeingswallowedbythefish,1476 theUniversityofEdinburgh,saysthattheOldTestament


For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation).“Biblical” redirects here. For the song by Biffy Clyro,see Biblical (song).

The Gutenberg Bible, the first printed Bible

The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, “thebooks”) is a collection of texts sacred in Judaism andChristianity. It is a collection of scriptures written at dif-ferent times by different authors in different locations.Jews and Christians consider the books of the Bible to bea product of divine inspiration or an authoritative recordof the relationship between God and humans.There is no single canonical “Bible”; many Bibles haveevolved, with overlapping and diverging contents.[1] TheChristian Old Testament overlaps with the Hebrew Bibleand the Greek Septuagint; the Hebrew Bible is known inJudaism as the Tanakh. The New Testament is a collec-tion of writings by early Christians, consisting of narra-tives, letters and apocalyptic writings. Among Christiandenominations there is some disagreement about the con-tents of the canon, primarily in the Apocrypha, a list ofworks that are regarded with varying levels of respect.Attitudes towards the Bible also vary amongst Christiangroups. Roman Catholics, Anglicans and Eastern Or-thodox Christians stress the harmony and importance ofthe Bible and sacred tradition, while Protestant churchesfocus on the idea of sola scriptura, or scripture alone.This concept arose during the Protestant Reformation,and many denominations today continue to support theuse of the Bible as the only source of Christian teaching.With estimated total sales of over 5 billion copies, theBible is widely considered to be the best selling book ofall time.[2][3] It has estimated annual sales of 100 millioncopies,[4][5] and has been a major influence on literatureand history, especially in the West where the Gutenberg

Bible was the first mass-printed book. It was the firstbook ever printed using movable type.

1 Etymology

The English word Bible is from the Latin biblia, from thesame word in Medieval Latin and Late Latin and ulti-mately from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία ta biblia “the books”(singular βιβλίον biblion).[6]

Medieval Latin biblia is short for biblia sacra “holy book”,while biblia in Greek and Late Latin is neuter plural (gen.bibliorum). It gradually came to be regarded as a fem-inine singular noun (biblia, gen. bibliae) in medievalLatin, and so the word was loaned as a singular into thevernaculars of Western Europe.[7] Latin biblia sacra “holybooks” translates Greek τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια ta biblia tahagia, “the holy books”.[8]

The word βιβλίον itself had the literal meaning of “pa-per” or “scroll” and came to be used as the ordinary wordfor "book". It is the diminutive of βύβλος byblos, “Egyp-tian papyrus”, possibly so called from the name of thePhoenician sea port Byblos (also known as Gebal) fromwhence Egyptian papyrus was exported to Greece. TheGreek ta biblia (lit. “little papyrus books”)[9] was “an ex-pression Hellenistic Jews used to describe their sacredbooks (the Septuagint).[10][11] Christian use of the termcan be traced to c. 223 CE.[6] The biblical scholar F.F.Bruce notes that Chrysostom appears to be the first writer(in his Homilies on Matthew, delivered between 386 and388) to use the Greek phrase ta biblia (“the books”) todescribe both the Old and New Testaments together.[12]

2 Development

See also: Authorship of the Bible

Professor John K. Riches, Professor of Divinity and Bib-lical Criticism at the University of Glasgow, in an OxfordUniversity Press introduction to the Bible, says that “thebiblical texts themselves are the result of a creative di-alogue between ancient traditions and different commu-nities through the ages”,[13] and “the biblical texts wereproduced over a period in which the living conditions ofthe writers – political, cultural, economic, and ecolog-ical – varied enormously”.[14] Timothy H. Lim, a pro-fessor of Hebrew Bible and Second Temple Judaism at


Page 2: Bible - Hymns · 2 3 HEBREWBIBLE The Kennicott Bible, by Benjamin Kennicott, with illustration, Jonahbeingswallowedbythefish,1476 theUniversityofEdinburgh,saysthattheOldTestament


The Kennicott Bible, by Benjamin Kennicott, with illustration,Jonah being swallowed by the fish, 1476

the University of Edinburgh, says that the Old Testamentis “a collection of authoritative texts of apparently di-vine origin that went through a human process of writ-ing and editing.”[15] He states that it is not a magicalbook, nor was it literally written by God and passed tomankind. Parallel to the solidification of the Hebrewcanon (c. 3rd century BCE), only the Torah first andthan the Tanakh began to be translated into Greek andexpanded, now referred to as the Septuagint or the GreekOld Testament.[16]

In Christian Bibles, the New Testament Gospels were de-rived from oral traditions in the second half of the firstcentury CE. Riches says that:

Scholars have attempted to reconstructsomething of the history of the oral traditionsbehind the Gospels, but the results have notbeen too encouraging. The period of transmis-sion is short: less than 40 years passed betweenthe death of Jesus and the writing of Mark’sGospel. This means that there was little timefor oral traditions to assume fixed form.[17]

The Bible was later translated into Latin and other lan-guages. John Riches states that:

The translation of the Bible into Latinmarks the beginning of a parting of the waysbetween Western Latin-speaking Christianityand Eastern Christianity, which spoke Greek,Syriac, Coptic, Ethiopic, and other languages.The Bibles of the Eastern Churches vary con-siderably: the Ethiopic Orthodox canon in-cludes 81 books and contains many apocalyptictexts, such as were found at Qumran and sub-sequently excluded from the Jewish canon. As

a general rule, one can say that the OrthodoxChurches generally follow the Septuagint in in-cluding more books in their Old Testamentsthan are in the Jewish canon.[17]

3 Hebrew Bible

Main article: Development of the Hebrew Bible canonThe Masoretic Text is the authoritative Hebrew text of

The Nash Papyrus (2nd century BCE) contains a portion of apre-Masoretic Text, specifically the Ten Commandments and theShema Yisrael prayer.

the Hebrew Bible, or Tanakh. It defines the books of theJewish canon, and also the precise letter-text of these bib-lical books, with their vocalization and accentuation.The oldest extant manuscripts of the Masoretic Textdate from approximately the 9th century CE,[18] and theAleppo Codex (once the oldest complete copy of the Ma-soretic Text, but now missing its Torah section) datesfrom the 10th century.The name Tanakh (Hebrew: (תנ"ך reflects the threefolddivision of the Hebrew Scriptures, Torah (“Teaching”),Nevi'im (“Prophets”) and Ketuvim (“Writings”).

Page 3: Bible - Hymns · 2 3 HEBREWBIBLE The Kennicott Bible, by Benjamin Kennicott, with illustration, Jonahbeingswallowedbythefish,1476 theUniversityofEdinburgh,saysthattheOldTestament

3.2 Nevi'im 3

3.1 Torah

Main article: TorahSee also: Oral Torah

The Torah (ּתֹוָרה) is also known as the “Five Books ofMoses" or the Pentateuch, meaning “five scroll-cases”.[19]

A common hypothesis among biblical scholars today isthat the first major comprehensive draft of the Torahwas composed in the late 7th or the 6th century BC(the Jahwist source), and that this was later expanded bythe addition of various narratives and laws (the Priestlysource) into a work very like the one existing today.The Hebrew names of the books are derived from the firstwords in the respective texts. The Torah consists of thefollowing five books:

• Genesis, Bereshith (בראשית)

• Exodus, Shemot (שמות)

• Leviticus, Vayikra (ויקרא)

• Numbers, Bamidbar (במדבר)

• Deuteronomy, Devarim (דברים)

The first eleven chapters of Genesis provide accounts ofthe creation (or ordering) of the world and the historyof God’s early relationship with humanity. The remain-ing thirty-nine chapters of Genesis provide an accountof God’s covenant with the Biblical patriarchs Abraham,Isaac and Jacob (also called Israel) and Jacob’s children,the "Children of Israel", especially Joseph. It tells of howGod commanded Abraham to leave his family and homein the city of Ur, eventually to settle in the land of Canaan,and how the Children of Israel later moved to Egypt. Theremaining four books of the Torah tell the story of Moses,who lived hundreds of years after the patriarchs. He leadsthe Children of Israel from slavery in Ancient Egypt tothe renewal of their covenant with God at Mount Sinaiand their wanderings in the desert until a new generationwas ready to enter the land of Canaan. The Torah endswith the death of Moses.[20]

The Torah contains the commandments of God, revealedat Mount Sinai (although there is some debate amongtraditional scholars as to whether these were all writ-ten down at one time, or over a period of time duringthe 40 years of the wanderings in the desert, while sev-eral modern Jewish movements reject the idea of a lit-eral revelation, and critical scholars believe that many ofthese laws developed later in Jewish history).[21][22][23][24]

These commandments provide the basis for Jewish reli-gious law. Tradition states that there are 613 command-ments (taryag mitzvot).

3.2 Nevi'im

Main article: Nevi'im

Nevi'im (Hebrew: , Nəḇî'îmְנִביִאים “Prophets”) is the sec-ond main division of the Tanakh, between the Torah andKetuvim. It contains two sub-groups, the Former Prophets( Rishonim Nevi'imראשונים ,נביאים the narrative booksof Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings) and the LatterProphets ( Aharonim Nevi'imאחרונים ,נביאים the booksof Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezekiel and the Twelve MinorProphets).The Nevi'im tell the story of the rise of the Hebrewmonarchy and its division into two kingdoms, ancientIsrael and Judah, focusing on conflicts between the Is-raelites and other nations, and conflicts among Israelites,specifically, struggles between believers in “the LORDGod”[25] and believers in foreign gods,[26][27] and the crit-icism of unethical and unjust behavior of Israelite elitesand rulers;[28][29][30] in which prophets played a crucialand leading role. It ends with the conquest of the King-dom of Israel by the Assyrians followed by the conquestof the Kingdom of Judah by the Babylonians and the de-struction of the Temple in Jerusalem.

3.2.1 Former Prophets

The Former Prophets are the books Joshua, Judges,Samuel and Kings. They contain narratives that beginimmediately after the death of Moses with the divine ap-pointment of Joshua as his successor, who then leads thepeople of Israel into the Promised Land, and end withthe release from imprisonment of the last king of Judah.Treating Samuel and Kings as single books, they cover:

• Joshua’s conquest of the land of Canaan (in the Bookof Joshua),

• the struggle of the people to possess the land (in theBook of Judges),

• the people’s request to God to give them a king sothat they can occupy the land in the face of theirenemies (in the Books of Samuel)

• the possession of the land under the divinely ap-pointed kings of the House of David, ending in con-quest and foreign exile (Books of Kings)

3.2.2 Latter Prophets

The Latter Prophets are divided into two groups, the“major” prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezekiel, and theTwelve Minor Prophets, collected into a single book:

• Hosea, Hoshea (הושע)

• Joel, Yoel (יואל)

Page 4: Bible - Hymns · 2 3 HEBREWBIBLE The Kennicott Bible, by Benjamin Kennicott, with illustration, Jonahbeingswallowedbythefish,1476 theUniversityofEdinburgh,saysthattheOldTestament


• Amos, Amos (עמוס)

• Obadiah, Ovadyah (עבדיה)

• Jonah, Yonah (יונה)

• Micah, Mikhah (מיכה)

• Nahum, Nahum (נחום)

• Habakkuk, Havakuk (חבקוק)

• Zephaniah, Tsefanya (צפניה)

• Haggai, Khagay (חגי)

• Zechariah, Zekharyah (זכריה)

• Malachi, Malakhi (מלאכי)

3.3 Ketuvim

Main article: Ketuvim

Ketuvim or Kəṯûḇîm (in Biblical Hebrew: ְּכתּוִבים “writ-ings”) is the third and final section of the Tanakh. TheKetuvim are believed to have been written under theRuach HaKodesh (the Holy Spirit) but with one level lessauthority than that of prophecy.[31]

3.3.1 The poetic books

In Masoretic manuscripts (and some printed editions),Psalms, Proverbs and Job are presented in a special two-column form emphasizing the parallel stichs in the verses,which are a function of their poetry. Collectively, thesethree books are known as Sifrei Emet (an acronym of thetitles in Hebrew, תהלים משלי, איוב, yields Emet ,אמ"תwhich is also the Hebrew for "truth").These three books are also the only ones in Tanakh witha special system of cantillation notes that are designedto emphasize parallel stichs within verses. However, thebeginning and end of the book of Job are in the normalprose system.

3.3.2 The five scrolls (Hamesh Megillot)

The five relatively short books of Song of Songs, Book ofRuth, the Book of Lamentations, Ecclesiastes and Bookof Esther are collectively known as the Hamesh Megillot(Five Megillot). These are the latest books collected anddesignated as “authoritative” in the Jewish canon eventhough they were not complete until the 2nd centuryCE.[32]

3.3.3 Other books

Besides the three poetic books and the five scrolls, the re-maining books in Ketuvim are Daniel, Ezra–Nehemiahand Chronicles. Although there is no formal groupingfor these books in the Jewish tradition, they neverthelessshare a number of distinguishing characteristics:

• Their narratives all openly describe relatively lateevents (i.e., the Babylonian captivity and the subse-quent restoration of Zion).

• The Talmudic tradition ascribes late authorship toall of them.

• Two of them (Daniel and Ezra) are the only booksin the Tanakh with significant portions in Aramaic.

3.3.4 Order of the books

Coloured title page from the Bishops’ Bible quarto edition of1569, the British Museum. Queen Elizabeth sits in the centre onher throne. The words on the four columns read justice, mercy,fortitude and prudence, attributing these traits to the queen. Textat the bottom reads “God Save the Queene”.

