Assignment Clinical Chem Globulins

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Transcript of Assignment Clinical Chem Globulins

Sime Darby Nursing and Health Sciences College


SERUM PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS [ Alpha 1 globulin ( globulins) ]1


-1-|Clinical Chemistry

PAGE ~ Biochemical properties of Alpha 1 Globulins ( 1 Globulins ) Introduction Example Types For each example :- Function = Role * secretion * form - Origin -Inhibition -Significance -Clinical condition Reference

INTRODUCTION OF SERUM PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS- The serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) test measures specific protien in the blood to help identify some diseases. Proteins are substances made up of smaller building blocks called amino acids. Proteins carry a positive or a negative electrical charge, and they move in fluid when placed in an electrical field. Serum protein electrophoresis uses an electrical field to separate the proteins in the blood serum into groups of similar size, shape, and charge. Blood serum contains two major protein groups: albumin and globulin. Both albumin and globulin carry substances through the bloodstream. Using protein electrophoresis, these two groups can be separated into five smaller groups (fractions):

Albumins Alpha-1 globulins Alpha-2 globulins Beta globulins Gamma globulins

Each of these five protein groups moves at a different rate in an electrical field and together form a specific pattern. This pattern helps identify some diseases.

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INTRODUCTION & CHARACTERISTICS OF ALPHA 1 GLOBULINS- High density lipoprotein (HDL) -The good types of cholesterol -Include at that fraction

EXAMPLE OF ALPHA 1 GLOBULINS- 1-antitrypsin - 1 antichymotrysin - Orosomucoid ( acid glycoprotein ) - Amyloid A - 1 lipoprotein

FUNCTION OF EACH EXAMPLE OF ALPHA 1 GLOBULIN - 1-antitryipsin = Protects tissue from enzymes of inflammatory cells, especiallyneutrophils elastase. - 1-antichmotrypsin = It inhibits the activity of certain enzymes called proteases, such as Cathepsin G that is found in neutrophils, and chymeses found in mast cells;by cleaving them into different shape or confirmation.That activity protects some tissue, such as lower respiratory tract, from damage caused by proteolytic enzymes. -Orosmucoid (acid glycoprotein) = It is synthesized primarily in hepatocytes and has a normal plasma concentration between 0.6 1.2 mg/mL ( 1-3% plasma protein).Plasma levels are affected by pregnancy,certain drugs,and certain diseases,particularly HIV.Orosomucoid increases in amount in obstructive jaundices while diminishes in heptacellular jaundice and in intestinal infections. - Amyloid A = primary function is not known. Biological function : Synaptic formation and repair Iron export Hormonal regulation of APP expression and processing during embryogenesis and Alzheimers disease. Arthritis

- 1-lipoprotein = The function of lipoprotein particles is to transport lipids (fats) (such astriacylglycerol) around the body in the blood.

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ORIGIN OF EACH EXAMPLE OF ALPHA 1 GLOBULIN - 1-antitryipsin = Discovered in 1963 by Carl-Bertil Laurell (1919-2001),at the University ofLund in Sweden.Laurell, along with a medical resident, Sten Erikson, made the discovery after noting the absence of alpha 1 band on protein electrophoresis in five of 1500 samples; three of the five patient samples were found to have develop emphysema at a young age. - 1-antichmotrypsin = -Orosmucoid (acid glycoprotein) = - Amyloid A = Rudolph Virchow, in 1854, introduced and popularized the term amyloid to denote amacroscopic tissue abnormality that exhibited a positive iodine staining reaction. Subsequent light microscopic studies with polarizing optics demonstrated the inherent birefringence of amyloid deposits, a property that increased intensely after staining with Congo red dye. In 1959, electron microscopic examination of ultrathin sections of amyloidotic tissues revealed the presence of fibrils, indeterminate in length and, invariably, 80 to 100 A in width. Using the criteria of Congophilia and fibrillar morphology, 20 or more biochemically distinct forms of amyloid have been identified throughout the animal kingdom; each is specifically associated with a unique clinical syndrome. Fibrils, also 80 to 100 A in width, have been isolated from tissue homogenates using differential sedimentation or solubility. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the fibrils to be ordered in the beta pleated sheet conformation, with the direction of the polypeptide backbone perpendicular to the fibril axis (cross beta structure). Because of the similar dimensions and tinctorial properties of the fibrils extracted from amyloid-laden tissues and amyloid fibrils in tissue sections, they have been assumed to be identical. However, the spatial relationship of proteoglycans and amyloid P component (AP), common to all forms of amyloid, to the putative protein only fibrils in tissues, has been unclear. Recently, it has been suggested that, in situ, amyloid fibrils are composed of proteoglycans and AP as well as amyloid proteins and thus resemble connective tissue microfibrils. Chemical and physical definition of the fibrils in tissues will be needed to relate the in vitro properties of amyloid protein fibrils to the pathogenesis of amyloid fibril formation in vivo.

- 1-lipoprotein = INHIBITION OF EACH EXAMPLE OF ALPHA 1 GLOBULIN - 1-antitryipsin = Is a protease inhibitor belonging to the serpin superfamily. It generallyknown as serum trypsin inhibitor. Alpha 1-antitrypsin is also referred to as alpha-proteinase inhibitor (A1P1) because it inhibits a wide variety of proteases. - 1-antichmotrypsin = Is an alpha globulin glycoprotein that is a member of the serpin superfamily. -Orosmucoid (acid glycoprotein) = Is the highly bound of protease inhibitors.

-4-|Clinical Chemistry

- Amyloid A =

- 1-lipoprotein =

SIGNIFICANCE OF EACH EXAMPLE OF ALPHA 1 GLOBULIN - 1-antitryipsin =Important role in controlling inflammation, coagulation and repairmechanisms in the body. - 1-antichmotrypsin =Is associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease as it enhance the formation of amyloid-fibrils in this disease. -Orosmucoid (acid glycoprotein) =Its serum concentration increases in response to systemictissue injury, inflammation or infection, and these changes in serum protein concentrations have been correlated with increases in hepatic synthesis

- Amyloid A =Probably the least useful acute phase monitor of inflammatory bowel disease. Therole, and associated problems, of SAA measurements are discussed.

- 1-lipoprotein =They accumulate a core of cholesterol esters during reversecholesterol transport and transfer them to the liver directly or indirectly via other lipoproteins.

CLINICAL CONDTION OF ALPHA 1 GLOBULIN= Normal6.5-8.0 g/dL Dehydration, vomiting, diarrhea, myeloma, respiratory distress syndrome Burns, cancerGI tract, liver disease, malnutrition, malabsorption, renal failure, ulcerative colitis Prealbumin Functional hepatic mass, inflammation, malnutrition = 1 0.1-0.5 g/dL antitrypsin Inflammation, hepatocellular injury, malignancy, pregnancy, necrosis antitrypsin Deficient allelle causing emphysema antitrypsin Polymorphism of 1antitrypsin

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REFERANCE= Web Site :- - - - - - = Books :- Notes from tutorial,by Miss Melor Binti Ahmad,2011.

-6-|Clinical Chemistry