Basic human requirements - MIT OpenCourseWare Basic human requirements C 20 oo C 35o C 280 C 310 C...

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Transcript of Basic human requirements - MIT OpenCourseWare Basic human requirements C 20 oo C 35o C 280 C 310 C...

  • Basic human requirements

    35o C20o C0o C

    280 C

    310 C

    320 C

    340 C

    360 C

    370 C

    Room Temperature

    Core Temperature

    Image by MIT OCW.

  • Black body at 800 K

    Solar radiation at atmosphere’s boundaries

    0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 0

    0.5

    1.0

    1.5

    2.0

    -

    -

    -

    Wavelength [μm]

    visibleUV IR

    Clear sky, sun at 30° above the horizon

    Solar radiation at sea level

    -

    -

    Energy [kW/(m²·μm)]

    Solar radiation

  • Solar radiation

    Ground Reflection 5%

    Cloud Reflection 20%+

    Atmospheric Absorption & Scattering 25%

    Image by MIT OCW.

  • Solar radiation Earth’s orbit

    seasons

    Equinox March 22

    Summer solstice June 21

    Equinox Sept 21

    Winter solstice Dec 21

    Image by MIT OCW.

  • Earth’s orbit seasons latitude and elevation’s impact

    Solar course

    0

    500

    1000

    1500

    2000

    2500

    0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

    Latitude du lieu

    [k W

    h/ m

    2 an

    ] Dakar Cairo

    HelsinkiParis Hambourg

    Carpentras

    Rom e

    Lisbon

    Alger

    yr ] 0

    200

    400

    600

    800

    1000

    1200

    1400

    0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

    0 m 500 m 3000 m

    1385 [W/m2]

    Height above sea level

    η [°]

  • Parameters in incoming radiation

    Earth’s orbit seasons latitude and elevation’s impact earth’s inertia

    a 16°F difference for

    the same solar elevation

    Critical for solar protections

    Solar elevation

    Average outside temperature

    21 juin

    0o

    30o

    60o

    90o h

    23 sept 21 mars 21 juin

    0o

    10o

    20o

    oC T

    57o F

    41 o F

    22 dec

    Image by MIT OCW.

    cc_mphato Line

    cc_mphato Line

  • Solar radiation

    Earth’s orbit seasons

    day

  • Solar radiation

    Apparent movement of the sun lococentric (local) referential

    elevation η latitude L

    azimuth φ declination δ

    solar time Hsolar

    ηnoon = 90° - L + δ

    δ

    N

    Z

    h

    Zenith

    Azimuth

    S'

    Equatorial Plane

    N

    N'

    Latitude

    Elevation

    Image by MIT OCW.

    Image by MIT OCW.

  • Solar radiation

    Apparent movement of the sun lococentric (local) referential

    Image by MIT OCW.

  • Solar radiation

    Apparent movement of the sun lococentric (local) referential cylindrical projection

    0 30 60 90 120 150 180 150 120 90 60 30 0

    10 20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    NS5 h

    6 h

    7 h

    8 h

    9 h

    10 h

    11 h 12 h

    Latitude: 49o

    F E G D H

    C I B J

    A K L

    13 h 14 h

    h

    S

    W

    E a

    N

    15 h

    16 h 17 h

    18 h

    19 hN

    Sun

    Image by MIT OCW.

  • Solar radiation

    Apparent movement of the sun lococentric (local) referential

    cylindrical projection

  • Solar radiation

    Apparent movement of the sun lococentric (local) referential

    cylindrical projection

    stereographic projection

    Zenith

    Nadir

    Sun

    Image by MIT OCW.

  • Solar radiation Apparent movement of the sun

    lococentric (local) referential

    cylindrical projection

    stereographic projection

    21 Juin

    23 Sept. - 21 Mar

    21 Dec.

    N

    0o 15o

    30 o

    45 o

    60 o 7 5 o2

    8 5 o

    3 00 o

    31

    5 o

    33 0 o

    345 o

    180o 1 65 o

    15 0 o

    13 5 o

    1 2 0 o

    1 0 5 o2

    5 5 o

    2 4 0 o

    225 o

    210 o 195o

    90o270o

    Ja n 2 1 1 8

    16

    14 12 10

    8

    6

    M ay 2 6

    Ju l 2 1

    A ug 31

    A pr il 14

    Sep 23 Ma rs 21

    Oct 17 Feb 26

    Nov 27 Jan 1 6

    Dec 21

    10o

    47 o N

    20o

    30o

    40o

    50o

    60o

    70o

    80o

    90o+

    Images by MIT OCW.