The following list presents the books of Ketuvim in theorder they appear in most printed editions. It also dividesthem into three subgroups based on the distinctiveness ofSifrei Emet and Hamesh Megillot.The Three Poetic Books (Sifrei Emet)

Page 5: Bible - Hymns · 2 3 HEBREWBIBLE The Kennicott Bible, by Benjamin Kennicott, with illustration, Jonahbeingswallowedbythefish,1476 theUniversityofEdinburgh,saysthattheOldTestament

3.4 Original languages 5

• Tehillim (Psalms) ְתִהִּלים

• Mishlei (Book of Proverbs) ִמְשֵלי

• Iyyôbh (Book of Job) ִאּיֹוב

The Five Megillot (Hamesh Megillot)

• Shīr Hashshīrīm (Song of Songs) or (Song ofSolomon) ַהׁשִׁשיִרים ִׁשיר (Passover)

• Rūth (Book of Ruth) רּות (Shābhû‘ôth)

• Eikhah (Lamentations) איכה (Ninth of Av) [Alsocalled Kinnot in Hebrew.]

• Qōheleth (Ecclesiastes) קהלת (Sukkôth)

• Estēr (Book of Esther) ֶאְסֵתר (Pûrîm)

Other books

• Dānî’ēl (Book of Daniel) ָּדִנֵּיאל

• ‘Ezrā (Book of Ezra-Book of Nehemiah) עזרא

• Divrei ha-Yamim (Chronicles) הימים דברי

The Jewish textual tradition never finalized the orderof the books in Ketuvim. The Babylonian Talmud(Bava Batra 14b-15a) gives their order as Ruth, Psalms,Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, Lamen-tations of Jeremiah, Daniel, Scroll of Esther, Ezra,Chronicles.[33]

In Tiberian Masoretic codices, including the AleppoCodex and the Leningrad Codex, and often in old Spanishmanuscripts as well, the order is Chronicles, Psalms, Job,Proverbs, Ruth, Song of Solomon, Ecclesiastes, Lamen-tations of Jeremiah, Esther, Daniel, Ezra.[34]

3.3.5 Canonization

The Ketuvim is the last of the three portions of theTanakh to have been accepted as biblical canon. Whilethe Torah may have been considered canon by Israel asearly as the 5th century BCE and the Former and LatterProphets were canonized by the 2nd century BCE, theKetuvim was not a fixed canon until the 2nd century ofthe Common Era.[35]

Evidence suggests, however, that the people of Israel wereadding what would become the Ketuvim to their holy lit-erature shortly after the canonization of the prophets. Asearly as 132 BCE references suggest that the Ketuvim wasstarting to take shape, although it lacked a formal title.[36]

References in the four Gospels as well as other books ofthe New Testament indicate that many of these texts wereboth commonly known and counted as having some de-gree of religious authority early in the 1st century CE.

Many scholars believe that the limits of the Ketuvim ascanonized scripture were determined by the Council ofJamnia c. 90 CE. Against Apion, the writing of Josephusin 95 CE, treated the text of the Hebrew Bible as a closedcanon to which "... no one has ventured either to add, orto remove, or to alter a syllable...”[37] For a long time fol-lowing this date the divine inspiration of Esther, the Songof Songs, and Ecclesiastes was often under scrutiny.[38]

3.4 Original languages

The Tanakh was mainly written in biblical Hebrew, withsome portions (Ezra 4:8–6:18 and 7:12–26, Jeremiah10:11, Daniel 2:4–7:28) in biblical Aramaic, a sister lan-guage which became the lingua franca of the Semiticworld.[39]

4 Septuagint

Main article: Septuagint

The Septuagint, or LXX, is a translation of the He-brew scriptures and some related texts into Koine Greek,begun in the late 3rd century BCE and completed by132 BCE,[40][41][42] initially in Alexandria, but in timeelsewhere as well.[43] It is not altogether clear whichwas translated when, or where; some may even havebeen translated twice, into different versions, and thenrevised.[44]

As the work of translation progressed, the canon of theGreek Bible expanded. The Torah always maintained itspre-eminence as the basis of the canon but the collec-tion of prophetic writings, based on the Nevi'im, had var-ious hagiographical works incorporated into it. In ad-dition, some newer books were included in the Septu-agint, among these are the Maccabees and the Wisdomof Sirach. However, the book of Sirach, is now knownto have been existed in a Hebrew version, since ancientHebrew manuscripts of it were rediscovered in moderntimes. The Septuagint version of some Biblical books,like Daniel and Esther, are longer than those in the Jewishcanon.[45] Some of these deuterocanonical books (e.g. theWisdom of Solomon, and the second book of Maccabees)were not translated, but composed directly in Greek.Since Late Antiquity, once attributed to a hypotheticallate 1st-century Council of Jamnia, mainstream RabbinicJudaism rejected the Septuagint as valid Jewish scripturaltexts. Several reasons have been given for this. First,some mistranslations were claimed. Second, the He-brew source texts used for the Septuagint differed fromthe Masoretic tradition of Hebrew texts, which was cho-sen as canonical by the Jewish rabbis.[46] Third, the rab-bis wanted to distinguish their tradition from the newlyemerging tradition of Christianity.[42][47] Finally, the rab-bis claimed a divine authority for the Hebrew language,

Page 6: Bible - Hymns · 2 3 HEBREWBIBLE The Kennicott Bible, by Benjamin Kennicott, with illustration, Jonahbeingswallowedbythefish,1476 theUniversityofEdinburgh,saysthattheOldTestament


in contrast to Aramaic or Greek – even though these lan-guages were the lingua franca of Jews during this period(and Aramaic would eventually be given a holy languagestatus comparable to Hebrew).[48]

The Septuagint is the basis for the Old Latin, Slavonic,Syriac, Old Armenian, Old Georgian and Coptic versionsof the Christian Old Testament.[49] The Roman Catholicand Eastern Orthodox Churches use most of the books ofthe Septuagint, while Protestant churches usually do not.After the Protestant Reformation, many Protestant Biblesbegan to follow the Jewish canon and exclude the addi-tional texts, which came to be called Biblical apocrypha.The Apocrypha are included under a separate heading inthe King James Version of the Bible, the basis for theRevised Standard Version.[50]

4.1 Incorporations from Theodotion

In most ancient copies of the Bible which contain the Sep-tuagint version of the Old Testament, the Book of Danielis not the original Septuagint version, but instead is a copyof Theodotion's translation from the Hebrew, which moreclosely resembles the Masoretic Text. The Septuagintversion was discarded in favour of Theodotion’s version inthe 2nd to 3rd centuries CE. In Greek-speaking areas, thishappened near the end of the 2nd century, and in Latin-speaking areas (at least in North Africa), it occurred inthe middle of the 3rd century. History does not recordthe reason for this, and St. Jerome reports, in the pref-ace to the Vulgate version of Daniel, “This thing 'just'happened.”[51] One of two Old Greek texts of the Bookof Daniel has been recently rediscovered and work is on-going in reconstructing the original form of the book.[52]

The canonical Ezra–Nehemiah is known in the Septu-agint as “Esdras B”, and 1 Esdras is “Esdras A”. 1 Es-dras is a very similar text to the books of Ezra–Nehemiah,and the two are widely thought by scholars to be derivedfrom the same original text. It has been proposed, andis thought highly likely by scholars, that “Esdras B” – thecanonical Ezra–Nehemiah – is Theodotion’s version ofthis material, and “Esdras A” is the version which waspreviously in the Septuagint on its own.[51]

4.2 Final form

Some texts are found in the Septuagint but are not presentin the Hebrew. These additional books are Tobit, Judith,Wisdom of Solomon, Wisdom of Jesus son of Sirach,Baruch, the Letter of Jeremiah (which later became chap-ter 6 of Baruch in the Vulgate), additions to Daniel(The Prayer of Azarias, the Song of the Three Children,Susanna and Bel and the Dragon), additions to Esther, 1Maccabees, 2 Maccabees, 3 Maccabees, 4 Maccabees,1 Esdras, Odes, including the Prayer of Manasseh, thePsalms of Solomon, and Psalm 151.

Some books that are set apart in the Masoretic Text aregrouped together. For example, the Books of Samuel andthe Books of Kings are in the LXX one book in four partscalled Βασιλειῶν (“Of Reigns”). In LXX, the Booksof Chronicles supplement Reigns and it is called Par-alipomenon (Παραλειπομένων—things left out). TheSeptuagint organizes the minor prophets as twelve partsof one Book of Twelve.[52]

5 Christian Bibles

Main articles: Christian biblical canons and List of En-glish Bible translationsA Christian Bible is a set of books that a Christian de-

The Bible translated into German by Martin Luther

A page from the Gutenberg Bible

Page 7: Bible - Hymns · 2 3 HEBREWBIBLE The Kennicott Bible, by Benjamin Kennicott, with illustration, Jonahbeingswallowedbythefish,1476 theUniversityofEdinburgh,saysthattheOldTestament

5.1 Old Testament 7

nomination regards as divinely inspired and thus con-stituting scripture. Although the Early Church primar-ily used the Septuagint or the Targums among Aramaicspeakers, the apostles did not leave a defined set ofnew scriptures; instead the canon of the New Testamentdeveloped over time. Groups within Christianity includediffering books as part of their sacred writings, mostprominent among which are the biblical apocrypha ordeuterocanonical books.Significant versions of the English Christian Bible includethe Douay-Rheims Bible, the Authorized King JamesVersion, the English Revised Version, the AmericanStandard Version, the Revised Standard Version, the NewAmerican Standard Version, the New King James Ver-sion, the New International Version, and the English Stan-dard Version.

5.1 Old Testament

Main article: Old Testament

The books which make up the Christian Old Testamentdiffer between the Catholic (see Catholic Bible), Ortho-dox, and Protestant (see Protestant Bible) churches, withthe Protestant movement accepting only those books con-tained in the Hebrew Bible, while Catholics and Ortho-dox have wider canons. A few groups consider particu-lar translations to be divinely inspired, notably the GreekSeptuagint and the Aramaic Peshitta.

5.1.1 Apocryphal or deuterocanonical books

The Isaiah scroll, which is a part of the Dead Sea Scrolls, con-tains almost the whole Book of Isaiah. It dates from the 2ndcentury BCE.

In Eastern Christianity, translations based on the Septu-agint still prevail. The Septuagint was generally aban-doned in favour of the 10th-century Masoretic Text as thebasis for translations of the Old Testament into Westernlanguages. Some modern Western translations since the14th century make use of the Septuagint to clarify pas-sages in the Masoretic Text, where the Septuagint maypreserve a variant reading of the Hebrew text. They alsosometimes adopt variants that appear in other texts, e.g.,those discovered among the Dead Sea Scrolls.[61][62]

A number of books which are part of the Peshitta orGreek Septuagint but are not found in the Hebrew (Rab-binic) Bible (i.e., among the protocanonical books) are

often referred to as deuterocanonical books by RomanCatholics referring to a later secondary (i.e., deutero)canon, that canon as fixed definitively by the Council ofTrent 1545–1563.[63][64] It includes 46 books for the OldTestament (45 if Jeremiah and Lamentations are countedas one) and 27 for the New.[65]

Most Protestants term these books as apocrypha. ModernProtestant traditions do not accept the deuterocanonicalbooks as canonical, although Protestant Bibles includedthem in Apocrypha sections until the 1820s. However,Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches includethese books as part of their Old Testament.The Roman Catholic Church recognizes:[66]

• Tobit

• Judith

• 1 Maccabees

• 2 Maccabees

• Wisdom

• Sirach (or Ecclesiasticus)

• Baruch

• The Letter of Jeremiah (Baruch Chapter 6)

• Greek Additions to Esther (Book of Esther, chapters10:4 – 12:6)

• The Prayer of Azariah and Song of the Three HolyChildren verses 1–68 (Book of Daniel, chapter 3,verses 24–90)

• Susanna (Book of Daniel, chapter 13)

• Bel and the Dragon (Book of Daniel, chapter 14)

In addition to those, the Greek and Russian OrthodoxChurches recognize the following:

• 3 Maccabees

• 1 Esdras

• Prayer of Manasseh

• Psalm 151

Russian and Georgian Orthodox Churches include:

• 2 Esdras i.e., Latin Esdras in the Russian and Geor-gian Bibles

There is also 4 Maccabees which is only accepted ascanonical in the Georgian Church, but was included bySt. Jerome in an appendix to the Vulgate, and is an ap-pendix to the Greek Orthodox Bible, and it is thereforesometimes included in collections of the Apocrypha.The Syriac Orthodox tradition includes:

Page 8: Bible - Hymns · 2 3 HEBREWBIBLE The Kennicott Bible, by Benjamin Kennicott, with illustration, Jonahbeingswallowedbythefish,1476 theUniversityofEdinburgh,saysthattheOldTestament


• Psalms 151–155• The Apocalypse of Baruch• The Letter of Baruch

The Ethiopian Biblical canon includes:

• Jubilees• Enoch• 1–3 Meqabyan

and some other books.The Anglican Church uses some of the Apocryphal booksliturgically. Therefore, editions of the Bible intended foruse in the Anglican Church include the Deuterocanonicalbooks accepted by the Catholic Church, plus 1 Esdras,2 Esdras and the Prayer of Manasseh, which were in theVulgate appendix.

