Atomic and Nuclear Physics Review Material

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Review Material for a Physics Exam on Atomic and Nuclear Physics. Intended for International Baccalaureate students

Transcript of Atomic and Nuclear Physics Review Material

11.Which one of the following correctly gives the number of electrons, protons and neutrons in a neutral atom of the nuclide ?Number of electronsNumber of protonsNumber of neutronsA.652936B.363629C.292965D.292936(1) 2.In the Geiger-Marsden experiment, particles are scattered by gold nuclei. The experimental results indicate that most particles areA.scattered only at small angles.B.scattered only at large angles.C.absorbed in the target.D.scattered back along the original direction.(1) 3.A sample of radioactive carbon-14 decays into a stable isotope of nitrogen. As the carbon-14 decays, the rate at which the amount of nitrogen is producedA.decreases linearly with time.B.increases linearly with time.C.decreases exponentially with time.D.increases exponentially with time.(1)4.Either of the two following graphs is useful in predicting nuclear energy changes in fission and fusion processes. Which one of the following correctly identifies the quantities X and Y?XYA.atomic numbertotal binding energyB.mass numbertotal binding energyC.atomic numberaverage binding energy per nucleonD.mass numberaverage binding energy per nucleon(1) 5.The unified mass unit is defined asA.the mass of one neutral atom of C.B. of the mass of one neutral atom of C.C. of the mass of one neutral atom of C.D.the mass of the nucleus of C.(1)6.This question is about nuclear reactions.(a)Complete the table below, by placing a tick () in the relevant columns, to show how an increase in each of the following properties affects the rate of decay of a sample of radioactive material.PropertyEffect on rate of decayincreasedecreasestays the sametemperature of samplepressure on sampleamount of sample(2) Radium-226 (Ra) undergoes natural radioactive decay to disintegrate spontaneously with the emission of an alpha particle (-particle) to form radon (Rn). The masses of the particles involved in the reaction areradium:226.0254 uradon:222.0176 u-particle:4.0026 u(b)(i)Complete the nuclear reaction equation below for this reaction.Ra+Rn(2) (ii)Calculate the energy released in the reaction.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................(3)(c)The radium nucleus was stationary before the reaction.(i)Explain, in terms of the momentum of the particles, why the radon nucleus and the -particle move off in opposite directions after the reaction.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................(3) (ii)The speed of the radon nucleus after the reaction is vR and that of the -particle is v. Show that the ratio is equal to 55.5.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................(3) (iii)Using the ratio given in (ii) above, deduce that the kinetic energy of the radon nucleus is much less than the kinetic energy of the -particle...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................(3)(d)Not all of the energy of the reaction is released as kinetic energy of the -particle and of the radon nucleus. Suggest one other form in which the energy is released......................................................................................................................................(1) Another type of nuclear reaction is a fusion reaction. This reaction is the main source of the Suns radiant energy.(e)(i)State what is meant by a fusion reaction.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................(3) (ii)Explain why the temperature and pressure of the gases in the Suns core must both be very high for it to produce its radiant energy.High temperature:................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................High pressure:................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................(5)(Total 25 marks)7.This question is about the production of nuclear energy and its transfer to electrical energy.(a)When a neutron collides with a nucleus of uranium-235 (U) the following reaction can occur.U+nBa+ Kr+ 2n(i)State the name given to this type of nuclear reaction............................................................................................................................(1) (ii)Energy is liberated in this reaction. In what form does this energy appear?...........................................................................................................................(1) (b)Describe how the neutrons produced in this reaction may initiate a chain reaction...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................(1)The purpose of a nuclear power station is to produce electrical energy from nuclear energy. The diagram below is a schematic representation of the principle components of a nuclear reactor pile used in a certain type of nuclear power station.The function of the moderator is to slow down neutrons produced in a reaction such as that described in part (a) above.(c)(i)Explain why it is necessary to slow down the neutrons.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................(3) (ii)Explain the function of the control rods..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................(2)(d)Describe briefly how the energy produced by the nuclear reactions is extracted from the reactor pile and then transferred to electrical energy...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................(4)(Total 12 marks) 8.This question is about nuclear reactions.(a)Complete the table below, by placin