APPLICATION OF REMOTE SENSING IN TOPOGRAPHIC AND LAND COVER MAPPING

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Transcript of APPLICATION OF REMOTE SENSING IN TOPOGRAPHIC AND LAND COVER MAPPING

FACULTY OF GEOINFORMATION SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SGS 1523REMOTE SENSING APLICATIONS ON TOPOGRAPHIC AND LAND COVER MAPPING

Dr. BAHARIN BIN AHMAD

MOHD FARID BIN FAUZI AG090090 900707-03-5463

[SURVEY AND MAPPING] 2009

September 7,

INTRODUCTION TOPOGRAPHYTopography is come from Greek words topo-, which mean place, and graphia, thats bring the meaning of writing. Based on this word, topography mean the study of Earth's surface shape and features or those of planets, moons, and asteroids. It is an art or practice of graphic delineation in detail usually on maps or charts of natural and man-made features of a place or region especially in a way to show their relative positions and elevations. Topography specifically involves the recording of relief or terrain, the three-dimensional quality of the surface, and the identification of specific landforms. In modern usage,it been generate in electronic form and presented on a map by a variety of techniques, including contour lines, Hypsometric tints and relief shading. Topographic maps usually portray both natural and manmade features. They show and name works of nature including mountains, valleys, plains, lakes, rivers, and vegetation. They also identify the principal works of man, such as roads, boundaries, transmission lines, and major buildings. The wide range of information provided by topographic maps make them extremely useful to professional and recreational map users alike. Topographic maps are used for engineering, energy exploration, natural resource conservation, environmental management, public works design, commercial and residential planning, and outdoor activities like hiking, camping, and fishing.

LAND COVER MAPPINGLand cover is important for many scientific, resource management and policy purposes and for a range of human activities. It can be define as key for environmental information. It is an important determinant of land use and thus of value of land to the society. Land cover varies at a range of spatial scales from local to global, and at temporal frequencies of days to millennia. As the need for environmental planning and management became important, an accompanying call for land cover information emerged in parallel. Land cover actually is a product of remote sensing, initially through aerial photography. We can find the population of plant in certain place through land cover mapping. Usually, people use land cover mapping to see the change in population and growth in certain place. We can also determine the effect of land use or human activities to the environment especially the plant population.

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REMOTE SENSINGRemote sensing can be defined as the acquisition and recording information about an object without being in direct contact with that object. Based on that definition, we can conclude that aerial photogrametry, sounders(used in ocean topography) and even data from satellite are also remote sensing. Mapping process actually use remote sensing technique long time ago. The modern remote sensing started in 1858 when Gaspard-Felix Tournachon first took aerial photographs of Paris from a hot air balloon. It is actually very simple method in remote sensing like in photography, but as we want to determine in detail on spatial, spectral and other properties, many innovation have been added to get and ideal instrument to give more data to us. Nowadays, remote sensing mostly used the data from the satellite. This is because the data is very easy to get. The development of artificial satellites in the latter half of the 20th century allowed remote sensing to progress to a global scale as of the end of the cold war. Instrumentation aboard various Earth observing and weather satellites such as Landsat, the Nimbus and more recent missions such as RADARSAT and UARS provided global measurements of various data for civil, research, and military purposes. Space probes to other planets have also provided the opportunity to conduct remote sensing studies in extraterrestrial environments, synthetic aperture radar aboard the Magellan spacecraft provided detailed topographic maps of Venus, while instruments aboard SOHO allowed studies to be performed on the Sun and the solar wind, just to name a few examples.

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Figure 1: Operation date for different remote sensing platform. A mark change occurred about 1960 when spaceborne platform become operational.

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PREVIOUSLY IN TOPOGRAPHIC AND LAND COVER Previously in topographic and land survey mapping, surveyor use direct or terrestrial survey technique which need them to go to the field to make survey. They use traversing, triangulation and trilateration for horizontal positioning and for vertically, they use geodetic levelling, trigonometric heighting, barometric levelling and tilting.

Diagram 1 : traversing technique which been used in terrestrial survey. Traverse networks involved placing the survey stations along a line or path of travel, and then using the previously surveyed points as a base for observing the next point.

Diagram 2: Geodetic labeling for vertical positioning.

Diagram 3: Vertical positioning by using trigonometrical heighing Diagram 4: Long ago, surveyors totally use triangulation technique in making map. They take the data from benchmark (point that surveyors made into which an angle-iron could be placed to bracket ("bench") a leveling rod, thus ensuring that the leveling rod can be

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repositioned in exactly the same place in the future.) and then bring it to their temporary benchmark and their field study.

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In terrestrial survey, they use many instrument such as theodolite, electronic distance metre (EDM), total station, dumpy level and other instrument. Surveyor take long time to finish their surveying job because of the physical aspect on the place. For example; it is hard to find the coverage of Bruguiera sp. In mangrove swamp due to the difficulties to go to that place and how to use all those equipment at that place. The other thing is surveying project on that time need a lot of many because it is costly. They need to consider for the food, petrol or diesel and other important thing that needed during making the project.

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TECHNOLOGY OF REMOTE SENSING Coarse-spatial resolution meteorological satellite data have been available since the 1960s but civilian remote sensing of the Earths surface from space only began in 1972. This is after the launcing of Earth Series Satellite which conduct the data of earth obvservation for remote sensing. On that time, the satellite image only produce data at medium spatial resolutions which is only 250 metres spatial resolution. Year by year, we can see the improve in satellite remote sensing. We can now get data from satellite platforms with a large number of sensor such as in Terra and ENVISAT and data with higher spatial resolution like from IKONOS and Quickbird. The production of satellite being increasing and it is being estimate that about 100 new satellite now been launced between 1996 and 2006. Even develop country just like our country have launched their own remote sensing satellite for their own reason. Most of the people get the data from Landsat series(multispectral and thematic mapper), SPOT, MODIS and IKONOS. That is because this satellite have the latest technology and given better data for spatial resolution, spectral resolution, temporal resolution, and radiometric resolution. The most popular satellite data is from French satellite SPOT(Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre) that was initiated by the CNES (Centre national d'tudes spatiales the French space agency) in the 1970s and was developed in association with the SSTC (Belgian scientific, technical and cultural services) and the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB). Instead of having good resolution (10 metre spatial resolution), it also have two sensor which can scanning two images on the same time. It is good for those who want to get real-time data but you must pay for it. That is believed that there is satellite which is more ideal than that and being used by certain country for their military and other function only for them.Diagram 4: SPOT 5 satellite for remote sensing studies

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Diagram 5: IKONOS satellite which give until 0.6 metre spatial resolution.

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REMOTE SENSING IN TOPOGRAPIC MAPPING Previously, we have been told about the definition of topography. As we know, mapping shows the detail of the physical geography of the ground data. It shows not only naturally covered object but also human-made features. The important thing in a topographic map are imaginary latitude and longitude that is important to determine the place of object on the ground. The cross point between both latitude and longitude is call coo