5.1.2 Pseudepigraphal texts

Main article: Pseudepigrapha

The term Pseudepigrapha commonly describes numerousworks of Jewish religious literature written from about300 BCE to 300 CE. Not all of these works are actu-ally pseudepigraphical. It also refers to books of the NewTestament canon whose authorship is misrepresented.The “Old Testament” Pseudepigraphal works include thefollowing:[67]

• 3 Maccabees• 4 Maccabees• Assumption of Moses• Ethiopic Book of Enoch (1 Enoch)• Slavonic Book of Enoch (2 Enoch)• Hebrew Book of Enoch (3 Enoch) (also known as

“The Revelation of Metatron” or “The Book ofRabbi Ishmael the High Priest”)

• Book of Jubilees• Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch (2 Baruch)• Letter of Aristeas (Letter to Philocrates regarding

the translating of the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek)• Life of Adam and Eve• Martyrdom and Ascension of Isaiah• Psalms of Solomon• Sibylline Oracles• Greek Apocalypse of Baruch (3 Baruch)• Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs

Book of Enoch Notable pseudepigraphal works in-clude the Books of Enoch (such as 1 Enoch, 2 Enoch,surviving only in Old Slavonic, and 3 Enoch, surviv-ing in Hebrew, c. 5th to 6th century CE). These areancient Jewish religious works, traditionally ascribed tothe prophet Enoch, the great-grandfather of the patriarchNoah. They are not part of the biblical canon used byJews, apart from Beta Israel. Most Christian denomina-tions and traditions may accept the Books of Enoch ashaving some historical or theological interest or signif-icance. It has been observed that part of the Book ofEnoch is quoted in the Epistle of Jude (part of the NewTestament) but Christian denominations generally regardthe Books of Enoch as non-canonical or non-inspired.[68]

However, the Enoch books are treated as canonical bythe Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church and EritreanOrthodox Tewahedo Church.The older sections (mainly in the Book of the Watchers)are estimated to date from about 300 BC, and the latestpart (Book of Parables) probably was composed at theend of the 1st century BCE.[69]

Denominational views of Pseudepigrapha Therearose in some Protestant biblical scholarship an extendeduse of the term pseudepigrapha for works that appearedas though they ought to be part of the biblical canon, be-cause of the authorship ascribed to them, but which stoodoutside both the biblical canons recognized by Protestantsand Catholics. These works were also outside the partic-ular set of books that Roman Catholics called deutero-canonical and to which Protestants had generally appliedthe term Apocryphal. Accordingly, the term pseudepi-graphical, as now used often among both Protestants andRoman Catholics (allegedly for the clarity it brings tothe discussion), may make it difficult to discuss questionsof pseudepigraphical authorship of canonical books dis-passionately with a lay audience. To confuse the mat-ter even more, Eastern Orthodox Christians accept booksas canonical that Roman Catholics and most Protestantdenominations consider pseudepigraphical or at best ofmuch less authority. There exist also churches that re-ject some of the books that Roman Catholics, Orthodoxand Protestants accept. The same is true of some Jewishsects. Many works that are “apocryphal” are otherwiseconsidered genuine.

5.1.3 Role of Old Testament in Christian theology

Further information: Sola scriptura and Christian theol-ogy

The Old Testament has always been central to the life ofthe Christian church. Bible scholar N.T. Wright says “Je-sus himself was profoundly shaped by the scriptures.”[70]

He adds that the earliest Christians also searched thosesame Hebrew scriptures in their effort to understand the

Page 9: Bible - Hymns · 2 3 HEBREWBIBLE The Kennicott Bible, by Benjamin Kennicott, with illustration, Jonahbeingswallowedbythefish,1476 theUniversityofEdinburgh,saysthattheOldTestament

5.3 Development of the Christian canons 9

earthly life of Jesus. They regarded the Israelites’ “holywritings” as instructive for the Christian, and as pointingto the Messiah, and as having reached a climactic ful-fillment in Jesus himself, generating the “new covenant”prophesied by Jeremiah.[71]

5.2 New Testament

Main article: Development of the New Testament canon

The New Testament is a collection of 27 books[72]

of 4 different genres of Christian literature (Gospels,one account of the Acts of the Apostles, Epistles andan Apocalypse). Jesus is its central figure. TheNew Testament presupposes the inspiration of the OldTestament.[73](2 Timothy 3:16) Nearly all Christians rec-ognize the New Testament as canonical scripture. Thesebooks can be grouped into:The New Testament books are ordered differently in theCatholic/Orthodox/Protestant tradition, the Slavonic tra-dition, the Syriac tradition and the Ethiopian tradition.

5.2.1 Original language

See also: Language of the New Testament

The mainstream consensus is that the New Testamentwas written in a form of Koine Greek,[74][75] whichwas the common language of the Eastern Mediter-ranean[76][77][78][79] from the Conquests of Alexander theGreat (335–323 BCE) until the evolution of ByzantineGreek (c. 600).

5.2.2 Historic editions

The Codex Gigas from the 13th century, held at the SwedishRoyal Library in Stockholm

See also: Biblical manuscript and Textual criticism

The original autographs, that is, the original Greek writ-ings and manuscripts written by the original authors ofthe New Testament, have not survived.[80] But histori-cally copies exist of those original autographs, transmit-ted and preserved in a number of manuscript traditions.When ancient scribes copied earlier books, they some-times wrote notes on the margins of the page (marginalglosses) to correct their text—especially if a scribe acci-dentally omitted a word or line—and to comment aboutthe text. When later scribes were copying the copy, theywere sometimes uncertain if a note was intended to beincluded as part of the text. Over time, different regionsevolved different versions, each with its own assemblageof omissions and additions.[81]

The three main textual traditions of the Greek New Tes-tament are sometimes called the Alexandrian text-type(generally minimalist), the Byzantine text-type (gener-ally maximalist), and the Western text-type (occasion-ally wild). Together they comprise most of the ancientmanuscripts.

5.3 Development of the Christian canons

Main articles: Development of the Old Testament canonand Development of the New Testament canon

The Old Testament canon entered into Christian use inthe Greek Septuagint translations and original books, andtheir differing lists of texts. In addition to the Septu-agint, Christianity subsequently added various writingsthat would become the New Testament. Somewhat dif-ferent lists of accepted works continued to develop in an-tiquity. In the 4th century a series of synods produced alist of texts equal to the 39, 46(51),54, or 57 book canonof the Old Testament and to the 27-book canon of theNew Testament that would be subsequently used to to-day, most notably the Synod of Hippo in 393 CE. Alsoc. 400, Jerome produced a definitive Latin edition of theBible (see Vulgate), the canon of which, at the insistenceof the Pope, was in accord with the earlier Synods. Withthe benefit of hindsight it can be said that this process ef-fectively set the New Testament canon, although there areexamples of other canonical lists in use after this time.The Protestant Old Testament of today has a 39-bookcanon—the number of books (though not the content)varies from the Jewish Tanakh only because of a differentmethod of division—while the Roman Catholic Churchrecognizes 46 books (51 books with some books com-bined into 46 books) as the canonical Old Testament.The Eastern Orthodox Churches recognise 3 Maccabees,1 Esdras, Prayer of Manasseh and Psalm 151 in addi-tion to the Catholic canon. Some include 2 Esdras. TheAnglican Church also recognises a longer canon. Theterm “Hebrew Scriptures” is often used as being synony-mous with the Protestant Old Testament, since the surviv-ing scriptures in Hebrew include only those books, while

Page 10: Bible - Hymns · 2 3 HEBREWBIBLE The Kennicott Bible, by Benjamin Kennicott, with illustration, Jonahbeingswallowedbythefish,1476 theUniversityofEdinburgh,saysthattheOldTestament


Catholics and Orthodox include additional texts that havenot survived in Hebrew. Both Catholics and Protestants(as well as Greek Orthodox) have the same 27-book NewTestament Canon.[82]

The New Testament writers assumed the inspiration ofthe Old Testament, probably earliest stated in 2 Timothy3:16, “All scripture is given by inspiration of God”.[9]

5.3.1 Ethiopian Orthodox canon

Main article: Ethiopian Biblical canon

The Canon of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Churchis wider than the canons used by most other Christianchurches. There are 81 books in the Ethiopian Ortho-dox Bible.[83] The Ethiopian Old Testament Canon in-cludes the books found in the Septuagint accepted byother Orthodox Christians, in addition to Enoch andJubilees which are ancient Jewish books that only sur-vived in Ge'ez but are quoted in the New Testament, alsoGreek Ezra First and the Apocalypse of Ezra, 3 books ofMeqabyan, and Psalm 151 at the end of the Psalter. Thethree books of Meqabyan are not to be confused withthe books of Maccabees. The order of the other booksis somewhat different from other groups’, as well. TheOld Testament follows the Septuagint order for the Mi-nor Prophets rather than the Jewish order.

6 Divine inspiration

Main articles: Biblical inspiration, Biblical literalism,Biblical infallibility and Biblical inerrancy

The Second Epistle to Timothy says that “all scripture isgiven by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine,for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteous-ness”. (2 Timothy 3:16)[84] Some Christians believe thatthe Bible is the inspired word of God, that God, throughthe Holy Spirit, intervened and influenced the words,message, and collation of the Bible.[85] For many Chris-tians the Bible is also infallible, and is incapable of errorin matters of faith and practice, but not necessarily in his-toric or scientific matters. A related, but distinguishablebelief is that the Bible is the inerrant word of God, with-out error in any aspect, spoken by God and written downin its perfect form by humans. Within these broad beliefsthere are many schools of hermeneutics. “Bible scholarsclaim that discussions about the Bible must be put into itscontext within church history and then into the context ofcontemporary culture.”[71] Fundamentalist Christians areassociated with the doctrine of biblical literalism, wherethe Bible is not only inerrant, but the meaning of the textis clear to the average reader.[86]

Belief in sacred texts is attested to in Jewish

antiquity,[87][88] and this belief can also be seen inthe earliest of Christian writings. Various texts ofthe Bible mention divine agency in relation to itswritings.[89] In their book A General Introduction to theBible, Norman Geisler and William Nix wrote: “Theprocess of inspiration is a mystery of the providence ofGod, but the result of this process is a verbal, plenary,inerrant, and authoritative record.”[90] Most evangelicalbiblical scholars[91][92][93] associate inspiration withonly the original text; for example some AmericanProtestants adhere to the 1978 Chicago Statement onBiblical Inerrancy which asserted that inspiration appliedonly to the autographic text of Scripture.[94] Amongadherents of Biblical literalism, a minority, such asthe King-James-Only Movement, extend the claim ofinerrancy only to a particular translation.[95]

7 Versions and translations

Further information: Bible translations and List of Bibletranslations by languageThe original texts of the Tanakh were mainly in Hebrew,

A Bible handwritten in Latin, on display in Malmesbury Abbey,Wiltshire, England. This Bible was transcribed in Belgium in1407 for reading aloud in a monastery.

with some portions in Aramaic. In addition to the author-itative Masoretic Text, Jews still refer to the Septuagint,the translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek, and theTargum Onkelos, an Aramaic version of the Bible. Thereare several different ancient versions of the Tanakh inHebrew, mostly differing by spelling, and the traditionalJewish version is based on the version known as AleppoCodex. Even in this version there are words which are tra-ditionally read differently from written, because the oraltradition is considered more fundamental than the writtenone, and presumably mistakes had been made in copyingthe text over the generations.The primary biblical text for early Christians was the Sep-tuagint. In addition, they translated the Hebrew Bible intoseveral other languages. Translations were made into Syr-iac, Coptic, Ethiopic, and Latin, among other languages.The Latin translations were historically the most impor-

Page 11: Bible - Hymns · 2 3 HEBREWBIBLE The Kennicott Bible, by Benjamin Kennicott, with illustration, Jonahbeingswallowedbythefish,1476 theUniversityofEdinburgh,saysthattheOldTestament


Title page from the first Welsh translation of the Bible, 1588.William Morgan (1545-1604)

tant for the Church in the West, while the Greek-speakingEast continued to use the Septuagint translations of theOld Testament and had no need to translate the New Tes-tament.The earliest Latin translation was the Old Latin text, orVetus Latina, which, from internal evidence, seems tohave been made by several authors over a period of time.It was based on the Septuagint, and thus included booksnot in the Hebrew Bible.Pope Damasus I assembled the first list of books of theBible at the Council of Rome in 382 CE. He commis-sioned Saint Jerome to produce a reliable and consistenttext by translating the original Greek and Hebrew textsinto Latin. This translation became known as the LatinVulgate Bible and in 1546 at the Council of Trent wasdeclared by the Roman Catholic Church to be the onlyauthentic and official Bible in the Latin Church.Since the Protestant Reformation, Bible translations formany languages have been made. The Bible continuesto be translated to new languages, largely by Christianorganisations such as Wycliffe Bible Translators, NewTribes Mission and Bible societies.


John Riches, professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticismat the University of Glasgow, provides the following viewof the diverse historical influences of the Bible:

It has inspired some of the great monu-ments of human thought, literature, and art; ithas equally fuelled some of the worst excessesof human savagery, self-interest, and narrow-mindedness. It has inspired men and womento acts of great service and courage, to fightfor liberation and human development; and ithas provided the ideological fuel for societieswhich have enslaved their fellow human be-ings and reduced them to abject poverty. ...It has, perhaps above all, provided a source ofreligious and moral norms which have enabledcommunities to hold together, to care for, andto protect one another; yet precisely this strongsense of belonging has in turn fuelled ethnic,racial, and international tension and conflict.[97]

8.1 Other religions

Main article: Islamic view of the Christian Bible

In Islam, the Bible is held to reflect true unfoldingrevelation from God; but revelation which had been cor-rupted or distorted (in Arabic: tahrif); which necessi-tated the giving of the Qur'an to the Islamic prophet,Muhammad, to correct this deviation.Members of other religions may also seek inspirationfrom the Bible. For example, Rastafaris view the Bibleas essential to their religion[98] and Unitarian Universal-ists view it as “one of many important religious texts”.[99]

8.2 Biblical studies

Main articles: Biblical studies and Biblical criticism

Biblical criticism refers to the investigation of the Bible asa text, and addresses questions such as authorship, datesof composition, and authorial intention. It is not the sameas criticism of the Bible, which is an assertion againstthe Bible being a source of information or ethical guid-ance, or observations that the Bible may have translationerrors.[100]

8.3 Higher criticism

Main articles: Higher criticism and Lower criticism

Page 12: Bible - Hymns · 2 3 HEBREWBIBLE The Kennicott Bible, by Benjamin Kennicott, with illustration, Jonahbeingswallowedbythefish,1476 theUniversityofEdinburgh,saysthattheOldTestament


In the 17th century Thomas Hobbes collected the cur-rent evidence to conclude outright that Moses could nothave written the bulk of the Torah. Shortly afterwardsthe philosopher Baruch Spinoza published a unified crit-ical analysis, arguing that the problematic passages werenot isolated cases that could be explained away one byone, but pervasive throughout the five books, concludingthat it was “clearer than the sun at noon that the Penta-teuch was not written by Moses . . .”[101][102] Despite de-termined opposition from Christians, both Catholic andProtestant, the views of Hobbes and Spinoza gained in-creasing acceptance amongst scholars.

