BASIC ELECTRONICS for ARDUINO 03 [›µ¹„…³¯±...

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Q: TRANSISTOR PNP

Q: TRANSISTOR NPN

eD: (Diode)

LED

c

b

c e

bSW: (Switch)

GND: (Ground)

()

1

28 15

14ATMEGA 328

C:

(Integraded Circuit)

GND: (Ground)

F: (Fuse)Ampere

+Vc: ()(Voltage Supply)

(Volts)

M: (Motor)

SP: (Speaker)

R: 1/4W(Resistor) (Ohm)

4,7k

- (Pot)

- , . , Ohm .

()

1/4W 470 4.7 k 47 k 470 k1 k 10 k 100 k 1 M2.2 k 22 k 33 k 220 k

- (Pot) . . () .

R: POT (Variable Resistor) (Ohm)

10k

C: TRIMER (Variable Capacitor)

C: (Capacitor)

- .

- .- .- .- .

. 100F

()

C: [ ]( Electrolytic Capacitor)

MICROFARAD f NANOFARAD nF.

: : 0.01 F 0.1 F. : 1 F, 10 F, 100 F,

220 F, 470 F.

. , .

()

L: (Inductor)Henry

:-

-

- .- .

()

Q: TRANSISTOR PNPe c

b

Q: TRANSISTOR NPN

c e

b

TA TRANZISTORS . -- (BASE-COLLECTOR-EMMITER) . .

- (BASE) , (BASE) , (COLLECTOR-EMITTER)- (< 0,7V), . :PNP NPN

0,5A (500mA) 22222. 5 TIP120.

D: (Diode)

, . (). .

14148

()

ARDUINO.

14001 ( 1Ampere)

1

28 15

14ATMEGA 328

C:

(Integraded Circuit)

, ,

()

! .

()

:

()

Out

AND

BOut

;

;

;R14,7k

Q1NPN

Q2PNP

C147F

Vcc+6V

D1LED

.

.

. .

.

R14,7k

Q1NPN

Q2PNP

C147F

+6V

D1LED

+6V

.

R14,7k

Q1NPN

Q2PNP

C147F

Vcc+6V

D1LED

.

.

FRITZING, AUTOCAD

BREADBOARD,

. .! BREADBOARD;

Ohm!

V(Volt) = I(Amp) R()

I(Amp) = -------V(Volt)

R()

V(Volt)

I(Amp)

R() [ ]

;

R()

P(Watt) = I(Amp) V(Volt)

[ ]

C(Farad) [ ]

L(Henry) [ ]

P(Watt)

Watt!

V

I R

R1 R2

GRND

+VS

GRND

R1

R2

+VS

VOLTAGE V (Volt) V1 + V2 ++ Vn V1 = V2 == Vn

;

VOLTAGE

V (Volt) V1 + V2 ++ Vn V1 = V2 == Vn

CURRENT

I (Amp) I1 = I2== In I1 + I2 ++ In

RESISTANCE

R () R1 + R2 ++ Rn 1 (1 R1 + 1 R2 ++1 Rn)

CAPACITANCE

C (Farad) 1 (1C1 + 1C2 ++1Cn) C1 + C2 ++ Cn

INDUCTIVE

L (Henry) L1 + L2 ++ Ln 1 (1L1 + 1L2 ++1Ln)

POWER

P (Watt) P1 + P2 ++ Pn P1 + P2 ++ Pn

R1 R2 Rn

(V) V1 V2 Vn Vtot = V1+V2++Vn Volts (V)

(I) 1 2 n Itot = 1 =2 ==n Amps (A)

(R) R1 R2 Rn Rtot = R1+R2++Rn Ohms ()

(P) P1 P2 Pn Ptot = P1+P2++Pn Watts (W)

, ( )

;

Ohm

V

I R

P = I VP = V RP = I R

R1 R2 R3

R1 R2 R3

2V 6V 1V Vtot=2+6+1 = 9V Volts (V)

20mA 20mA 20mA Itot = 9/450= 20mA Amps (A)

100 300 50 Rtot=100+300+50 = 450 Ohms ()

40mW 120mW 20mW Ptot=40+120+20=180mW Watts (W)

;

R1 R2 R3

100 300 50

+9V

Rtot=R1+R2+R3=450 Ohm V = I R :Itot = V R = 9V 450 =0,020A 1=2=3=tot = 0,020A = 20mA :V1 = I1 R1 = 0,020A 100 = 2VV2 = I2 R2 = 0,020A 300 = 6VV3 = I3 R3 = 0,020A 50 = 1V

P1 = I1 V1 = 0,02A 2V = 0,04W P2 = I2 V2 = 0,02A 6V = 0,12W P3 = I3 V3 = 0,02A 1V = 0,02W Ptot = 0,04W + 0,12W + 0,02W = 0,18W = 180mW

R1 R2 R3

0V 9V 0V Vtot = 9V Volts (V)

0 A 0 A 0 A Itot = 0 A Amps (A)

100 50 Rtot= Ohms ()

R1 R2 R3

.

.

;

6V 0V 3V Vtot = 9V Volts (V)

60 mA 60 mA 60 mA Itot = 60 mA Amps (A)

100 0 50 Rtot= 150 Ohms ()

.

R1 R2 R3

100 300 50

+9V

.

R1 R2 R3

100 300 50

+9V

.