    cc_mphato Line

  • Apparent movement of the sun lococentric (local) referential

    cylindrical projection

    stereographic projection

    Solar radiation

    60o

    120o

    45o

    30o

    15o N

    345o

    330o

    315o

    J F M

    A

    M J

    9

    10

    11 12 13

    14 15

    16

    19

    18

    J A

    S O

    N

    6

    D

    135o 150o 165 o 180o 195o 210o 225o

    240o 255o

    270o

    285o

    300o

    17

    105o

    90o

    75o

    7

    8

    Image by MIT OCW.

  • Apparent movement of the sun lococentric (local) referential

    cylindrical projection

    stereographic projection

    Solar radiation

    Site plan

    D

    A

    36'

    A

    E

    C

    B

    tan E = y/x

    y 20 '

    60

    30

    0

    120

    150

    180

    60

    12 0

    June 2 1 J

    ul 21 / May

    21 Jul

    21/ Ma

    y 21

    w ES

    ep 21

    / M ar

    21 N ov

    21 /Ja

    n 2 1

    5' 10' 15' 20' 25'

    +

    +

    30 150

    60

    12 0

    11

    1 2

    10 3

    9

    4

    8

    5

    7

    6

    6

    78

    11

    1 2

    103

    9

    4

    8

    5

    7

    6

    6

    7 5

    Oc t 2

    1/F eb

    21

    De c 2

    1

    40

    150

    0 180

    30150

    12 0 60

    Jul 21/

    Ma y 2

    1 Jun

    21

    Dec 21 Nov 21

    /Jan 21

    Oct 21 /Feb 21

    Sep t 21

    /M ar2

    1

    Au g 2

    1/A pr 2

    1

    W E

    80o 70o

    60o

    50o

    40o 30o 20o

    10o

    Image by MIT OCW.

  • Apparent movement of the sun lococentric (local) referential

    cylindrical projection

    stereographic projection

    Solar radiation

    Horizontal sun protections

    0 1010 20 30

    40 50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    20 30

    40 50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    40 50

    80 70 60

    Image by MIT OCW.

  • Apparent movement of the sun lococentric (local) referential

    cylindrical projection

    stereographic projection

    Solar radiation

    Vertical sun protections

    0 1010 20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    20 30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    40 50

    80 70 60

    30 20

    10

    Image by MIT OCW.

  • Apparent movement of the sun lococentric (local) referential

    cylindrical projection

    stereographic projection

    Solar radiation

    Combined protection

    20

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    10

    30

    40 50 60 70 80

    F G

    6 H

    E

    100

    110

    120

    130

    140

    150160

    I

    J

    L

    260

    280

    A

    W

    290

    300

    310

    330

    320

    340

    350 F

    N

    8

    10 12

    14

    16

    18

    E

    D

    C

    B

    3

    250

    240

    23 0

    22 0

    21 0

    20 0

    19 0 S

    170

    +

    -

    Image by MIT OCW.

  • Solar radiation

    Daylight

    Image by MIT OCW.

  • Sky type Clear Milky-white Partly cloudy Whitish Light grey Dark grey Dark

    Sun Shiny Clear Partly veiled Veiled Still visible Barely visible Invisible

    Global radiation

    [W/m2] 800 to 900 600 to 800 300 to 700 250 to 400 200 to 300 100 to 200 20 to 100

    Diffuse component 10 to 20% 20 to 40% 20 to 50% 40 to 80% 50 to 100% 75 to 100% 100%

    Solar radiation

    Daylight

  • Climate Atmospheric phenomena (global climate)

    Wind flows and Coriolis force

    Prevailing westerlies

    HH

    H

    H

    H

    H

    H

    H

    L L L

    L L

    L

    W

    W

    W

    E

    E

    E

    E

    Subpolar low-pressure belt

    Subpolar low-pressure belt

    Subtropical high-pressure belt

    Subtropical high-pressure belt

    Intratropical convergences

    Polar high

    South Pole

    Tropopause

    North Pole

    Cold front E = Easterly windsWarm front

    Convergence Warm wind

    Cold wind H = High pressure L = Low pressure

    W = Westerly winds

    LLLow pressure

    High pressure High pressure

    Wind flow from high to low pressure zones

    Images by MIT OCW.