9 Archaeological and historical re-search

Main articles: Biblical archaeology school and The Bibleand history

Biblical archaeology is the archaeology that relates to andsheds light upon the Hebrew Scriptures and the ChristianGreek Scriptures (or “New Testament”). It is used to helpdetermine the lifestyle and practices of people living inbiblical times. There are a wide range of interpretationsin the field of biblical archaeology. One broad divisionincludes biblical maximalism which generally takes theview that most of the Old Testament or Hebrew Bibleis based on history although it is presented through thereligious viewpoint of its time. It is considered the op-posite of biblical minimalism which considers the Biblea purely post-exilic (5th century BCE and later) compo-sition. Even among those scholars who adhere to biblicalminimalism, the Bible is a historical document contain-ing first-hand information on the Hellenistic and Romaneras, and there is universal scholarly consensus that theevents of the 6th century BCE Babylonian captivity havea basis in history.The historicity of the biblical account of the history of an-cient Israel and Judah of the 10th to 7th centuries BCE isdisputed in scholarship. The biblical account of the 8th to7th centuries BCE is widely, but not universally, acceptedas historical, while the verdict on the earliest period of theUnited Monarchy (10th century BCE) and the historicityof David is unclear. Archaeological evidence providinginformation on this period, such as the Tel Dan Stele, canpotentially be decisive. The biblical account of events ofthe Exodus from Egypt in the Torah, and the migrationto the Promised Land and the period of Judges are notconsidered historical in scholarship.[103][104]

10 Criticism

Main article: Criticism of the Bible

In modern times, the view that the Bible should be ac-cepted as historically accurate and as a reliable guide tomorality has been questioned by many mainstream aca-demics in the field of biblical criticism. Most Christiangroups claim that the Bible is inspired by God, and someoppose interpretations of the Bible that are not traditionalor “plain reading”. Some groups within the most con-servative Protestant circles believe that the AuthorizedKing James Version is the only accurate English trans-lation of the Bible, and accept it as infallible. They aregenerally referred to as "King James Only". Many withinChristian fundamentalism – as well as much of OrthodoxJudaism—strongly support the idea that the Bible is a his-torically accurate record of actual events and a primarysource of moral guidance.In addition to concerns about morality, inerrancy, or his-toricity, there remain some questions of which booksshould be included in the Bible (see canon of scripture).Jews discount the New Testament, most Christians denythe legitimacy of the New Testament apocrypha, and aview sometimes referred to as Jesusism does not affirmthe scriptural authority of any biblical text other than theteachings of Jesus in the Gospels.

11 Bibles Gallery

• Bibles

• Old Bible from a Greek monastery

• Imperial Bible, or Vienna Coronation Gospels fromWien (Austria), c 1500.

• The Kennicott Bible, 1476

• A Baroque Bible

• The bible used by Abraham Lincoln for his oath ofoffice during his first inauguration in 1861

• A miniature Bible

• 19th century Victorian Bible

• Shelves of the Bizzell Bible Collection at BizzellMemorial Library

12 Illustrations

Most old Bibles were illuminated, they were manuscriptsin which the text is supplemented by the addition of dec-oration, such as decorated initials, borders (marginalia)and miniature illustrations. Up to the twelfth century,most manuscripts were produced in monasteries in orderto add to the library or after receiving a commission froma wealthy patron. Larger monasteries often contained

Page 13: Bible - Hymns · 2 3 HEBREWBIBLE The Kennicott Bible, by Benjamin Kennicott, with illustration, Jonahbeingswallowedbythefish,1476 theUniversityofEdinburgh,saysthattheOldTestament


separate areas for the monks who specialized in the pro-duction of manuscripts called a scriptorium, where “sepa-rate little rooms were assigned to book copying; they weresituated in such a way that each scribe had to himself awindow open to the cloister walk.”[105] By the fourteenthcentury, the cloisters of monks writing in the scriptoriumstarted to employ laybrothers from the urban scriptoria,especially in Paris, Rome and the Netherlands.[106] De-mand for manuscripts grew to an extent that the Monasticlibraries were unable to meet with the demand, and beganemploying secular scribes and illuminators.[107] These in-dividuals often lived close to the monastery and, in cer-tain instances, dressed as monks whenever they enteredthe monastery, but were allowed to leave at the end of theday.[108]

The manuscript was “sent to the rubricator, who added(in red or other colors) the titles, headlines, the initialsof chapters and sections, the notes and so on; and then– if the book was to be illustrated – it was sent to theilluminator.”[105] In the case of manuscripts that were soldcommercially, the writing would “undoubtedly have beendiscussed initially between the patron and the scribe (orthe scribe’s agent,) but by the time that the written gath-ering were sent off to the illuminator there was no longerany scope for innovation.”[109]

• Bible illustrations

• Bible from 1150, from Scriptorium de Chartres,Christ with angels

• Blanche of Castile and Louis IX of France Bible,13th century

• Bible moralisée : Christ the architect of the Uni-verse.

• Maciejowski Bible, Leaf 37, the 3rd image, Abner(in the center in green) sends Michal back to David.

• Jephthah’s daughter laments - Maciejowski Bible(France, ca. 1250)

• Colored version of the Whore of Babylon illustrationfrom Martin Luther’s 1534 translation of the Bible.

• An Armenian Bible, illuminated by Malnazar, Ar-menian) illuminator.

• Fleeing Sodom and Gomorrah, Foster Bible

13 See also• Biblical software

• Code of Hammurabi

• List of major biblical figures

• Religious text

• Scriptorium

• Theodicy and the Bible

14 Endnotes

[1] Riches, John (2000). The Bible: A Very Short Introduc-tion. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 7–8. ISBN978-0-19-285343-1.

[2] “Best selling book of non-fiction”. Guinness WorldRecords. Retrieved 9 December 2015.

[3] Ryken, Leland. “How We Got the Best-Selling Book ofAll Time”. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 9 Decem-ber 2015.

[4] “The battle of the books”. The Economist. 22 December2007.

[5] Ash, Russell (2001). Top 10 of Everything 2002. DorlingKindersley. ISBN 0-7894-8043-3.

[6] Harper, Douglas. “bible”. Online Etymology Dictionary.

[7] “The Catholic Encyclopedia”. 1907. Re-trieved 2010-04-23.

[8] Biblion, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus.

[9] Stagg, Frank. New Testament Theology. Nashville:Broadman, 1962. ISBN 0-8054-1613-7.

[10] “From Hebrew Bible to Christian Bible” by Mark Hamil-ton on PBS’s site From Jesus to Christ: The First Chris-tians.

[11] etymology of the word “Bible”.

[12] Bruce, Frederick (1988). The Canon of Scripture. Down-ers Grove, Illinois, U.S.: IVP Academic. p. 214. ISBN083081258X.

[13] Riches, John (2000). The Bible: A Very Short Introduc-tion. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-19-285343-1.

[14] Riches, John (2000). The Bible: A Very Short Introduc-tion. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-19-285343-1.

[15] Lim, Timothy H. (2005). The Dead Sea Scrolls: A VeryShort Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p.41.

[16] Riches, John (2000). The Bible: A Very Short Introduc-tion. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-19-285343-1.

[17] Riches, John (2000). The Bible: A Very Short Introduc-tion. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 23, 37. ISBN978-0-19-285343-1.

Page 14: Bible - Hymns · 2 3 HEBREWBIBLE The Kennicott Bible, by Benjamin Kennicott, with illustration, Jonahbeingswallowedbythefish,1476 theUniversityofEdinburgh,saysthattheOldTestament


[18] A 7th-century fragment containing the Song of the Sea(Exodus 13:19–16:1) is one of the few surviving textsfrom the “silent era” of Hebrew biblical texts between theDead Sea Scrolls and the Aleppo Codex. See “Rare scrollfragment to be unveiled,” Jerusalem Post, May 21, 2007.

[19] The Restored New Testament: A New Translation withCommentary, Including the Gnostic Gospels Thomas,Mary, and Judas by Willis Barnstone – W. W. Norton &Company – page 647

[20] The Torah: Portion by Portion By Seymour Rossel –Torah Aura Productions, 2007, p. 355

[21] Mordecai Kaplan 1934 Judaism as a Civilization MacMil-lan Press

[22] Elliot N. Dorff 1979 Conservative Judaism: Our Ances-tors to Our Descendants. United Synagogue. p. 98–99(114–115 in 1978 edition) Archived May 14, 2015 at theWayback Machine

[23] Milton Steinberg 1947 Basic Judaism Harcourt Brace, p.27–28 ISBN 0-15-610698-1 Archived May 15, 2015 atthe Wayback Machine

[24] Gilbert Rosenthal 1973 Four paths to One God Bloch Pub-lishing pp. 116–128, 180–192, 238–242

[25] 1Kings.18:24;1Kings.18:37–39 9

[26] George Savran “I and II Kings” in The Literary Guideto the Bible edited by Robert Alter and Frank Kermode.“Each king is judged either good or bad in black-and-white terms, according to whether or not he “did right”or “did evil” in the sight of the Lord. This evaluation isnot reflective of the well-being of the nation, of the king’ssuccess or failure in war, or of the moral climate of thetimes, but rather the state of cultic worship during hisreign. Those kings who shun idolatry and enact religiousreforms are singled out for praise, and those who encour-age pagan practices are denounced.” 146

[27] Yehezkel Kaufmann “Israel In Canaan” in Great Ages andIdeas of the Jewish People edited by Leo Schwartz, TheModern Library. “The fight against Baal was initiated bythe prophets” 54

[28] Yehezkel Kaufmann “The Age of Prophecy” in Great Agesand Ideas of the Jewish People edited by Leo Schwartz,The Modern Library. “The immediate occasion of therise of the new prophecy was the political and social ruincaused by the wars with Israel’s northerly neighbor, Aram,which continued for more than a century. They ragedintensely during the reign of Ahab, and did not end un-til the time of Jeroboam II (784–744). While the nationas a whole was impoverished, a few – apparently of theroyal officialdom – grew wealthy as a result of the na-tional calamity. Many of the people were compelled tosell their houses and lands, with the result that a sharp so-cial cleavage arose: on the one hand a mass of propertylessindigents, on the other a small circle of the rich. A seriesof disasters struck the nation – drought, famine, plagues,death and captivity (Amos 4: 6–11), but the greatest dis-aster of all was the social disintegration due to the cleav-age between the poor masses and the wealthy, dissolute

upper class. The decay affected both Judah and Israel ...High minded men were appalled at this development. Wasthis the people whom YHWH had brought out of Egypt,to whom He had given the land and a law of justice andright? it seemed as if the land was about to be inheritedby the rich, who would squander its substance in drunkenrevelry. it was this dissolution that brought the propheticdenunciations to white heat.” 57–58

[29] Abraham Joshua Heschel 1955 The Prophets Harper andRow: “What manner of man is the prophet? A studentof philosophy who runs from the discourses of the greatmetaphysicians to the orations of the prophets may feel asif he were going from the realm of the sublime to an areaof trivialities. Instead of dealing with the timeless issuesof being and becoming, of matter and form, of defini-tions and demonstrations, he is thrown into orations aboutwidows and orphans, about the corruption of judges andaffairs of the market place. Instead of showing us a waythrough the elegant mansions of the mind, the prophetstake us to the slums. The world is a proud place, full ofbeauty, but the prophets are scandalized, and rave as if thewhole world were a slum. They make much ado about pal-try things, lavishing excessive language upon trifling sub-jects. What if somewhere in ancient Palestine poor peoplehave not been treated properly by the rich? .... Indeed, thesorts of crimes and even the amount of delinquency thatfill the prophets of Israel with dismay do not go beyondthat which we regard as normal, as typical ingredients ofsocial dynamics. To us a single act of injustice – cheat-ing in business, exploitation of the poor – is slight; to theprophets, a disaster. To us an injustice is injurious to thewelfare of the people; to the prophets it is a deathblow toexistence; to us an episode; to them, a catastrophe, a threatto the world.” 3–4

[30] Joel Rosenberg “I and II Samuel” in The Literary Guideto the Bible edited by Robert Alter and Frank Kermode.“Samuel is thus a work of national self-criticism. It rec-ognizes that Israel would not have survived, either polit-ically or culturally, without the steadying presence of adynastic royal house. But it makes both that house andits subjects answerable to firm standards of prophetic jus-tice — not those of cult prophets or professional ecstatics,but of morally upright prophetic leaders in the tradition ofMoses, Joshua, Deborah, Gideon, and others ...” 141

[31] Neusner, Jacob, The Talmud Law, Theology, Narrative:A Sourcebook. University Press of America, 2005

[32] Coogan, Michael D. A Brief Introduction to the Old Testa-ment: the Hebrew Bible in its Context. Oxford UniversityPress. 2009; p. 5

[33] The Babylonian Talmud, Vol. 7 of 9: Tract Baba Bathra(Last Gate) translated by Michael L. Rodkinson, first pub-lished 1918 – published 2008 by Forgotten Books, p. 53

[34] Ketuvim 30ְּכתּוִבים July 2008

[35] Coogan, Michael. A Brief Introduction to the Old Testa-ment: The Hebrew Bible in Its Context. Oxford Univer-sity Press, 2009, p. 5

[36] Henshaw, T. The Writings: The Third Division of the OldTestament Canon. George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1963, pp.16–17

Page 15: Bible - Hymns · 2 3 HEBREWBIBLE The Kennicott Bible, by Benjamin Kennicott, with illustration, Jonahbeingswallowedbythefish,1476 theUniversityofEdinburgh,saysthattheOldTestament


[37] Lightfoot, Neil R. How We Got the Bible, 3rd edition, rev.and expanded. Baker Book House Company. 2003, pp.154–155.