R1 R2 Rn

(V) V1 V2 Vn Vtot = V1=V2==Vn Volts (V)

(I) 1 2 n Itot = 1+2++n Amps (A)

(R) R1 R2 Rn Rtot = 1(1/R1 + 1/R2 + +1/Rn) Ohms ()

(P) P1 P2 Pn Ptot = P1+P2++Pn Watts (W)

;

Ohm

V

I R

R1 R2 R3

R1 R2 R3

9V 9V 9V Vtot = 9V Volts (V)

100mA 200mA 50mA Itot=100+200+50= 350mA Amps (A)

90 45 180 Rtot =1(1/90+1/45+1/180)= 25,71

Ohms ()

0,9W 1,8W 0,45W Ptot=0,9+1,8+0,45=3,15W Watts (W)

;

Rtot =1(1/90+1/45+1/180) = 25,71Vtot = V1 = V2 = V3 = 9V Ohm I = V R :I1 = V1 R1 = 9V 90 = 0,1AI2 = V2 R2 = 9V 45 = 0,2AI3 = V3 R3 = 9V 180 = 0,05AItot= I1+I2+I3=0,1+0,2+0,05 = 0,35A=350mA

P1 = I1 V1 = 0,1A 9V = 0,9W P2 = I2 V2 = 0, 2A 9V = 1,8 W P3 = I3 V3 = 0,05A 9V = 0,45W Ptot = 0,9W + 1,8W + 0,45W = 3,15W = 3,15W

R1 R2 R3

90 45 180

+9V

R1 R2 R3

9V 9V 9V Vtot = 9V Volts (V)

100mA 0mA 50mA Itot=100+50= 150mA Amps (A)

90 180 Rtot =1(1/90+1/180) = 60

Ohms ()

R1 R2 R3

9V 9V 9V Vtot = 9V Volts (V)

.

.

;

9V 9V 9V Vtot = 9V Volts (V)

100mA mA 50mA Itot = A Amps (A)

90 0 180 Rtot = 0 Ohms ()

.

R1 R2 R3

90 45 180

+9V

.

R1 R2 R3

90 45 180

+9V

.

!

R1 :115 LED

D1

Vs: +4,5V

SW

4,5V 2,2V

;

DC +V

DC +V

DC +V

Vs Vd

If

4,5V 2,2V

0,020AR = ----------- = ---------------- = 115

Vs : Supply VoltageVd : Forward VoltageIf : Forward Current

Vs Vd

If

9V 2,4V

0,018AR = ----------- = ---------------- = 366,6

R

LED

D1

+9V

R+9V

366,6 R= 470

Vs Vd 9V (2 x 2,4V)

LED

LED

;

R

LED

D2

+9V

D1

R

LED

D2+9V D1

Vs Vd

If

9V (2 x 2,4V)

0,018AR = ----------- = --------------------- = 233,3

233,3 R= 330

Vs Vd

If

9V 2,4V

2 x 0,018AR = ----------- = --------------------- = 183,3

183,3 R= 220

LED

;

, ,

.

! ! !

, , !

A

B

DC +V

, , !

DC

+V

DC

+V

DC

+V

[:

]

, ,

!

DC +V

!

[American Wire Gauge]

2,0 mm

0,8 mm

0,6 mm

0,5 mm

0,4 mm

0,3 mm

0,25 mm

1,6 mm

1,3 mm

1,0 mm

... !

!

1,2VNiMH / NiZn / NiCd :

1,0V

1,5V1,5V - 1,35V - .1,3 V 1,2V -

.1,2V 1,0V - .

1,1V . 1,0V 0,8V .

9V 7,6V

12V 11,3V

... !

TypeIECname1

ANSI/NEDAname2

Typical capacity(mAh)

Nominal voltage

Primary (disposable)

Alkaline 6LR61 1604A 5659

Zinccarbon 6F22 1604D 400

Lithium 1604LC 1200 9.6

Rechargeable

NiCd 6KR61 11604 120 7.2 8.4 (some)

NiMH 6HR61 7.2H5 175-300 7.2some:3

8.4 9.6

Lithium Polymer 520 7.3

...

Lithium-ion Battery 600 8.4

Arduino Homehttp://www.arduino.cc/

10 Ways to Destroy an Arduino Rugged Circuitshttp://www.ruggedcircuits.com/10-ways-to-destroy-an-arduino/

Arduino Tutorial - Learn electronics and microcontrollers using Arduino!http://www.ladyada.net/learn/arduino/index.html

Simple Labs' Quick Start Kit for Arduinohttp://quickstartkitforarduino.blogspot.gr/

ardxhome - BTEC Electronicshttp://ianlangelectronic.webeden.co.uk/#/ardxhome/4554715082

.

http://ianlangelectronic.webeden.co.uk/#/ardxhome/4554715082

How To Make The Easiest Breadboard Arduino Uno...EVER ! - The Breduino ! (& How to Upload Sketches Straight to it !!) With Additional Hardware Options - UPDATED -JULY 2013http://www.instructables.com/id/How-To-Make-The-Easiest-Breadboard-Arduino-UnoE/?ALLSTEPS

Arduino On a Beadboard - Uploading Your Sketches | Yuriy's Toyshttp://www.yuriystoys.com/2012/02/arduino-on-beadboard-uploading-your.html

Use Arduino for Projects - World Biggest Site for Arduino Projects - Tutorials - Ebooks - Project IdeasUse Arduino for Projectshttp://duino4projects.com/

Adafruit Learning Systemhttps://learn.adafruit.com/category/learn-arduino

10 Ways to Destroy an Arduino Rugged Circuitshttp://www.ruggedcircuits.com/10-ways-to-destroy-an-arduino/

.

Arduino Uno Rev3

Arduino Uno Rev3

. . , .

. . ( ) .