[38] Henshaw, T. The Writings: The Third Division of the OldTestament Canon. George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1963, p.17

[39] Sir Godfrey Driver. “Introduction to the Old Testamentof the New English Bible.” Web: 30 November 2009

[40] Life after death: a history of the afterlife in the religions ofthe West (2004), Anchor Bible Reference Library, AlanF. Segal, p. 363

[41] Gilles Dorival, Marguerite Harl, and Olivier Munnich, LaBible grecque des Septante: Du judaïsme hellénistique auchristianisme ancien (Paris: Cerfs, 1988), p.111

[42] "[...] die griechische Bibelübersetzung, die einem inner-jüdischen Bedürfnis entsprang [...] [von den] Rabbinenzuerst gerühmt (..) Später jedoch, als manche ungenaueÜbertragung des hebräischen Textes in der Septuagintaund Übersetzungsfehler die Grundlage für hellenistischeIrrlehren abgaben, lehte man die Septuaginta ab.” Ver-band der Deutschen Juden (Hrsg.), neu hrsg. von WalterHomolka, Walter Jacob, Tovia Ben Chorin: Die Lehrendes Judentums nach den Quellen; München, Knesebeck,1999, Bd.3, S. 43ff

[43] Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva (2001). Invitation to theSeptuagint. Paternoster Press. ISBN 1-84227-061-3.

[44] Joel Kalvesmaki, The Septuagint

[45] Rick Grant Jones, Various Religious Topics, "Books of theSeptuagint,” (Accessed 2006.9.5).

[46] “The translation, which shows at times a peculiar igno-rance of Hebrew usage, was evidently made from a codexwhich differed widely in places from the text crystallizedby the Masorah.” “Bible Translations – The Septuagint” Retrieved 10 February 2012.

[47] “Two things, however, rendered the Septuagint unwel-come in the long run to the Jews. Its divergence fromthe accepted text (afterward called the Masoretic) wastoo evident; and it therefore could not serve as a basisfor theological discussion or for homiletic interpretation.This distrust was accentuated by the fact that it had beenadopted as Sacred Scripture by the new faith [Christian-ity] [...] In course of time it came to be the canonicalGreek Bible [...] It became part of the Bible of the Chris-tian Church.”“Bible Translations – The Septuagint”. Retrieved 10 February 2012.

[48] Mishnah Sotah (7:2–4 and 8:1), among many others, dis-cusses the sacredness of Hebrew, as opposed to Aramaicor Greek. This is comparable to the authority claimed forthe original Arabic Koran according to Islamic teaching.As a result of this teaching, translations of the Torah intoKoine Greek by early Jewish Rabbis have survived as rarefragments only.

[49] Ernst Würthwein, The Text of the Old Testament, trans.Errol F. Rhodes, Grand Rapids, Mich.: Wm. Eerdmans,1995.

[50] “NETS: Electronic Edition”. 2011-02-11. Retrieved 2012-08-13.

[51] This article incorporates text from the 1903Encyclopaedia Biblica article “TEXT AND VER-SIONS”, a publication now in the public domain.

[52] Jennifer M. Dines, The Septuagint, Michael A. Knibb, Ed.,London: T&T Clark, 2004.

[53] Timothy McLay, The Use of the Septuagint in New Testa-ment Research ISBN 0-8028-6091-5. — The current stan-dard introduction on the NT & LXX.

[54] The canon of the original Old Greek LXX is disputed.This table reflects the canon of the Old Testament as usedcurrently in Orthodoxy.

[55] Βασιλειῶν (Basileiōn) is the genitive plural of Βασιλεῖα(Basileia).

[56] That is, Things set aside from Ἔσδρας Αʹ.

[57] also called Τωβείτ or Τωβίθ in some sources.

[58] Not in Orthodox Canon, but originally included in theLXX.

[59] Obdiou is genitive from “The vision of Obdias,” whichopens the book.

[60] Originally placed after 3 Maccabees and before Psalms,but placed in an appendix of the Orthodox Canon

[61] The Masoretic Text and the Dead Sea Scrolls – Retrieved 26 December 2012.

[62] “Dead Sea Scrolls” (PDF). Retrieved 2013-06-06.

[63] Council of Trent: Decretum de Canonicis Scripturis “De-cree Concerning the Canonical Scriptures”, from theCouncil’s fourth session, of 4 April 1546: Canons and De-crees of the Council of Trent, The Fourth Session, Cele-brated on the eighth day of the month of April, in the year1546, English translation by James Waterworth (London1848).

[64] The Council of Trent confirmed the identical list/canonof sacred scriptures already anciently approved by theSynod of Hippo (Synod of 393), Councils of Carthage(The Council of Carthage, 28 August 397), and Councilof Florence (originally Council of Basel), Session 11, 4February 1442 —[Bull of union with the Copts] seventhparagraph down.

[65] “Paragraph 120”. Catechism of the Catholic Church, Sec-ond Edition. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. 2012. Retrieved6 August 2014.

[66] Canon of Trent: List of the Canonical Scriptures.

But if anyone receive not, as sacredand canonical, the said books entire withall their parts, as they have been used to beread in the Catholic Church, and as they arecontained in the old Latin vulgate edition;and knowingly and deliberately contemn the

Page 16: Bible - Hymns · 2 3 HEBREWBIBLE The Kennicott Bible, by Benjamin Kennicott, with illustration, Jonahbeingswallowedbythefish,1476 theUniversityofEdinburgh,saysthattheOldTestament


traditions aforesaid; let him be anathema.— Decretum de Canonicis Scripturis, Councilof Trent, 8 April 1546

[67] Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto:Mayfield. 1985.

[68] The Book of Enoch – The Reluctant Messenger. Re-trieved 14 June 2014.

[69] Fahlbusch E., Bromiley G.W. The Encyclopedia of Chris-tianity: P–Sh page 411, ISBN 0-8028-2416-1 (2004)

[70] Wright, N.T.The LastWord:, page 3 HarperCollins, 2005.ISBN 0-06-087261-6 / 9780060872618

[71] Wright, N.T. The Last Word: Scripture and the Authorityof God—Getting Beyond the Bible Wars. HarperCollins,2005. ISBN 0-06-087261-6 / 9780060872618

[72] What the Bible is All About Visual Edition by HenriettaC. Mears – Gospel Light Publications, Feb 5, 2007 – page438-439

[73] Inspiration and Inerrancy: AHistory and aDefense,HenryPreserved Smith – R. Clarke, 1893, p. 343

[74] Kurt Aland, Barbara Aland The text of the New Testa-ment: an introduction to the critical 1995 p52 “The NewTestament was written in Koine Greek, the Greek of dailyconversation. The fact that from the first all the NewTestament writings were written in Greek is conclusivelydemonstrated by their citations from the Old Testament...”

[75] Archibald Macbride Hunter Introducing the New Testa-ment 1972 p9 “How came the twenty-seven books of theNew Testament to be gathered together and made author-itative Christian scripture? 1. All the New Testamentbooks were originally written in Greek. On the face ofit this may surprise us.”

[76] Wenham The elements of New Testament Greek -p xxvJeremy Duff, John William Wenham – 2005 “This is thelanguage of the New Testament. By the time of Jesusthe Romans had become the dominant military and polit-ical force, but the Greek language remained the 'commonlanguage' of the eastern Mediterranean and beyond, andGreek ...”

[77] Daniel B. Wallace Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics:An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament 1997

[78] Henry St. John Thackeray Grammar of New TestamentGreek ed. Friedrich Wilhelm Blass, 1911 “By far the mostpredominant element in the language of the New Testa-ment is the Greek of common speech which was dissemi-nated in the East by the Macedonian conquest, in the formwhich it had gradually assumed under the wider develop-ment ...”

[79] David E. Aune The Blackwell companion to the New Tes-tament 2009 p61 CHAPTER 4 New Testament GreekChristophe Rico “In this short overview of the Greek lan-guage of the New Testament we will focus on those topicsthat are of greatest importance for the average reader, thatis, those with important ...”

[80] Manuscripts and the Text of the New Testament: An In-troduction for English Readers by Keith Elliott, Ian Moir– Continuum International Publishing Group, Nov 20,2000, p. 9

[81] God-Trail of Evidence: The Quest for the Truth By Dwo– iUniverse, Jul 12, 2011, p. 152. ISBN 978-1-4502-9429-4 {sc}

[82] Encyclopedia of Catholicism, Frank K. Flinn, InfobasePublishing, Jan 1, 2007, p. 103

[83] “The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church”. Archived from the original on 5 Novem-ber 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-19.

[84] Grudem, Wayne (1994). Systematic Theology. Leicester,England: Inter-Varsity Press. pp. 49–50.

[85] Rice, John R. - Our God-Breathed Book: The Bible - ISBN0-87398-628-8, Sword of the Lord Publishers, 1969, pp68-88.

[86] “Beyond Biblical Literalism and Inerrancy: ConservativeProtestants and the Hermeneutic Interpretation of Scrip-ture”, John Bartkowski, Sociology of Religion, 57, 1996.

[87] Philo of Alexandria, De vita Moysis 3.23.

[88] Josephus, Contra Apion 1.8.

[89] “Basis for belief of Inspiration Biblegateway”. Retrieved 2010-04-23.

[90] Norman L. Geisler, William E. Nix. A General Introduc-tion to the Bible. Moody Publishers, 1986, p.86. ISBN0-8024-2916-5

[91] For example, see Leroy Zuck, Roy B. Zuck. Basic BibleInterpretation. Chariot Victor Pub, 1991, p.68. ISBN 0-89693-819-0

[92] Roy B. Zuck, Donald Campbell. Basic Bible Interpreta-tion. Victor, 2002. ISBN 0-7814-3877-2

[93] Norman L. Geisler. Inerrancy. Zondervan, 1980, p.294.ISBN 0-310-39281-0

[94] International Council on Biblical Inerrancy (1978). “TheChicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy” (PDF). Interna-tional Council on Biblical Inerrancy. Archived from theoriginal (PDF) on 13 April 2008.

[95] “Ruckman’s belief in advanced revelations in the KJV”.Retrieved 27 February 2014.

[96] (Figures correct as of 2014.)

[97] Riches, John (2000). The Bible: A Very Short Introduc-tion. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 134. ISBN978-0-19-285343-1.

[98] Becoming Rasta: Origins of Rastafari Identity in Jamaica– Page 171, Charles Price – 2009

[99] Unitarian Universalism – Page 42, Zondervan Publishing,2009

[100] “Expondo Os Erros Da Sociedade Bíblica Internacional” 2000. Retrieved 2012-01-13.

Page 17: Bible - Hymns · 2 3 HEBREWBIBLE The Kennicott Bible, by Benjamin Kennicott, with illustration, Jonahbeingswallowedbythefish,1476 theUniversityofEdinburgh,saysthattheOldTestament


[101] In the Beginning: Hijacking of the Religion of God, Vol-ume 1 by Sami M. El-Soudani, Nabawia J. El-Soudani –Xlibris Corporation, January 1, 2009, p. 65

[102] Ten More Amazing Discoveries By George Potter, CedarFort, October 1, 2005, p. 121

[103] Finkelstein, Israel; Neil Silberman. The Bible Unearthed.

[104] Dever, William. WhoWere the Early Israelites and WhereDid They Come from?.

[105] Putnam A.M., Geo. Haven. Books and Their MakersDuring The Middle Ages. Vol. 1. New York: HillaryHouse, 1962. Print.

[106] De Hamel, 45

[107] De Hamel, 57

[108] De Hamel, 65

[109] De Hamel, Christopher. Medieval Craftsmen: Scribesand Illuminations. Buffalo: University of Toronto, 1992.p. 60.

15 References and further reading

• Anderson, Bernhard W. Understanding the Old Tes-tament. ISBN 0-13-948399-3.

• Asimov, Isaac. Asimov’s Guide to the Bible. NewYork, NY: Avenel Books, 1981. ISBN 0-517-34582-X.

• Berlin, Adele, Marc Zvi Brettler and Michael Fish-bane. The Jewish Study Bible. Oxford UniversityPress, 2003. ISBN 0-19-529751-2.

• Bible, Authorized Version. The New CambridgeParagraph Bible, with the Apocrypha, King JamesVersion, ed. by David Norton. Cambridge, Eng.:Cambridge University Press, 2005. N.B.: This is acritically reconstructed text of the Authorized “KingJames” Bible with its entire contents (including allof its marginalia, fore-matter, the Apocrypha, etc.),as close to the original translators’ intentions andwording as possible at the time of this edition, withspelling modernized according to current Common-wealth usage. ISBN 978-0-521-84386-7

• Brown, Raymond E., Joseph A. Fitzmyer, andRoland E. Murphy, eds. (1990). The New JeromeBiblical Commentary. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.ISBN 0-13-614934-0.

• Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (2001).“The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology’s New Visionof Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts”.New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-2338-1.

• Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (August2002). “Review: “The Bible Unearthed": A Rejoin-der”. Bulletin of the American Schools of OrientalResearch 327: 63–73. JSTOR 1357859.

• Herzog, Ze'ev (29 October 1999). “Deconstructingthe walls of Jericho”. Ha'aretz.

• Dever, William G. (March–April 2007). “LosingFaith: Who Did and Who Didn't, How ScholarshipAffects Scholars” (PDF). Biblical Archaeology Re-view 33 (2): 54.

• Dever, William G.WhoWere the Early Israelites andWhere Did They Come from? Grand Rapids, MI:William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2003.ISBN 0-8028-0975-8.

• Ehrman, Bart D. Misquoting Jesus: The Story BehindWho Changed the Bible and Why New York, NY:HarperSanFrancisco, 2005. ISBN 0-06-073817-0.

• Geisler, Norman (editor). Inerrancy. Sponsoredby the International Council on Biblical Inerrancy.Zondervan Publishing House, 1980, ISBN 0-310-39281-0.

• Head, Tom. The Absolute Beginner’s Guide to theBible. Indianapolis, IN: Que Publishing, 2005.ISBN 0-7897-3419-2

• Hoffman, Joel M. In the Beginning: A Short His-tory of the Hebrew Language. New York UniversityPress, 2004. ISBN 0-8147-3690-4

• Hotchkiss, Gregory K. The Middle Way: Reflec-tions on Scripture and Tradition, in series, ReformedEpiscopal Pamphlets, no. 3. Media, Penn.: Re-formed Episcopal Publication Society, 1985. 27 p.N.B.: Place of publication also given as Philadel-phia, Penn.; the approach to the issue is from anevangelical Anglican (Reformed Episcopal Church)orientation. Without ISBN

• Lienhard, Joseph T. The Bible, The Church, and Au-thority. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1995.

• Lindsell, Harold. The Battle for the Bible. Zonder-van Publishing House, 1978. ISBN 0-310-27681-0

• Masalha, Nur, The Bible and Zionism: InventedTraditions, Archaeology and Post-Colonialism inPalestine-Israel. London, Zed Books, 2007.

• McDonald, Lee M. and Sanders, James A., eds. TheCanon Debate. Hendrickson Publishers (1 January2002). 662p. ISBN 1-56563-517-5 ISBN 978-1565635173

• Miller, John W. The Origins of the Bible: Rethink-ing Canon History Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 1994.ISBN 0-8091-3522-1.

Page 18: Bible - Hymns · 2 3 HEBREWBIBLE The Kennicott Bible, by Benjamin Kennicott, with illustration, Jonahbeingswallowedbythefish,1476 theUniversityofEdinburgh,saysthattheOldTestament


• Riches, John. The Bible: A Very Short Introduction,Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-19-285343-0

• Roper, J.C., Bp., et al.. The Bible. Toronto: Mus-son Book Co., 1924. In series, “The Layman’s Li-brary of Practical Religion, Church of England inCanada”, vol. 4. N.B.: Series statement given herein the more extended form of it on the book’s frontcover.

• Siku. The Manga Bible: From Genesis to Revelation.Galilee Trade (15 January 2008). 224p. ISBN 0-385-52431-5 ISBN 978-0385524315

• Taylor, Hawley O. “Mathematics and Prophecy.”Modern Science and Christian Faith. Wheaton: VanKampen, 1948, pp. 175–83.

• Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia, s.vv. “Book ofEzekiel,” p. 580 and “prophecy,” p. 1410. Chicago:Moody Bible Press, 1986.

Page 19: Bible - Hymns · 2 3 HEBREWBIBLE The Kennicott Bible, by Benjamin Kennicott, with illustration, Jonahbeingswallowedbythefish,1476 theUniversityofEdinburgh,saysthattheOldTestament


16 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

16.1 Text• Bible Source: Contributors: Damian Yerrick, AxelBoldt, Tbc~enwiki, Trelvis,

NathanBeach, Derek Ross, Chuck Smith, Eloquence, Mav, Wesley, Bryan Derksen, Zundark, Stephen Gilbert, Slrubenstein, ManningBartlett, Tim Chambers, Magnus~enwiki, Charleschuck, RK, Amillar, Andre Engels, Eclecticology, Rmhermen, Novalis, SJK, WilliamAvery, Roadrunner, SimonP, Shii, FvdP, Zoe, Heron, Sara Parks Ricker, Isis~enwiki, J.F.Quackenbush, Sfdan, Modemac, Olivier, Some-one else, Pdfox, Rickyrab, Chris Q, Kiwimac, Ram-Man, Leandrod, Mkmcconn, AntonioMartin, Elian, Drseudo, Stevertigo, Quintessent,Patrick, Infrogmation, Michael Hardy, Nat32, Kwertii, Llywrch, BrianHansen~enwiki, Owl, Hoshie, Chuck SMITH, Stephen C. Carlson,Menchi, Ixfd64, Zanimum, IZAK, Sannse, Delirium, Rodzilla, Arpingstone, Greenman, Mpolo, Card~enwiki, Sbuckley, Ihcoyc, Ellywa,Ahoerstemeier, Docu, Theresa knott, Snoyes, NicoNet, Basswulf, Angela, Pseudo daoist, Jebba, Darkwind, Александър, Error, Bogdan-giusca, Jiang, Glueball, Wolfstu, John K, BRG, Denny, Vargenau, Ed Brey, Hashar, Jengod, Emperorbma, Smith03, Dcoetzee, JonMoore,RickK, Randyc~enwiki, TheLocalChurch, Visorstuff, Dysprosia, Desertphile, Jwrosenzweig, Tb, Sertrel, DJ Clayworth, Haukurth, Tpbrad-bury, Maximus Rex, Nv8200pa, EthanL, Paul-L~enwiki, Omegatron, Fairandbalanced, Thue, Bevo, Quoth-22, Fvw, Stormie, Bloodshed-der, Raul654, AnonMoos, Wetman, Chris Rodgers, Jph, Jerzy, Jusjih, Frazzydee, Pollinator, Francs2000, Jeffq, Shantavira, Jni, EdwinHJ,Robbot, Waerth, Fredrik, Tomchiukc, Chris 73, RedWolf, Goethean, Yelyos, Romanm, Modulatum, Lowellian, COGDEN, Merovin-gian, Sverdrup, Academic Challenger, Rholton, Steeev, Sevenstones, Yacht, Gidonb, Blainster, Roscoe x, Timrollpickering, Jondel, Hadal,UtherSRG, Stay cool~enwiki, Vikreykja, Lupo, OneVoice, Diberri, Guy Peters, Jholman, Dina, Vacuum, Carnildo, Alan Liefting, Michael2,Smjg, DocWatson42, Obadiah, Nunh-huh, Cobaltbluetony, Tom harrison, Meursault2004, Lupin, Brian Kendig, Aphaia, Marcika, Ausir,Bradeos Graphon, Everyking, No Guru, Curps, Michael Devore, Henry Flower, Joconnor, Jdavidb, Jfdwolff, Gilgamesh~enwiki, Guanaco,Spm, BigHaz, Jason Quinn, Gracefool, Gugilymugily, Nodmonkey, Matt Crypto, SWAdair, Pne, Alan Au, Golbez, Lucky 6.9, Wmahan,Neilc, OldakQuill, Yoshiah ap, Auximines, Utcursch, Andycjp, Wleman, R. fiend, Sparticus, SarekOfVulcan, Knutux, Scottryan, Quadell,Fabfablew, Antandrus, Alteripse, Eroica, ClockworkLunch, Bcameron54, Savant1984, Kaldari, Jossi, MacGyverMagic, Mydotnet, Rd-smith4, TomS, Xandar, Kevin B12, Halo, Zfr, Sam Hocevar, Dave L, Arcturus, Gscshoyru, Asbestos, Gary D, Dovi, Shen, Paulmorriss,Neale Monks, Grm wnr, Stephensj74, Zondor, Trevor MacInnis, Grunt, Nlnnet, Flex, Lacrimosus, Mike Rosoft, Kingal86, D6, Sdrawkcab,Jayjg, Freakofnurture, Spiffy sperry, CALR, Jim Henry, Moverton, Discospinster, Rich Farmbrough, KillerChihuahua, Rhobite, Pak21,H0riz0n, Supercoop, Wise mike, Kenj0418, Pmsyyz, Vsmith, Ardonik, R6144, Bishonen, Francis Schonken, Xezbeth, Codemoose, Dbach-mann, Mani1, Paul August, SpookyMulder, Bender235, ESkog, PP Jewel, Djrisk, Kaisershatner, S.K., Jnestorius, JoeSmack, Pedant, EricForste, Brian0918, Jmayer, Isidore2k, Floorsheim, MBisanz, El C, Zenohockey, Kwamikagami, Mwanner, QuartierLatin1968, Shadowdemon, Shanes, Lima, RoyBoy, Triona, Matteh, Mairi, Cap, Wareh, Rcsheets, Perfecto, Jpgordon, Adambro, Bobo192, NetBot, Ypacaraí,Sentience, Mmg, Reinyday, John Vandenberg, Keron Cyst, BrokenSegue, Hujaza, Jguk 2, Scott Moore, Giraffedata, Jatos, ACW, Physicist-jedi, GreatLeapForward, Moogle, XDarklytez, Saluyot, MPerel, Sam Korn, Krellis, Pharos, Jonathunder, Oliver Mundy, QuantumEleven,Merope, Kvaks, HasharBot~enwiki, ADM, Jumbuck, OneGuy, Storm Rider, Danski14, Xiaohaha, Alansohn, Gary, Ungtss, Hackwrench,Dorminhoco, Walljm, Moanzhu, Andrewpmk, Paradiso, Monado, Linmhall, Sade, SlimVirgin, Lightdarkness, Zeborah, Laug, Idont Ha-vaname, Lee S. Svoboda, Bart133, Snowolf, Wtmitchell, The DataRat, Rebroad, Dabbler, Suruena, Garzo, Evil Monkey, Harnack, Jheald,RJII, TTWSYF, Eldarion1000, Mcmillin24, Jesvane, Zawersh, H2g2bob, Jguk, Alai, Djsasso, Embryomystic, Bookandcoffee, Kazvorpal,Euphrosyne, Markaci, Kznf, TShilo12, Sheynhertz-Unbayg, Feezo, WilliamKF, Weyes, Sterio, Richard Arthur Norton (1958- ), KellyMartin, Simetrical, Firsfron, Lemi4, Starblind, OwenX, Woohookitty, TigerShark, Consequencefree, Uncle G, Bratsche, Benbest, Poly-paradigm, Falcon90, Pol098, TheoClarke, Veratien, Ruud Koot, Jeff3000, Trödel, -Ril-, M0zart~enwiki, Lapsed Pacifist, CiTrusD, Ter-ence, Striver, Steinbach, Markruffolo, Jcbos, Umofomia, J M Rice, GalaazV, Wayward, Funhistory, Xiong Chiamiov, Cedrus-Libani,Essjay, Nycmstar, Pfalstad, KHM03, Tydaj, Kobi L, MoogleFan, Dysepsion, Miken32, Paxsimius, Sin-man, Ashmoo, Lawrence King,Jack Cox, Deltabeignet, Magister Mathematicae, BD2412, MC MasterChef, Kbdank71, RxS, Miq, Sjakkalle, Rjwilmsi, Angusmclellan,Coemgenus, Gjmulder, Koavf, Sorenr, NatusRoma, Kurtber, Wikibofh, Panoptical, Athrash, PinchasC, Lugnad, Amire80, Nienl~enwiki,Linuxbeak, Nkosi, Wahkeenah, MZMcBride, Tawker, InFairness, DouglasGreen~enwiki, Lairor, Cfortunato, FlavrSavr, Ucucha, FredBradstadt, GregAsche, Sango123, Brian Belmont, Yamamoto Ichiro, Fish and karate, Leithp, Scorpionman, FayssalF, Lostsocks, Schumin-Web, RobertG, Dpknauss, TokyoJunkie, Mga, Musical Linguist, Doc glasgow, Winhunter, Brusselsshrek, Nihiltres, Crazycomputers, Nivix,NekoDaemon, Throbert McGee, RexNL, Gurch, Tijuana Brass, Str1977, RasputinAXP, TeaDrinker, Big Hurt, Alphachimp, RockOfVic-tory, Srleffler, Planetneutral, BMF81, Silversmith, Capeteco, Butros, Dougk, Jmorgan, Chobot, DTOx, Bornhj, Guliolopez, JesseGarrett,Gdrbot, Hall Monitor, Digitalme, Peterl, Gwernol, George Leung, Banaticus, SujinYH, Satanael, YurikBot, Wavelength, TheTrueSora,RobotE, Noerouz, Brandmeister (old), Tznkai, 999~enwiki, Jeffthejiff, RussBot, Sputnikcccp, Red Slash, Jumbo Snails, Robert A West,Taejo, Splash, Pigman, SpuriousQ, Pvasiliadis, Akamad, Chensiyuan, Stephenb, Okedem, Cate, Gaius Cornelius, CambridgeBayWeather,Speermeister, Alvinrune, Emiellaiendiay,, Wimt, Thane, BillC38, GunnarRene, MosheA, NawlinWiki, Rick Norwood, EWS23,SEWilcoBot, Nowa, Wiki alf, Bachrach44, Iani, Msikma, Astral, Nirvana2013, Robertvan1, Neural, Aboverepine, BenStevenson, Math-Man64, NickBush24, Korny O'Near, Justin Eiler, Mikix, Jndrline, MX44, Muwaffaq, Toya, Mikehillman, Irishguy, Mshecket, Aaron Bren-neman, AviN456, Kdbuffalo, Househippie, Dppowell, Brian Crawford, Bigglesthegreat, Blu Aardvark, Passive, MollyTheCat, Moe Epsilon,ICanAlwaysChangeThisLater, Zwobot, JNeal, Davetunney, BOT-Superzerocool, JordanBarrett, DeadEyeArrow, Neovita, Robin.r, Jpeob,Lumaga, Maunus, Martinwilke1980, Bronks, Werdna, Nlu, Wknight94, Rholu, Jpw062588, FF2010, TheSeer, Georgewilliamherbert,Manjithkaini, Sandstein, Zargulon, Mamathomas, PetriFB~enwiki, Calaschysm, Deville, Nachoman-au, RDF, Closedmouth, Bobguy7,Endomion, Lotsofthings, Pb30, TitusRevised, Esprit15d, FDuffy, JuJube, JBogdan, JoanneB, Epbechthold, Cjwright79, Peter, Kevin,Mavaddat, HoratioVitero, Rogerqcaz, EazieCheeze, Bluezy, Nickybutt, Kungfuadam, Tobi Kellner, NeilN, GrinBot~enwiki, Amberrock,DVD R W, GOP904, Johnmarkh, Sardanaphalus, Roland Longbow, 6SJ7, SmackBot, Teenwriter, PiCo, Johnski, Miqi, COGwriter, Bo-bet, Samspade, Zazaban, Velvet in Red, Tarret, Ashley thomas80, Prodego, KnowledgeOfSelf, Royalguard11, VigilancePrime, Olorin28,Melchoir, Dauster, Pavlovič, Shoy, Unyoyega, Od Mishehu, JimPettis, Jagged 85, AndreasJS, Clpo13, Scifiintel, Delldot, Eskimbot, Mot-major, Paxse, Frymaster, Josephprymak, Nscheffey, Flamarande, Niro5, Srnec, Bryan Nguyen, Tommstein, Rune X2, Xaosflux, EmaZee, Gilliam, Portillo, Ohnoitsjamie, Hmains, Carl.bunderson, El Cubano, Jeffro77, Valley2city, Bluebot, Cush, Kurykh, Kfranco, SamosaPoderosa, Persian Poet Gal, Jprg1966, Thumperward, Cbh, Tree Biting Conspiracy, Davedog, Greatgavini, Silly rabbit, SchfiftyThree,Hibernian, Moshe Constantine Hassan Al-Silverburg, Donnie Love, Rosameliamartinez, General Disarray, Daecon, Go for it!, Howellrw,DHN-bot~enwiki, Grandmasterka, Konstable, Ebertek, Gracenotes, Lightspeedchick, Tewfik, Langbein Rise, Reaper X, Joey1898, Nun-chaks, Salmar, Yid613, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, AP1787, Writtenright, Grim Mirrored Rose, Chlewbot, Onorem, Vanished User0001, Sommers, Snowmanradio, Pieter1, TheKMan, Australia boy, Rrburke, Homestarmy, Addshore, Spookyadler, Edivorce, Midnight-comm, The tooth, Emre D., AntonBryl, PrometheusX303, DavidStern, Jaimie Henry, Model Citizen, Dirgni1986, Hopquick, V1011ski,Nakon, Savidan, Farodar, Jiddisch~enwiki, John D. Croft, MichaelBillington, Miked84, Richard001, Hmsongbird, Tomtom9041, A.J.A.,

Page 20: Bible - Hymns · 2 3 HEBREWBIBLE The Kennicott Bible, by Benjamin Kennicott, with illustration, Jonahbeingswallowedbythefish,1476 theUniversityofEdinburgh,saysthattheOldTestament


KI, Cockneyite, Fatal-, Andrew c, Das Baz, Jon Awbrey, Irishmex rebel, SkyWriter, Ithizar, Trewbuk, Silent Wind of Doom, Parrot ofDoom, Salamurai, Evlekis, Pilotguy, Leon..., Kukini, AHitler, Synthe, Shirakawasuna, SashatoBot, Mchavez, Nishkid64, Eliyak, Tech-nocratic, Rory096, Lovesmasher, Giovanni33, Kuru, CorvetteZ51, Libertariandeist, AmiDaniel, Euchiasmus, Diemunkiesdie, Scientiz-zle, Buchanan-Hermit, Yonah mishael, Heimstern, Caylan12 06, Drivelhead, Ontopic, Ramayan, Cpom, Shyamsunder, Wickethewok,NongBot~enwiki, Jpawloski, RomanSpa, Deviathan~enwiki, Leisurebeing, The Man in Question, JHunterJ, Bless sins, Slakr, BenjaminBen-Ze'ev, Hvn0413, Radiorahul1, Hargle, Charlesingalls759, Waggers, Neddyseagoon, Epiphyllumlover, Lgeorgel, AdultSwim, Whomp,Me2NiK, AakashRaheja, Fluppy, Halaqah, Lenzar, Hogyn Lleol, Jose77, Squirepants101, Monban~enwiki, Supaman89, Cadaeib, Keaha-pana, Gandalf1491, Obtsu, TheFarix, Dan Gluck, K, Kencf0618, Milliardo~enwiki, Doggydoo, Colonel Warden, Joseph Solis in Australia,NativeForeigner, MicaelTru, Johanneum, Cls14, Cbrown1023, Saturday, Grbpradeep, SweetNeo85, Hikui87~enwiki, Wwallacee, Happy-melon, LoolTool, AstralisLux, Jbolden1517, Anger22, Adam sk, Doublen2005, Rebelgamer, LonelyPilgrim, Angeldeb82, Tawkerbot2,Felmanator, ALM scientist, Daniel5127, Angel FX, Briancua, Orangutan, Falconus, Shirahadasha, Atomic sparrow, Fvasconcellos, Al-ice Mudgarden, SkyWalker, Linuxerist, Dragon Hilord, Phillip J, CmdrObot, Jasonjoh, TheEditrix, Geremia, SarahAllman, Agathman,Scohoust, Iced Kola, IP Address, Allanarmentrout, SupaStarGirl, CBM, Mnwade, Kmccardle, Rwflammang, CWY2190, Markrevela-tion, Orayzio, Dgw, NickW557, Angellover~enwiki, WeggeBot, Some P. Erson, Westcott, Javelin77, Sideshow Todd, DAH, WClarkB,Arrenlex, Jordan Brown, Cydebot, Potters house, Elisabeth2~enwiki, Karimarie, Retoru, Peripitus, Abeg92, Future Perfect at Sunrise,Jonathan Tweet, Mikebrand, Vanished user 2340rujowierfj08234irjwfw4, Conversion script, Steel, Aristophanes68, Gogo Dodo, Adri-aan 1, Travelbird, Red Director, RCC UR, Sodermalm, Bazzargh, Mackauk, Sithvincent, Pascal.Tesson, DONOVAN, Amandajm, SmileLee, B, Tdvance, Tawkerbot4, Jsi, Doug Weller, Dragomiloff, Litebone, Fh1, Chrislk02, L d allan, Nasugbu batangas, FastLizard4, Ener-gyfreezer, Kozuch, Ebyabe, Emmett5, Omicronpersei8, Dcarrtexans, Victoriaedwards, Daniel Olsen, JohnClarknew, Sweetmoose6, Gim-metrow, Dw4372, Sosomk, Rjm656s, Thijs!bot, Chihuahua0, Kaoruchan, Daa89563, Cory Liu, FromanylanD, Nowimnthing, Mactogra-pher, Daniel, DivusFilius, Philipek, Ucanlookitup, Dimelime69, Ichthys58, Anupam, Cluckbang, Jarrod69, Gederov, Headbomb, Mrjinx,Luigifan, Marek69, Lethargy, Jennifer Salisbury-Jones, Lenhan, Horologium, Mrfunnymike, Itsmejudith, Cameron Bruce, BILLK2006,Renamed user 5197261az5af96as6aa, Leon7, J.christianson, Ned Holness, CharlotteWebb, Srose, Imagine1307, Natalie Erin, RedHo-tRadiators, Scottandrewhutchins, Thomas Paine1776, Escarbot, Turtle Falcon, Palconit, Igorwindsor~enwiki, Morningmusic, Fauxvegan,Trengarasu, Leewonbum, BuffaloChip97, KrakatoaKatie, AntiVandalBot, RobotG, Majorly, Yonatan, Luna Santin, Lostcaesar, Opelio,Ozzieboy, Erwin85Bot, Dr. Blofeld, Tangerines, Efyoo, Home Computer, HaruharaChroni, Tmopkisn, Jayrav, Encyclopediabaxter, Van-jagenije, Clamster5, Lortron, Credema, Pichote, Isber, Top2percent, DanPride, ArnoldBeckham, Nousakan, Teben, Fredeboulou, Fal-conleaf, Bconroy, Skalton, Wahabijaz, Dustix~enwiki, Rlongman, Dreaded Walrus, 41523, Rbb l181, Elisk, Fennessy, JAnDbot, Dinur-center, MathMan141, Husond, Roman à clef, MER-C, Kedi the tramp, Epeefleche, The Transhumanist, Instinct, Bryan121, Supertheman,Jonemerson, Kakugo, Blood Red Sandman, Mohammad ihs, Mr Facts, JRocketeer, Studge, Kk5000, LemonJuice, Savant13, Jon PaulJanet, Dr mindbender, MR. MOTOWN, Alastair Haines, Rschrock, SiobhanHansa, Acroterion, Jbass, Yahel Guhan, Jnespuxah, Bouktin,Meeples, Thetruthwillsetyoufree, Gregrientjes, Magioladitis, Gekedo, Lenny Kaufman, Hroðulf, VoABot II, A4, MartinDK, AuburnPilot,Brian8710, JNW, CarelessHair, JamesBWatson, Mbc362, Ling.Nut, Rivertorch, Shad3z, Brain40, ***Ria777, Cat Whisperer, Actord-erick, Tonyfaull, SparrowsWing, Chadashek, KConWiki, Theroadislong, Umeboshi, Suisse2007, Cyktsui, Rev. Aloys Evina, Seberle,Patizzle2, Afaprof01, Allstarecho, Cheechthecheechy, Bobby H. Heffley, Janet AKA Miller, Jayetheartist, Just James, TehBrandon, Glen,DerHexer, Spamboy38, JdeJ, PeteSF, GuelphGryphon98, Pax:Vobiscum, TheRanger, Patstuart, Slashlink, NatGertler, SquidSK, Verrouk,Gjd001, Lady Mondegreen, Emilswift, MartinBot, Opiner, Joe Joe Phelps, Typhoid Orchid, Znuttyone, Quaker24, Iakane49, Elliotpen-son, Arjun01, UnfriendlyFire, Ron2, Drew444, Burnedthru, CommonsDelinker, AlexiusHoratius, Pbroks13, VirtualDelight, Smokizzy,PStrait, Jdw4jesus, Wiki Raja, Catrix12, JabbaXErnie, Reinsarn, J.delanoy, Filll, Trusilver, Tlim7882, Berrylsb, EscapingLife, Fcsuper,Rlsheehan, Bogey97, Ipooponu334, Herbythyme, Huvt, Adamski24, Takkuso, Roar822, Mmh, AgainErick, Benpmorgan, Ian.thomson,SU Linguist, Century0, Mooshroom, Ans-mo, Écrasez l'infâme, Robynyarker, Thetickz, It Is Me Here, Fbgmer, Itohacs, LordAnubis-BOT, XLR Freak, Squad51, Aceofspade00, Lyons24000, Pentecost, Dskluz, Ryan Postlethwaite, Tony360X, David hogan, Vinavinavina,Mdumas43073, Sebcastle, Pyrospirit, Mrg3105, G-YLOVER, GhostPirate, Vanished user g454XxNpUVWvxzlr, Alexb102072, 1frances,NewEnglandYankee, Ziing, Waffle luver, Shoessss, Jakedagreat, Janetjackson, Wkey, BrettAllen, Smfairlie, Cometstyles, Equazcion,Lystrablue, Jeromeispimp, Matthew 1130, HyDeckar, Nells2808, Mike V, Pastordavid, Yo mama has you, Snailman22, Pyromonkey150,Springy Waterbuffalo, Cjbeyer, Scott Illini, CA387, Repentance, WWGB, Ftord1960, Zakuragi, TeamZissou, Goalie1998, Chinneeb, Ma-lik Shabazz, Deor, King Lopez, VolkovBot, EEye, CWii, Alpha774, Sir Filing Papers, Nicgarner, Macedonian, Brando130, Navakarar,Benwinsor, Kerrow, Davidwr, Epson291, Kaiwynn, Philip Trueman, Fran Rogers, TXiKiBoT, Xcktns, Kww, Java7837, Kapathi, Nvorana,Matthew.cates, Dchall1, Tevpg, Joybucket, AlexKul, Vanished user lkjeijewi3s, The three blind mice, Mrbrady07, Qxz, Changingtheworl-donepageatatime, Nunnery101, Keelsy Blystone, Mary Sayler, Evilbob6665, Biblewalks, Steven J. Anderson, Adam00, Alexxpatterson,Dendodge, Kzac, Bass fishing physicist, Plandr, Andxs, JhsBot, Ijkopl, Janezdrilc, ^demonBot2, Byrnes777, Rexlunae, XParadigm777x,Guest9999, Robert1947, Bcharles, Jzyehoshua, Rumiton, FFMG, C-M, Lisa, Erika1212, Rogerdpack, Barbary lion, Enigmaman, Dirkbb,SQL, Synthebot, Insanity Incarnate, Xylke, 613 The Evil, Zim1334, Cmgunn, The Realms of Gold, MisterWing, EmxBot, CConnla77,Xgllo, Fatslan, DigitalC, Cryonic07, Biscuittin, EJF, Snowmachine, DionysiusThrax, SieBot, StAnselm, LovelyLillith, ShiftFn, JamesA,Tiddly Tom, Cecilyheron, J. Ponder, Dreamafter, Scarian, Euryalus, Synyster gates is god, BotMultichill,, Jauerback, Poe-cilia Reticulata, YourEyesOnly, Matthew Yeager, Amccune, Casdious, WikiJonathanpeter, Rabbeinu, Araignee, Calabraxthis, TrulyBlue,Ethan333327, Dramalama, Immortaldiamond, Hablamaniac, Keilana, Cincydude55, AndrewNJ, Dennis aukland, Maddiekate, RucasHost,Ihatepeter15, Jgstokes, Qst, Zucchini Marie, Nobulas, Terper, Thejerome, Xcyberxwolfx, Hihiyouhoe, JamesTwisleton, Wombatcat,Aqccorp, Oxymoron83, Oderi, Drjon72, Byrialbot, Miladyhelena, Secularrise, Bagatelle, Thewhitt, Steven Crossin, Lightmouse, Kel-lanor, Woahhdoggy, JustJacklen~enwiki, Poindexter Propellerhead, Vaccaro99, BenoniBot~enwiki, Andrewredd, Bloodshed21, Regin-mund, Mooncrest, Silvergoat, Supt. of Printing, Bicycle Bicycle, Stfg, Jonlandrum, Vanished user ewfisn2348tui2f8n2fio2utjfeoi210r39jf,Bepimela, Carpathy2009, HighInBC, Steve Lambert, Realm of Shadows, Amit300, Thoroughgood34, Ajpinto42, Runner5k, Godofsmart-people, Florentino floro, Awesome-Fedora, Senuhanilove, Watchexcellento, Lucas606, Sanfe1, Wertjoe, Jobas, Sasha Callahan, Hermioneis a dude, RomanHistorian, Thelacerator, Leranedo, Faithlessthewonderboy, JRosine, Loren.wilton, Flyingvic, ClueBot, Tomwashere,Tigermachine, Rumping, PipepBot, The Thing That Should Not Be, Rjd0060, RWardy, Plastikspork, Quinxorin, Vlaze, Drmies, DerGolem, Nodlabms, Diggindrums, Boing! said Zebedee, Hafspajen, Niceguyedc, Blanchardb, Kadajvince, Otolemur crassicaudatus, Lead-wind, Ottava Rima, Rprpr, RenamedUser jaskldjslak903, LSFenster, Auntof6, Rooney3322, Mike0001, Monster boy1, Mackstar1, Mas-terpiece2000, DragonBot, Kitsunegami, Robert Skyhawk, Excirial, Naerii, Alexbot, Goodone121, RopeTrav, Carninia, Skylinedude,Joker828, Pilotwingz, Ottre, Jojonesey, Abrech, Commdor, Glaubergft, Lartoven, Cheezwiz45, TitusEapen, NuclearWarfare, Bikinibomb,Jotterbot, RC-0722, AylesburyDuck, Elizium23, Dannyza1981, Bddrey, SchreiberBike, Garfield206, RobertsonR9, Mikhailov Kusserow,Thingg, Aitias, PotentialDanger, Teacherbrock, Burner0718, Editor2020, MaxSem on AWB wheels, DumZiBoT, Pbchapman, CrazyBoris with a red beard, F36unp, Thirsty69, 100percentkrazy, Heironymous Rowe, Berny bernski, Rodenbeckm wayland, Ayufanni, Im-supercody, Emmette Hernandez Coleman, Weedean92, Ilikebread, BodhisattvaBot, Rostama~enwiki, Jgkdjr~enwiki, Agazfatboy, Jovian-

Page 21: Bible - Hymns · 2 3 HEBREWBIBLE The Kennicott Bible, by Benjamin Kennicott, with illustration, Jonahbeingswallowedbythefish,1476 theUniversityofEdinburgh,saysthattheOldTestament

16.2 Images 21

eye, EastTN, Connorwithteeth, Tgannon, ManOfSummer, St.Trond, Rickmansbrick, AndreNatas, Rreagan007, Wikiplantjud, WikHead,Ougner, Npnunda, SilvonenBot, Galzigler, Joearmacost, Sweetpoet, Mercyguy18, Zubair71, Shamanstk, Clab6, B Fizz, Holyman101, Janis-terzaj, D2qa, Kyleelridgeisgay10, Sibyllam, Prowikipedians, Busterfelix, Bjpd, Proofreader77, Antiwikki, Rockmeallnightlong, ManuelTrujillo Berges, Bottleofwater66, Sky454, Diplomacy rule, Wojew, Tcncv, Revelation2:27, Morriswa, Dgggioo, Grossjack, Billforfirst-lady, Hatashe, ArbiterQ19, Leszek Jańczuk, Musdan77, WikiUserPedia, Eivindbot, Kellygirlaj, Lihaas, Hdalip, AndersBot, Favonian,LinkFA-Bot, Emadd, Paulbriggs, Tassedethe, Sakisg088, Bigcatlovinggirl, Numbo3-bot, Dukee, Blazn0azn, Clarion1, Verbal, Cesiumfrog,Andrevruas, Ret.Prof, Ben Ben, Legobot, Yobot, Rsquire3, Nickdnk, Matanya, Alessio.aguirre, Fatima30, Kata Markon, AnomieBOT, Ma-rauder40, 1exec1, Galoubet, Soxwon, Flewis, Mann jess, Elmmapleoakpine, Citation bot, UnnaturalSelection, Sl63, Basilisk4u, LovesMacs,Quebec99, Mickey436, Cms100000000, Uni1aaaa, MauritsBot, Xqbot, TinucherianBot II, Timir2, Plumpurple, TechBot, Live Light,Srich32977, Anonymous from the 21st century, GrouchoBot, PerLundberg, Alumnum, Omnipaedista, Johnnysmitthy, Frumphammer,Hornymanatee, Samuelmunster, JohnKeble, WikiyPruf, FrescoBot, Paine Ellsworth, Coroboy, Keepwritingkeepdreaming, Peteinterpol,HJ Mitchell, Indexcard88, Airborne84, Citation bot 1, Pshent, Intelligentsium, Elockid, Per Ardua, Dazedbythebell, Gmasterman, RedBot,Jamesb3947, Yehoshuapinto, Russelldansmith, Jeppiz, Boywiz, Newmanyb, Frindro, Lemmiwinks2, ImmortalYawn, Hollisshuner, Light-lowemon, FoxBot, TobeBot, Mercy11, Vejlefjord, Jonkerz, Nickyus, Mitchell Powell, Begoon, Cirrus Editor, Dsavage87, Jhenderson777,Tbhotch, Dcastorina, Noraft, Difu Wu, Aviv007, RjwilmsiBot, TjBot, MShabazz, ChilternGiant, ,برووسک In ictu oculi, DASHBot, Es-oglou, EmausBot, John of Reading, Cyber4911, WikitanvirBot, Never give in, GoingBatty, Gwillhickers, Ajm500, Mmeijeri, P. S. F.Freitas, Djembayz, Deanybabeh, Financeguy222, AvicBot, ZéroBot, Josve05a, Iwanttoeditthissh, The Nut, TheiGuard, Rosasdeagua, Asi-mov123, Gniniv, SporkBot, Dynasteria, Someone65, Rcsprinter123, Theologian42, Zfish118, Themadgician, Monteitho, ChuispastonBot,AndyTheGrump, MarcusLeDain, Giftzwerg 88, AmiiKaay, Wayne Field, Zaza8675, CocuBot, Wacko787878, Hazhk, Porkloinson, Spel-Punc-Gram, Dream of Nyx, Telpardec, Cognate247, Joshuajohnson555, North Atlanticist Usonian, Helpful Pixie Bot, Mghoffmann, Volde-mort175, UnbiasedNeutral, BG19bot, LittleOldManRetired, Mohamed CJ, Ymblanter, Vagobot, Hashem sfarim, HGK745, Laurence0001,Stelpa, FiveColourMap, WalkerThrough, Undeaddanny4, Mranderson56, Glevum, Hyperspace2, Lolojore, WikiHannibal, McLennon-Son, Ssdoubled, JZCL, Oct13, Cyberbot II, ChrisGualtieri, Joeymanderson, JBGeorge77, Uno b4, ThePepel-Eterni, All Worlds, Dexbot,Mogism, DiD001, Inayity, BLZebubba, Gabby Merger, Dhsahlin, Wan yik hay, BreakfastJr, Melonkelon, Cezar teodosiu, AbrahamicFaiths, Cherubinirules, Iniciativass, Mar044, Paul2520, Truewhit, Infantom, Man of Steel 85, Jerm729, Teacum, Justinrleung, WritersBond, TheG3NERAL John 3:16, Monkbot, LawrencePrincipe, Edwardjones2320, Biblioworm, Dianamendez, ElectronicKing888, JosephYanchar, Witwitwit6553765537, JudeccaXIII, Piledhighandeep, Narky Blert, RyanTQuinn, WEvanTh, Ign christian, Stevenjeffers1, Ja-son.nlw, יהודה אריה ,גור Miraclexix, Abdullah Al Wasif, Prinsgezinde, KasparBot, Jzsj, Anentai, Fountains-of-Paris and Anonymous:1506

16.2 Images• File:1588_First_Welsh_Bible.jpg Source: Li-

cense: CC0 Contributors:This digital image can be seen in its original context hereOriginal artist: William Morgan (1545-1604)

• File:2nd_century_Hebrew_decalogue.jpg Source: License: Public domain Contributors: Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archæology, Volume 25 (January-December1903), p. 56 Original artist: Unknown<a href='//' title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:Q4233718' src=''width='20' height='11' srcset=' 1.5x, 2x'data-file-width='1050' data-file-height='590' /></a>

• File:Aleppo_Codex_Joshua_1_1.jpg Source: Public domain Contributors: Original artist: see en:Aleppo Codex; scanned by

• File:Allah-green.svg Source: License: Public domain Contribu-tors: Converted to SVG from Image:Islam.png, originally from en:Image:Ift32.gif, uploaded to the English Wikipedia by Mr100percent on4 February 2003. Originally described as “Copied from Public Domain artwork”. Original artist: ?

• File:Bible.malmesbury.arp.jpg Source: License:Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Anonymous (photo by Adrian Pingstone)

• File:Bishops_Bible_Elizabeth_I_1569.jpg Source: License: Public domain Contributors: Scanned from Susan Doran, editor. Elizabeth:The Exhibition at the National Mar-itime Museum. 2003, London, Chatto & Windus/National Maritime Museum, ISBN 0701174765 (Doran 2003a) Original artist:Unknown<a href='//' title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:Q4233718' src='' width='20' height='11' srcset=' 1.5x, 2x' data-file-width='1050' data-file-height='590'/></a>

• File:Commons-logo.svg Source: License: ? Contributors: ? Originalartist: ?

• File:Devil_codex_Gigas.jpg Source: License: Attribu-tion Contributors: Original artist: Kungl. biblioteket

• File:Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg Source: License: Cc-by-sa-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?

• File:Great_Isaiah_Scroll.jpg Source: License: Publicdomain Contributors: Website of The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, see link. Original artist: Photographs by Ardon Bar Hama, author oforiginal document is unknown.

Page 22: Bible - Hymns · 2 3 HEBREWBIBLE The Kennicott Bible, by Benjamin Kennicott, with illustration, Jonahbeingswallowedbythefish,1476 theUniversityofEdinburgh,saysthattheOldTestament


• File:Gutenberg_Bible,_Lenox_Copy,_New_York_Public_Library,_2009._Pic_01.jpg Source: License: CCBY-SA 2.0 Contributors: originally posted to Flickr as Gutenberg Bible Original artist: NYC Wanderer (Kevin Eng)

• File:Gutenberg_Bible_scan.jpg Source: License:Public domain Contributors: Scan by Ransom Center of the University of Texas at Austin Original artist: Jerome (* ca 347, † 420) (script), Johannes Gutenberg (* ca. 1400, † 1468) (printing), various employees (dec-orations)

• File:Kennicott_Bible_305r.l.jpg Source: Li-cense: Public domain Contributors: Facsimile Editions Original artist: Unknown<a href='//'title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:Q4233718' src='' width='20' height='11' srcset=' 1.5x, 2x' data-file-width='1050' data-file-height='590' /></a>

• File:Lutherbibel.jpg Source: License: Public domain Contribu-tors: Own photo taken in Lutherhaus Wittenberg Original artist: Torsten Schleese

• File:P_christianity.svg Source: License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Con-tributors: ? Original artist: ?

• File:People_icon.svg Source: License: CC0 Contributors: Open-Clipart Original artist: OpenClipart

• File:Portal-puzzle.svg Source: License: Public domain Contributors: ?Original artist: ?

• File:StJohnsAshfield_StainedGlass_GoodShepherd_Portrait_cropped.jpg Source: License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors:

• StJohnsAshfield_StainedGlass_GoodShepherd.png Original artist: StJohnsAshfield_StainedGlass_GoodShepherd.png: Stained glass: Al-fred Handel, d. 1946[2], photo:Toby Hudson

• File:Star_of_David.svg Source: License: Public domain Con-tributors: Own work Original artist: Zscout370

• File:Symbol_book_class2.svg Source: License: CCBY-SA 2.5 Contributors: Mad by Lokal_Profil by combining: Original artist: Lokal_Profil

• File:Wikibooks-logo.svg Source: License: CC BY-SA 3.0Contributors: Own work Original artist: User:Bastique, User:Ramac et al.

• File:Wikinews-logo.svg Source: License: CC BY-SA 3.0Contributors: This is a cropped version of Image:Wikinews-logo-en.png. Original artist: Vectorized by Simon 01:05, 2 August 2006 (UTC)Updated by Time3000 17 April 2007 to use official Wikinews colours and appear correctly on dark backgrounds. Originally uploaded bySimon.

• File:Wikiquote-logo.svg Source: License: Public domainContributors: ? Original artist: ?

• File:Wikisource-logo.svg Source: License: CC BY-SA 3.0Contributors: Rei-artur Original artist: Nicholas Moreau

• File:Wikiversity-logo-Snorky.svg Source: License:CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Snorky

• File:Wikiversity-logo.svg Source: License: CC BY-SA 3.0Contributors: Snorky (optimized and cleaned up by verdy_p) Original artist: Snorky (optimized and cleaned up by verdy_p)

• File:Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg Source: Li-cense: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: AleXXw

• File:Wiktionary-logo-en.svg Source: License: Publicdomain Contributors: Vector version of Image:Wiktionary-logo-en.png. Original artist: Vectorized by Fvasconcellos (talk · contribs),based on original logo tossed together by Brion Vibber

16.3 Content license• Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0